Hardesty's Calhoun County History

Typed by Linda Cunningham Fluharty.


     In the study of the history of a commonwealth, be it an empire or a village, it is necessary that we understand something of the causes which led to its foundation, and that have since acted in creating and advancing, or retarding and destroying, the various institutions, civil and otherwise. Then, that we may know the history of Calhoun County, we must first notice its settlement and occupation by the white men.
     It was in the year 1607 that the first permanent English colony was planted on the shores of the new world. In that year a little colony of one hundred and five souls landed at Jamestown, and the foundation of the Old Dominion was firmly laid. But for a hundred years, the settlements were confined to the coast and river basins of the Atlantic coast. At length, however, the red man retreated beyond the Ohio and bold adventurers crossed the Alleghenies and carried the standard of civilization with them; they first planted it along the south branches of the Potomac and Monongahela and soon were founded many pioneer homes. But no white man had ever seen the Little Kanawha valley. No daring and intrepid adventurer had ever gone forth to explore its lofty ranges, severed by valleys through which flowed these crystal streams, the waters of which were after to give to Virginia a world-wide celebrity. But the time had come when this region was to be opened to settlement, though the trail made through it by savage men was yet plainly visible.
     It was in the autumn of the year 1772, the same in which Washington located his lands in the Great Kanawha valley, that William Lowther, Jesse Hughs and Ellis Hughs, all famous in the early pioneer annals of Virginia, and the latter the last survivor of the battle of Point Pleasant, in 1774, set out from their homes, which they had established near where Clarksburg now stands with the determination of reaching the Ohio River. They journeyed up the west fork of the Monongahela and crossed the dividing ridge, or watershed, separating the eastern from the western waters, whence they came down Leading Creek and reached the Little Kanawha near the present site of Glenville, in Gilmer County. From here they journeyed down the river and halted at the mouth of Steer Creek, where they stood, the first white men on the banks of the Little Kanawha, or within the present limits of Calhoun County. They continued to travel down the river, bestowing the names upon its tributaries which they now bear, among them Hughs River, named in memory of James Hughs, one of the explorers. At length the Ohio was reached and the adventurers, after having been the first Englishmen that reached the site upon which Parkersburg now stands, turned their course homeward, where they soon arrived but were not long to remain. Col. Lowther left to take his seat in the Virginia House of Burgesses, to which he had been chosen a member and both the Hughs to join Gen. Lewis' army and march to Point Pleasant, where they took an active part in the most fiercely contested battle ever fought with the Indians in Virginia, if not on the continent.


     The work was done, the county was explored, the story of its hunting grounds, of its primeval forests, of its lofty mountains, of its purling streams flowing from icy fountains, was already told, and it was enough to induce many of those who had already crossed the mountains to again become pioneers, to remove farther into the wilderness. The resolution was carried into effect, and the first and second decades of this century (19th) saw many of them settled on the Little Kanawha and its tributaries, within the limits of what is now Calhoun County.
     Of the many we name of these the first settlers of the county. Among them were James Mayes, James Niles, Audrey Sharp, Stephen Burson, Peter McCune, Sr., Anthony Parsons, Thomas Cottrell, Dr. George Conley, Thomas P. Brannan, Philip Starcher, Peter Cogar, Isaac Mace, William Brannan, Peter McCune, Jr., Adam O'Brian, John Haverty, John B. Goff, John Ball, Job Westfall, Samuel Barr, Alexander Huffman, Joshua Smith, James Arnold, Barnabas Cook, Archibald Burris, George W. Hardman, Salathiel Riddle, Henry Bell, Phillip Stallman, Isaac Cox, Benjamin Jackson, Michael H. Haverty, Thomas Holbert and Valentine Ferrell. These were the men who became the pioneers of Calhoun County.


     Twenty-six more years passed and in that time hundreds of others had come to join those already here, and when the year 1856 had come it was resolved to form a new county. Accordingly a new petition was circulated and numerously signed, then forwarded to Richmond, where it was laid before the general assembly, then in session in that city. That body heard it with favor and on the 5th day of March a bill entitled "An Act to Establish the County of Calhoun out of Part of the County of Gilmer," was passed by that body and became a law from the date of its passage.
     It was as follows:
     1.) Be it enacted by the general assembly, that so much of the lower part of the county of Gilmer as lies within the following boundaries, towit; Beginning at the West Fork of the Little Kanawha, where the Gilmer and Wirt County line crosses the same; thence up the West Fork to the mouth of Henry's Fork; thence up said Henry's Fork to the mouth of Beech Fork; thence with the dividing ridge between said Beech Fork and Henry's Fork within the county of Gilmer to the Gilmer, Ripley and Ohio Turnpike, to the head of Cromley's Creek; then with said turnpike to the mouth of Bear Fork of Steer Creek; thence a straight line to the head of Muscle Shoals of the Little Kanawha River; thence by the shortest line to the top of the dividing ridge between the waters of Tanners Fork and Laurel Creek to the Ritchie and Gilmer county line and the Wirt and Gilmer county line to the place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby established as a new county, to be called Calhoun.
     2.) That the permanent seat of justice for said county shall be at Pine Bottom, at the mouth of Yellow Creek, or at the neck of the Big Bend, all on the Little Kanawha River, to be determined by a vote of the county at the first general election, at which time a poll shall be opened at all places of voting in said county for each of the said places, where all the persons authorized to vote for members of the general assembly shall cast their votes for one of the said places, and the place having the majority of all the votes cast, shall be the permanent seat of justice for the county.
     But if neither place shall receive a majority of the votes, then the county court at the term next succeeding, shall order a new election between the two places having the highest number of votes, and fix the time thereof; and the place having the highest number of votes shall be the seat of justice. The polls in each case shall be scrutinized by one of the justices appointed by the court and the temporary clerk and sheriff aforesaid, whose duty it shall be to strike from the poll of each place all persons not qualified to vote as aforesaid; they, the said justices, clerk and sheriff, being first sworn fairly and justly to perform their duty, and the polls so scrutinized in either case shall be taken and held as the true vote of the county.
     3.) That so soon as the permanent seat of justice is determined as aforesaid, the county court shall proceed to erect their public buildings; and until they are so erected and fit for use, the circuit and county courts shall be held at the house of Joseph W. Bursons, or such other place as the county court may designate, by an order entered on the record of their court; but no such order shall be made, unless all the justices of the county are summoned to attend on the day such order shall be entered for that purpose, and a majority of the justices of the county are actually present.
     10.) The county of Calhoun shall form a part of the nineteenth judicial circuit, and shall constitute a part of the election district of Gilmer and Wirt, and constitute a part of the election district of Gilmer and Wirt, and constitute a part of the eleventh congressional district and forty-eighth senatorial district.


     The first County Court for Calhoun County convened at the house of Joseph W. Burson on the 14th day of April, 1856. The following justices of the peace, each holding a commission as such signed by his excellency, the governor of the commonwealth: Hiram Ferrell, Daniel Duskey, H. R. Ferrell, Joshua L. Knight, Absolom Knotts, George Lynch and William A. Brannan. In compliance with a provision of the bill providing for the formation of the county, the court proceeded to the election of the necessary county officers. An election was gone into for sheriff, which resulted in the choice of James N. Norman to that position. Then, upon a vivo voce vote, George W. Silcott was elected to the office of clerk. Both came into court, gave the proper bonds, took several oaths, and "qualified as the law directs." The high sheriff then appointed Alpheus Norman and Phillip Norman as his deputies, and the court approved of the appointment. Then after the transaction of some miscellaneous business, among which was to grant to William A. Brannan a license to celebrate the marriage rite, adjourned to meet in September (same year) at the house of Peregriene Hays, where Arnoldsburg now stands.


     The first circuit court ever held in Calhoun County convened on Monday, the 6th day of October, 1856, with Mathew Edmiston, judge of the nineteenth circuit in the ninth judicial district of Virginia presiding. At this court the first grand jury, a jury of inquest for the body of the county, was empaneled and sworn. The following named gentlemen composed it: Alexander Huffman, foreman, and Jasper Ball, John H. Johnson, James P. Hunt, Daniel Nichols, Francis Robinson, Nicholas Poling, Daniel Stallman, Silas Pettit, Joseph Hayhurst, Lemuel Haverty, Isaac Starcher, Andrew Mace, Arnold Snider, Peter M. McCune and Anthony Conrad.
     The jury, after receiving its instructions from the judge, retired to consider of its presentments. After an absence of some time it returned into court and reported three true bills of indictments, all for misdemeanors. Some other unimportant business was dispatched and the first circuit court adjourned.


     The man for whom the county was named was John Caldwell Calhoun, one of the most distinguished men in the political history of the United States. He was born in the district of Abbeville, South Carolina, on the 18th day of March 1782, just when the storm of the Revolution had spent its force and was dying away. His paternal grandfather, James Calhoun, was an Irishman by birth, but emigrated to Pennsylvania in the year 1733, bringing with him his son, Patrick, afterwards the father of John C. After several years' residence the family removed farther south and settled in what is now Wythe County, Virginia, where it remained until 1756, when another move was made, this time to the Calhoun settlement in the upper part of South Carolina, in what is now Abbeville County, and here, near the banks of the Savannah River, John C. Calhoun was born; his father, Patrick, having in 1770 married a Virginia lady of the name of Martha Caldwell, her father being an Irish Presbyterian emigrant who had settled in that commonwealth several years before the Revolution.
     John C. was a student by instinct, and so great was his application to the study of history and metaphysics, that at the age of sixteen he had seriously impaired his health. His father died about that time and left his family in comfortable circumstances. Young Calhoun now showed a decided preference for the law, but remarked to his mother that he preferred "the life of a plain planter to that of a half educated professional man." His mother now set about to secure an education for what she believed (and was not mistaken) her gifted son.
     It was in June, 1800, that he entered the private academy of Dr. Waddel, a Presbyterian clergyman. After spending one term he joined the junior class of Yale College, and in 1804 he graduated with the highest honors of his class. He then devoted three years to the study of the law, spending one half of that time in the law school at Litchfield, Connecticut, the only one of its kind the in the United States. In 1807 he was admitted to the bar and began practice in his own native town. Shortly after he was elected a member of the legislature, and in 1811 was elected to congress. Just after this last election he married his second cousin, Florida Calhoun, by which he came into possession of a considerable property.
     The troubles between this country and Great Britain were rapidly verging to a crisis; already had the latter offered the greatest indignities to our vessels both upon the high seas and in our own harbors. Was inevitable. The exigencies of the times induced President Madison to convene Congress in extra session, and in this body Mr. Calhoun, together with Cheves and Lowndes, took his seat November 4, 1811.
     In the organization of the House he was placed upon the committee of foreign relations, of which, after the retirement of the chairman, he became the head. As such he drafted with his own pen the declaration of war against England, and then advocated its passage through both houses and only rested after it had received the president's signature.
     Six years he spent in the lower house of Congress, during which time he made a record as a statesman never surpassed and rarely equaled by any member of that body. In March, 1817, Madison's second term drew to a close, and in the formation of the new cabinet, President Monroe gave the portfolio to Mr. Calhoun, who now removed from his home in the Palmetto State and made his home at the national capital for seven years. It was during his term of office that the difficulty between this country and Spain occurred, growing as it did out of the course pursued by Gen. Jackson, who had been sent against the Seminole Indians. He drove them into Florida, where he not only pursued them but took possession of the Spanish towns of St. Marks and Pensacola. The Spanish minister protested and for a time war seemed inevitable. But at length a peaceable adjustment was made.


     In no county in the state has there been so much difficulty concerning the permanent location of the county seat as in Calhoun. For thirteen long years it was a vexed question, and one, ere it was settled, cost the county many thousands of dollars.
     The bill providing for the formation of the county, also provided for the location of the county seat, either at the Pine Bottom at the mouth of Yellow Creek, or at Big Bend on the Little Kanawha, a vote of the people to decide between the two places. And further it provided, that until the vote be taken the circuit and county courts should be held at the house of Joseph W. Burson. This last requirement on the part of the general assembly appears to be about the only one complied with, as we shall now see.
     The first court ever held in the county convened, as prescribed by law, at the house of Joseph W. Burson, on the 4th day of April 1856, and adjourned to meet, not at Pine Bottom or Big Bend, but near the residence of Peregriene Hays on the West Fork, where Arnoldsburg now stands. Accordingly, the second court convened at that place on the 9th day of September, 1856; and here it continued to be held until 1857. But in August of that year two courts were in session at the same time, one at Arnoldsburg, and the other at the house of Collin Betz, on the Little Kanawha, three miles below where Grantsville now stands.
     For the purpose of effecting a reconciliation between the opposing factions, it was decided that the courts should be held at the mouth of Yellow Creek, now the site of Brooksville. A contract for the erection of a court house was now let to a man of the name of E. McCloskey, who in compliance with his contract, erected a neat frame building for which he received the sum of $675. But legal proceedings were instituted, and on the 15th day of June 1858, the court again convened at Arnoldsburg, and here it continued to be held until 1869.
     It now seemed that the matter was settled and the question would nevermore be agitated. The erection of a substantial brick building was begun at Arnoldsburg, but after the basement story had been completed, all of cut stone at a cost of $1500, the question was once more revived and another move was made, this time to Grantsville, where a frame court house was erected, but burned to the ground before it was occupied.
     Another arose upon its ruins which continued to be occupied until 1880, when a brick building was completed at a cost of $8,400.
     Such is the history of the seat of justice in Calhoun county. An attorney who located in the county soon after its formation, but afterward removed to an adjoining county, for he "had been broken up trying to keep up with the county seat."


     For one hundred and eighty five years the red man disputed with the white man the possession of this continent, and during all that time carried on the most relentless warfare an account of which is recorded in the history of western civilization. Every foot of soil of Virginia, from the shore of the Chesapeake to the banks of the Ohio, they defended with the perinacity of veterans. It had been the hunting grounds of their forefathers from time immemorial, and here their homes interred according to all the rites and ceremonies of a savage people, now reposed. No wonder then that it required five generations for the combined armies of Great Britain and her American colonies to drive them from it.
     They at length were driven beyond the Ohio, but would not yet give up the struggle. They looked away toward the east and saw the land, bequeathed them both by nature and their ancestors, in possession of the armed invader and, to them, armed oppressors. A spirit of revenge arose within them and, prompted by it, they determined to again possess the land or parish in the attempt, and thirty-five years after crossing the Ohio they equipped war parties and sent them against the frontiers of Virginia, and every student of pioneer history knows the result. The riffle, the war club, the scalping knife and the torch all played their part in the tragedy then being enacted upon the theatre of Virginia.
     Three trails, or war-paths, were chosen by the parties when on their mission of blood, viz: Up the Great Sandy, up the Great Kanawha, and up the Little Kanawha. The route taken to the eastern settlements depended upon the point which they wished to reach. If it was the Greenbrier or southwestern settlements, one of the southern routes were taken, but if it were those of the northwest, then the Little Kanawha trail was chosen. This led through what is now Calhoun County.
     The war party would cross the Ohio at the mouth of the Little Kanawha, journey up that river to the mouth of Leading Creek, then up that stream to its source, when they would cross over to the west branch of the Monongahela, and there perform their horrid acts, the only traces left behind being blood and ashes, after which, laden with spoils and captives, they would return by the same trail by which they had come; but they did not always escape. Sometimes the alarm would be given, a body of whites would collect and go in hot pursuit, and many times were the savages overtaken before reaching the Ohio and made to pay dearly for their invasion.
     Doubtless then many times has the hills and valleys of Calhoun echoed and re-echoed the tread of these pursuers, bent upon revenge, or the rescue of some loved one from a fate perhaps even worse than death.


     It was on the 13th day of July, 1863, that a bill entitled "An Act to provide for the division of the various counties composing this State into townships," passed both houses of the legislature, and a few days later became a law. One of the sections of the bill made provisions for the appointment of several prominent and competent men in each of the counties who should make the said division in their respective counties.
     Those whose duty it was to perform the work in Calhoun were as follows: James Barr, Thomas Jarvis, Morgan Marks and G. W. Blackshire. These gentlemen convened at an early day, and with the aid of the county surveyor, divided the county into five townships (name changed to districts under the constitution of 1872) as follows: Sheridan, Center, Sherman, Lee and Washington. The history of each we will now proceed to notice in the order named.


     Sheridan district was named in honor of General Philip Sheridan, a distinguished federal officer during the Civil War. It was bounded on the northwest and northeast by the counties of Wirt and Ritchie; southeast and southwest by the districts of Center and Lee. The surface is broken and hilly, but intervening between the long ranges of hills are valleys of great fertility, and in which lie considerable areas of level land. The hills, though rising to a considerable height, are fertile and especially adapted to grazing.
     Several veins of coal have been discovered, but owing to their shallowness nothing has been done towards their development. Vast quantities of sandstone are found in all parts of the district. It is an excellent building stone. The timber of which there is an abundant supply, consists of the various oaks, poplar, pine, ash, beech, sycamore, sugar, elm, etc.
     The streams constituting the water draining are as follows: The Little Kanawha River, which has a general northwest course through the district, but it is here that that winding stream wends its way through the most tortuous course, and at what is known as Big Bend it is said that in a distance of five miles it flows toward every point of the compass. At high stages of water steamboats ascend it to Glenville, the county seat of Gilmer County.
     Anna Mariah Creek, which rises near the southern boundary of the district, flows nearly due north, and empties into the Little Kanawha River. Lemuel's Run has its source near the former, and after pursuing a tortuous course, also falls into the Little Kanawha.
     Leading Creek rises in the high range of hills in the northern part of the district, flows southwest into the Little Kanawha. It is so called for the reason that the old "Indian trace" led along its banks. The savages when starting on their missions of bloodshed and plunder from their towns northwest of the Ohio, would journey to that river, cross it near where Parkersburg now stands, ascend the Little Kanawha to the mouth of what is now called Leading Creek, where they left the river, and after going up this creek would cross over to the waters of the West Fork of the Monongahela, where many of their horrid crimes were enacted.
     Doubtless many were the hapless captives carried along the banks of Leading Creek, then on their way to suffer death by some of the refined modes of cruelty, or, what was worse, to spend a hopeless captivity in the western wilderness. This "trail" was plainly visible for many years after the coming of the white men.
     Yellow Creek, the pioneer name of which was Camp Creek, has its source in the extreme portion of the district, and flows southwest to the junction with the Little Kanawha.


     The first white settler within the present limits of the district was James Mayse, who arrived on the banks of the Little Kanawha and erected his cabin in the year 1814. At that time his nearest neighbor down the river was thirteen miles distant, while there were none up the river nearer than the place where Glenville, in Gilmer County now stands. He was an actual settler, and did what he came to do- found a home for himself and his family. He was soon after followed to his wild retreat by Belnire Mayes, James Niles, Audrey Sharpe, and Stephen P. Burson.
     The first grist mill was erected by George W. Rogers, in the year 1841. It was a water mill, and was located on Yellow Creek, about two miles from its mouth. Before the erection of this mill, the people ground their grain on a hand mill or pounded it in a mortar, which means a depression made trough-fashion in a log or stump. Mr. Rogers, the next year (1842), added sawing machinery to his mill, and thus became not only the builder of the first grist mill in the district, but the first saw mill also.


     The first school was taught by Robert Clifford, in the year 1818, in a cave near Big Bend, on the Little Kanawha. About a dozen pupils were present. "There is no doubt," said our informant, "but what this was the first school taught, not only in the district, but within the present limits of Calhoun County." The first building erected for school purposes was in the year 1824; it was a log cabin, the roof of which was held in place by "weight poles." One end was taken up by a huge fireplace. The seats were made by splitting small logs in halves, and then inserting pins or legs, trestle style, in the oval sides. There are now seven public school buildings in the district (this was written in the 1880's), of which four are hewed logs and three are frame buildings.


     Brooksville, so called in honor of a man of that name who several times represented the county in the House of Delegates, is the only village in the district; it was laid out in 1856 by Joseph Cain. It is pleasantly located on the north bank of the Little Kanawha, at the mouth of Yellow Creek.


     The oldest lady in the county is now residing in this district. Her name is Rachel Collins, and she is now in the ninety-seventh year of her age. Her mother and brother then but three year of age, were carried from the frontier of Virginia into captivity by the Indians, the former remained with them three years, and the latter grew to manhood among them; he never returned to Virginia. The Enverable John Richards, now in the eighty-seventh year of his age, is the oldest man in the district, He served six months in the army during the war of 1812, and now draws a pension for said service. He is in excellent health, and often goes with his rifle into the woods, where he shoots squirrels and other small game. He walks to the Big Springs post office, distant one and one-half miles, to receive his mail and draw his pension.
     The population of the district, according to the census of 1880, was 1,110.


     Center District was not formed until 1869, six years after the formation of the others. It was cut off from Sherman and Sheridan, and called Center from its geographical position. Its shape is that of a rectangle, its greatest length being in a northwest and southwest direction. It is bounded in the northeast by Ritchie and Gilmer Counties, southeast by Sherman district, southwest by Lee, and northwest by Sheridan. The surface is broken, and in some places rough, but throughout the soil consists of a black loam and is very fertile.
     Yellow Creek rises in this district, and flows in a westerly direction until it passes into Sheridan. Big Root Creek has its source in this district, from which it wends it's way southwest and falls into the Little Kanawha, this river passing through it in a northwest direction. The timber here is pretty well exhausted, though upon the hills remote from the river considerable quantities yet remain; it is white oak, black oak, red oak, chestnut oak, popular, pine, hickory, beech, sugar maple, sycamore, elm, etc.


     The first settlers were Michael H. Haverty, Archiobald Burris, George W. Hardman, Salathiel Riddle, Henry Bell, Phillip Stallman, Thomas Holbert and Valentine Ferrell. Of these, Thomas Holbert built the first cabin. It stood on the bank of the Little Kanawha River, six miles below the present site of Grantsville, on what is now known as the Hiram Riddle farm. Benjamin Jackson and Isaac Cox were the first to settle upon the waters of Yellow Creek. All of the above named were actual settlers, and purchased land upon which they located.
     The first grist mill was built by John Richards, on Yellow Creek, in the year 1854; it was a frame building, with sawing apparatus attached; water was the propelling power.


     A man of the name of James Springston has the honor of having taught the first school, It was in the autumn of 1835 that he was engaged to teach one term; the building occupied was a small log cabin which stood upon the river bank five miles below Grantsville. The floor was "mother earth;" one end was entirely taken up by a fireplace, while a log chopped from the other served the place of a window. The next year the first building erected for school purposes was completed. It was similar to the above, with the exception of one very marked improvement- it had a puncheon floor, "This temple of learning," stood upon the site which the first school was taught. There are now four public school buildings in the district; two are hewed log and two are frame. There are seven sub-districts, but in three of them houses are rented. The present school enrollment (abt. 1880) is 409, of which 10 are colored.


     It is said that the Rev. William S. Morgan preached the first sermon about the year 1831. The first church organized was what is now known as Riddle Bend Baptist Church, in 1811; at the time of institution there were but five members. The second was the M. L. Church. The third was the M. L. South Church, which gathered its first congregation and formed its first church at the place where Salathiel Riddle now resides. There are now several church societies in the district which we proceed to notice: 1st the Big Root Protestant Methodist Church, located on Big Root Creek. The present membership is nine, Rev. T. W. Ireland is the pastor. The same denomination has an organization in Yellow Creek, where they have a membership of 30; Rev. Ireland is also in charge of this church. 2nd. The M. E. Church has a large congregation at Pleasant Hill where they own the only church edifice - a hewed log building - in the district. Rev. John Hess of the West Virginia conference, is the pastor in charge. 3rd. The M. E. South have an organization of several members which worship in the Robinson Run school house; Rev. E. R. Powers is the officiating clergyman. 5th. The Presbyterian Church, at Grantsville, organized in 1871; they have no church building but worship in the courthouse. The membership now numbers six. The Rev. Andrew Virtue, who resides at Spencer, in Roane County, is the present pastor.
     Several Sabbath Schools have been organized, but their existence has been ephemeral. The only one now in progress is the Protestant Methodist school at Big Root, where they have an average attendance of thirty-five. James F. Hodges is the present superintendent, and Rachel Vandevender, W. S. Ferrell, E. C. Hodges, Amy Cain and Francis Cain, are teachers.


     The only town in the district is Grantsville, the county seat. It stands on the north bank of the Little Kanawha River, distant thirty-one miles from Wirt Court House and sixty-two miles from the mouth of the river at Parkersburg. It was named in honor of ex- President Grant. The finest improvement where the town now stands, was made by Eli Riddle many years ago. It was made the permanent county seat in 1869, after a dispute lasting thirteen years as to its location, and a splendid courthouse (brick) was completed in 1880 at a cost of $8,400. The town was laid out by Simon P. Stump. It now contains six general mercantile stores, a lodge of Free Masons with a membership of twenty-five, organized in 1882, three hotels, one post office, one grist and saw mill, built in 1882, and 125 inhabitants.


     Sherman district was named in honor of General W. T. Sherman, a distinguished Federal officer during the late war, and commander on the celebrated "march to the sea." Its form is that of an irregular triangle, bounded on the east by Gilmer County, southwest by Lee and northwest by Sheridan districts. The surface is hilly but the soil is generally fertile. No gravel or limestone is found; sandstone abounds but is not well adapted for building purposes for the reason that it is too soft.
     The Little Kanawha River flows nearly due west, dividing the district into two unequal parts. Laurel Creek rises in the extreme northern point and flows south into the Little Kanawha. Steer Creek has its source in Braxton County, whence it flows northwest through Gilmer County and unites with the Little Kanawha near the center of the district. Sycamore Creek takes its rise upon the southern boundary, flows northeast and empties into Steer Creek. Rush Creek flows in the same direction and falls into Steer Creek.


     The first cabin in the district was erected in the year 1830 by John Haverty. The same year John B. Goff came and settled beside him. They both located on the Little Kanawha between where Grantsville now stands and the mouth of Steer Creek. Other early settlers were John Ball, Job Westfall, Samuel Barr, Alexander Huffman and Joshua Smith. The first matrimonial alliance formed was that between George Stump and Nancy Bennett, who were united in marriage in 1834. The first election was held in 1863 at the Bethlehem church, at which timer sixty votes were polled. Among those depositing their ballots were Alexander Huffman, Joseph Bennett, William Barr, Samuel Barr, John H. Johnson, Nicholas Poling, Jacob Poling, Wesley Poling and Francis Robinson. At this election Jacob Poling was chosen first supervisor of the township.
     The first grist mill was built by Joseph Bennett in the year 1838. It was a water mill, situated about one and one-half miles above where Grantsville now stands. It was constructed by driving piles in the ground and then erecting a log cabin upon them. The first saw mill was built in 1835 by William Robinson and Nicholas Poling, on Sycamore fork of Steer Creek. It was a "sash saw," and water was the propelling power.


     The first school teacher was a man of the name of Joseph Robinson, who taught a school as early as 1823, in a small log cabin with a huge mud and stick (cat and clay) chimney, a puncheon floor, but our informant says "It had no loft," meaning by this that it had no ceiling overhead.
     The first building erected exclusively for school purposes was in the year 1835; it stood upon a "flat" or plateau on the east side of Phillips Run. An old pioneer thus describes it: "It was a log cabin, fourteen by sixteen feet square, a dirt floor, and without a loft or chimney. A fire place was constructed of flat rocks set on edge, and the smoke was permitted to seek the upper regions through the roof; for windows a log was cut out, and greased paper was used as a substitute for glass." Such was a sample of the pioneer school houses of half a century ago. Mark the change! West Virginia is dotted over today with 4,000 neat and comfortable buildings. The total school enrollment for the year 1882 was 424, of which eight are colored.


     The first sermon is said to have been preached at the house of Alexander Huffman, one and one-half miles above where Grantsville now stands, in the year 1830. The first church organized was the Bethlehem Baptist Church, in the year 1833. It was instituted by the Rev. James Tuesdale, but Rev. James Fry became the first pastor. Among the first members were Alexander Huffman and wife, Joseph Bennett and wife, and Robert Bennett and wife. This is said to have been the first church organized within the present limits of Calhoun County.
     The second organization was that of the Pleasant Valley M. E. Church, on Sycamore Creek in 1856. It was formed by the Rev. John Dudley, and Rev. Kinsey Ward became its first pastor.
     The third was the M. E. Church South, organized at Muscle Shoals, about the year 1860. There are now three church buildings in the district; two hewed log and one frame. The Bethlehem Baptist is a small frame, twenty by thirty feet square, with a seating capacity of about 100. It was built in 1860, upon a lot donated by Joseph Bennett. The membership numbers 126. Rev. J. M. Wood is the present pastor. The South M. E. Church at Muscle Shoals is a hewed log building, with a seating capacity of 150. The first Sabbath School was organized in 1849, by Alexander Huffman. About thirty pupils were present at the time of organization.


     Lee district, so called in memory of Richard Henry Lee of Virginia is bounded on the northeast by Sheridan, Center and Sherman districts, south by Washington district, southwest by Roane and northwest by Wirt Counties. The surface is very broken, the mountains rising in many places, from five to six hundred feet above the surrounding valleys, Limestone is found in vast quantities, the deposit lying about half way up the hills and in some localities the strata is from six to eight feet in thickness. Excellent building stone exists in sufficient quantities to put a foundation under half the buildings in the state.
     The soil is a dark red clay intermixed with a black loam, this extends perhaps two thirds of the way up the mountain, where the loam disappears and the clay, now changed to a brighter red, is sound almost alone. This soil is remarkable for its great fertility, and the traveler is surprised to see, far in the distance about him, extensive wheat fields and grassy meadows, their emerald green sparkling in the clear sunlight, only witnessed in mountainous regions. The timber is noticed in the general history of the county, which see.
     The West Fork of the Little Kanawha is the principal stream. It flows through the district in a northwestern course, and passes into Wirt County, where it soon after unites with the main river. Henry's Fork of the West Fork rises in the eastern part of Roane County, and flowing northwest, forms the boundary line between this district and that county. Rowel's Run, so called because a man of that name was once killed by Indians at its mouth, Barnes Lick, Daniel's Run, and Millstone Run all flow from the northern part of the district to the southwest and discharge their waters into the West Fork.


     The first cabin was erected by a man of the name of West, who came from Ohio to this vicinity about the year 1807. He was a squatter and did not remain long. The first actual settler was Phillip Starcher, who built his cabin where Arnoldsburg now stands in the year 1810. Soon after his settlement he was joined by Peter Cogar, Isaac Mace, William Brannan, Peter McCune and Adam O'Brien, all of whom found homes along the West Fork.
     The first grist mill was built by Duskey's Falls, near the mouth of the West Fork, by Daniel Duskey in 1843. Our correspondent says "It was but a temporary affair." George Lynch and James Mayes erected and put in operation the first sawmill in 1855.


     It was the year 1835 that these old pioneers came to the conclusion that a little schooling would be beneficial to the rising generation, and accordingly they "joined together" and erected a log cabin for a school house and when it was completed they employed a gentleman of the name of Michael Haverty to teach for them. He served them during the winter of 1836-37 and thus became the first disciple of Socrates who wielded the rod in this part of Calhoun County. There are now good school buildings in the district, of which five are hewed log, and seven are frame buildings. The total enumeration of school youth for the year 1882 was 560.


     The credit of having preached the first sermon has been awarded to two gentlemen, both noted divines, and to which it properly belongs is a matter if dispute. All, however, are agreed as to the place, it being conceded that it was the house of Phillip Starcher, where Arnoldsburg now stands.
     The men for whom the honor of having first proclaimed the glad tidings on the banks of the West Fork were the Revs. Barnabas Cook and Lorenzo Dow. The writer when he visited Arnoldsburg was unable to harmonize these conflicting claims, but since then he has had recourse to the early church records of the respective denominations represented by these distinguished ministers, and from them he is led to believe that Lorenzo Dow preached the first sermon in the year 1820, but that the first church was gathered and organized two years later (1822) by Barnabas Cook. If this then be true let the memories of those noble men continue to be cherished in these mountain homes to which they first carried the good news, and in which they would have wished these memories kept green the longest.
     The first Sabbath School was organized by George Lynch in the year 1856, at which time about thirty persons were present. There are three at present in the district, viz: One at Arnoldsburg, of which R. W. Hall is superintendent; another at Lynch Mills, D. W. Knight, superintendent; and a third at the Richardson postoffice.


     The only town in the district is Arnoldsburg, named in honor of James Arnold, who patented the land upon which the town stands. He was the father of Charles and William, and uncle to Benjamin Arnold, all well and favorably known throughout the county. A postoffice was established here as early as 1832, and in the same year the first school was taught by Charles Arnold.
     Dr. David Chapman was the first to practice in this vicinity (1848), but Dr. John P. Lynch was the first resident physician.
     John Campbell was the first "son of Vulcan" who wielded the sledge at Arnoldsburg. Peregriene Hays was the first merchant; he began business in 1833. His son, Hon. G. W. Hays, present state senator from the third district, now resides within the old homestead erected by his father.
     The Arnoldsburg Baptist Church was organized in 1840; the Arnolds and Joseph Knotts were among the first members. In 1848 the M. E. Church South established a church at this place, Rev. Samuel Black, now in the ministry in Greenbrier County, officiated at the time. The Rev. John A. Thomas was the first Presbyterian minister that ever visited Arnoldsburg; he made a visit in 1856, but no church was organized until 1878, when the Rev. Samuel Hench began preaching there, and organized a church composed of the following members: Dr. J. Y. Waite, Andrew Meadows, Aaron Meadows, A. J. L. Meadows, Sarah Meadows, Enoch L. Meadows, Mary Hays, G. W. Hays, Elizabeth A. Silcott, L J. Pepperworth, Maria Swagger, Sarah Metz, Ida Hutchins, Angeline Schreckengost, Emma Schreckengost, Anthony Wilcoxen, Emma Wilcoxen, William Rinestine, Sarah Rinestine, Anna Haymaker, Alexander Perkins, May Perkins, Catherine McKeever and Jabez H. Kingsbury.
     Arnoldsburg was once the county seat; see the general history of the county. The place contains two general mercantile stores, one drug store, one blacksmith shop, one postoffice, one school building, one hotel, and seven dwellings. Lee district in 1880 had a population of 1,364.


     Washington District was named in honor of Washington, the founder of the American republic, the defender of justice, and the advocate of the rights of men. Already the capital city of the greatest republic the world has seen, had been named in honor of him, already had a vast territory on the Pacific coast been christened in memory of him, already had his honored name been bestowed upon eighteen counties in various states of the Union; but what of that? Was it any reason why a little spot up in the pure and transparent atmosphere of the Allegheny Mountains, should not bear the honored name? The committee who partitioned the county thought not, and so Washington district was checkered on the map of Calhoun County as the most southern one of its sub-divisions.
     The district is bounded on the north by Lee, east by Gilmer and Braxton Counties, south by Clay, and southwest and west by Roane County. The surface is mountainous, the lofty summits of which are the culminating points of the western spurs thrown off from the Alleghenies. These hills and mountains are filled with excellent building stone, and scattered over the surface is a limestone which, when collected and burned, makes an excellent fertilizer, Iron ore appears in several localities, doubtless a continuation of the celebrated Elk River black band ore, which contains the highest percentage of any of the West Virginia deposits. Bituminous coal has been discovered at several points, but has not been developed.
     Despite the broken and rugged condition of the surface, the soil is very fertile and good crops of cereals and grasses are produced even on the mountain tops. Here is to be found some of the finest timber in the state: the towering oak and the lofty poplar have grown to an enormous size. But the woodman's ax is being applied, and rapidly these monarchs, monuments of ages gone by, are being swept away.
     The West Fork of the Little Kanawha flows in a north by west direction through the district, and its tributaries and sub- tributaries, together with Beech Fork, a branch of Henry's Fork, constitute the drainage. Beech Fork flows nearly parallel with the West Fork at Henry's Fork postoffice, on the line between Calhoun and Roane Counties. Left Hand Fork, with Bear Run, its principal tributary, flows west and empties into the West Fork; White Oak Creek flows north and falls into the same.


     The first settler was Peter McCune, who, with his family, found a home in the valley of the West Fork, in the lower part of this district, in the year 1815. Here, the same year, he erected the first cabin in what is now Washington district. It was constructed of small logs or poles, such as he could handle himself, for he had no one to assist him. As one stands and gazes upon the spot he wonders what the motive could have been that prompted a man to remove his family into such a wilderness as this was seventy years ago. But he was not the only one influenced by such a wilderness as this was seventy years ago. But he was not the only one influenced by such a motive. The solitude of his mountain retreat was soon after disturbed, for Anthony Parsons, Barnabas Cook, Dr. George Conley, Thomas Cottrell, three families of the name of Truman, and Thomas P. Brannan, all sought and found homes on the West Fork.
     The first birth that occurred was that of a child of Peter and Margaret McCune, born a short time after their arrival. The first wedding was a double one, two taking place at the same time and place, the high contracting parties being Thomas Barnhouse and Mary Bush, and Thomas Cottrell and Mary Parsons. The officiating clergyman was the Rev. William Hacker.
     The first grist mill was erected by Job Truman about the year 1828. It was a small frame building. At first they only ground corn, but later added machinery for grinding wheat. They bolt their flower by hand to this day - 1883. The Poling brothers now have a steam grist mill and saw mill, and do a driving business. Thomas Jarvis erected the first saw mill in 1845. It was an old-fashioned "sash" saw.


     The first school was taught by Dr. George Conley in the year 1835. The house was a small cabin, erected according to the style of architecture employed in building all the early pioneer school houses. It was located on the right fork of the West Fork. Old waste houses continued to be used for school purposes until 1859, when the Hon. Absalom Knotts, once a distinguished member of the general assembly of Virginia, caused a hewed log house, 18 x 20 ft square, to be erected at his own expense. There are now ten public school buildings, of which seven are hewed log, and three are frame. In 1882 there were 557 pupils enrolled in the schools taught in these houses.


     The first sermon was preached in 1830 by Barnabas Cook, a minister of the Christian church from Ohio. Eight years, however, passed away before a society was organized, but in 1836 the Rev. George Martin of the M. E. Church formed a class at the house of Thomas Jarvis. Among the names there enrolled upon the classbook were those of Joseph Knotts, Mary Knotts, Thomas Jarvis, Alsa Jarvis, Caleb Jarvis, Dianna Jarvis, Hannah Hardway, Patrick Conley, and Tarleton Vaughan and wife.
     There is not today a church building in the district, but notwithstanding there are eight organizations, all of which worship in school houses. Of these there are eight organizations, all of which worship in school houses. Of these there are M. E. South, with a aggregate membership of 132; Revs. John A. Black and William Bays are the present ministers. The Baptists have two congregations, and a membership of 100; Daniel Huffman is the pastor. The M. E. Church, also have two societies, and forty members; the present minister is the Rev. David R. Poling. There is one Old School Baptist congregation, numbering thirty, with Rev. Hugh Burns as pastor.
     The first Sabbath School was organized in 1847 by the Rev. Abijah Wedge. There are two at present in the district, viz: the Beech Fork and Town Hall schools. Of the former William Boggs is superintendent, and of the latter Oscar Harshman is superintendent, and Simon A. Knotts, Mary Molholm and Minorca Knotts are. Perryville, laid out by Perry Molholm in 1882, is the only village in the district.


     Calhoun County lies in the 4th Congressional district, of which the Hon. Eustace Gibson, of Cabell County, is the present representative, and in the third Senatorial district, which Hon. G. W. Hays now has the honor to represent. Hon. Taylor R. Stump now represents the county in the House of Delegates.
     Ciruit Court: Presiding Judge, R. F. Fleming; Clerk, George W. Silcott.
     High Sheriff: John W. Bell, Deputies, James W. Conrad and Samuel T. Isenhart.
     States Attorney, George R. Linn, County Court: President, W. W. Fogle.
     Commissioners: Oscar Kelly and Harrison Ferrell.
     Commissioner of Revenue: George W. Blakenship.
     Superintendent of Schools: David C. Sturms.


     Big Springs, White Pine, Grantsville, Big Bend, Sycamore, Steer Creek, Arnoldsburg, Minnora and Eden.


     Calhoun is one of the west central counties of the state. It bounded on the north by Ritchie County, east by Gilmer and Braxton, south by Clay, west by Roane, and northwest by Wirt. Grantsville, the county seat, situated near the center of the northern half of the county on the right bank of the Little Kanawha River, is in north latitude 38 degrees, 54 minutes, in west longitude 4 degrees, 3 minutes from Washington. Its mean elevation above sea level is about 820 feet. The surface is broken and mountainous; the ridges or ranges in many parts attaining a height of from five to seven hundred feet above the intervening valleys. Despite the broken condition of the surface the soil is very fertile and well adapted to the production of the cereals and grasses.


     Archibald Dwight Adams, M. D. is a son of Thomas Jefferson Adams and Eleanore (Johnson) Adams. He was born in Monroe County, Ohio, and in the same county was born Mary Barbara Holday, who became his wife in the state and county of their nativity. His birth was in 1850 and she was born in 1849, and their marriage was consummated on the 24th of February, 1869.
     Their children were born: William H., October 15, 1869; James A., October 9, 1871; Josephine, September 3, 1873; Mary E., August 1, 1875; Newton, October 2, 1877; Doctor Lensy, January 26, 1880. Newton died April 4, 1879, and the other children are living at home.
     Peter and Susan (Brown) Holday are the parents of the wife of Dr. Adams. Dr. Adams took up residence in this county in 1879, engaging in practice as a physician and surgeon among the people of Grantsville, and vicinity, with his address at Grantsville, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     John Arnold was born September 28, 1843, in that part of Kanawha County, Virginia, which is now included in Calhoun County, West Virginia. His home has, therefore, always been in the locality in which he now resides, and his parents, Charles D. and Lucretia (Nichols) Arnold, were residents here before Calhoun was organized, and he may be reckoned among the pioneers of this section of country.
     The wife of John Arnold was a daughter of George W., and Barbara (Jarvis) Hardway, named Diana, and her birth was on the 10th of February, 1849, also in Kanawha County. Her father died November 27, 1882.
     John Arnold and Diana Hardway were wedded in Calhoun County, July 25, 1866, and their children are six living and one deceased: Charles C., born March 3, 1868, Francis Marion, November 14, 1871; a son not named born February 20, 1873, died March 3, 1873; Rhoda J., September 3, 1875; John P., September 26, 1877; Louisa, December 28, 1880; Arizona, September 27, 1882.
     John Arnold served three years in Company E., 14th Virginia Cavalry, Confederate army, and was in a number of engagements. He was held a prisoner one year. His occupation is farming, and his address is Eden, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     William W. Bailey was born in Tazewell County, Virginia, June 10, 1816. He was a son of Doddridge Bailey, who died in August, 1872. His mother, whose maiden name was Phebe Belcher, died March 18, 1866.
     In 1856 William W. Bailey took up residence in what is now Calhoun County, West Virginia, and when hostilities between the two section of country developed into war, he entered the service of the Confederacy, enlisting in Company E, 14th Virginia Cavalry, where he served tow years, first as second sergeant, then as orderly, of Company E, afterwards as forage master for the regiment. He was in the battles of Winchester, Gettysburg, twice at Brandy Station, Cloyd Mountain, Bulltown, and numerous skirmishes.
     In Logan County, Virginia, December 5, 1846, William W, Bailey and Lucinda, daughter of Benjamin and Nancy (Elkinds Godbey, were united in marriage, and their union is blessed with six children.
     The wife of Mr. Bailey was born in Pulaski County, Virginia, April 3, 1831, and their children were born: Winfield S., January 23, 1848. Christopher C., September 2, 1850; Nancy A., September 1, 1854; Martha J., April 29, 1856; Phebe V., October 7, 1859; William A., December 9, 1862.
     William W. Bailey was constable for twelve years during his residence in Logan County, Virginia; deputy sheriff six years in the same county; in Calhoun County was elected justice in 1849 and served until 1861; was re-elected in 1872 and served until 1881. For four years he had and exercised the power of attorney of performing the marriage ceremony. He is a farmer, stock raiser and dealer in lumber; address, Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     McClellan Barr along with James Albert Harris works one of the best farms in Sherman district, Calhoun County, West Virginia. Henry and Mary (Smith) Barr, the parents of McClellan, settled in Calhoun County in 1835, and McClellan's birth was on the 28th of September, 1861. His father died in this county in 1872.


     John W. Bell, grandson of Henry Bell, one of the pioneers of this vicinity and son of Henderson and Leah (Collins) Bell, was born March 12, 1847, in what is now Calhoun County, West Virginia.
     He married in this state and county, Ellen Vandall becoming his wife on the 3rd if May, 1874, and they have one daughter, Fannie, born August 15, 1875. Ellen Vandall was born in the adjoining county, Wirt, Nov. 28, 1852, a daughter of N. B. Vandall, who died in 1862, and Virginia (DePugh) Vandall.
     The father of John W. Bell was a soldier of the Federal army, a member of Company C, 11th West Virginia troops, in the war of 1861. Hiram Campbell, his wife's half-brother was in the same regiment, Company B. Henderson Bell died in 1875, and his widow still lives in this county, aged 60 years.
     John W. Bell is a Republican in politics, but is one of the most popular men in the county as is evidenced by his election to his present office, that of sheriff, in a county largely Democratic. He was elected in 1880, and is the present incumbent. He owns a fine farm of 290 acres on the Little Kanawha, six miles below Grantsville, and is also engaged in buying and selling stock, and is in the real estate business.


     Lawson S. Belt, born April 15, 1855, in what is now Wirt County, West Virginia, was a son of Silas and Angeline (Morgan) Belt. On his mother's side he is descended from the Morgan family celebrated as Indian fighters, and one of his mother's brothers possesses a piece of tanned Indian skin, from the body of an Indian killed in Monongalia County, Virginia, by Daniel Morgan.
     John R. Belt, a brother of Lawson S., was an Indian fighter of our day, and was wounded while engaged with the Indians under the redoubtable "Capt. Jack" in the lava beds.
     In 1880 Lawson S. Belt took up his residence in Calhoun County, and in this same county, on Christmas Day of 1880, he was united in marriage with Florence H. Ferrell. Her parents, well known residents here, are Harrison and Julia (Cox) Ferrel, who came to Calhoun County May 2, 1853. Here their daughter, Florence H., was born on the 23rd of February l861. The union of Mr. and Mrs. Belt has been blessed with one daughter, Amanda Lee, born November 22, 1881. Farming is the occupation of Lawson S. Belt, his land lying in Sheridan district, his postoffice is Big Bend, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Oliver Brannan, son of Thomas P. and Lydia (Wilson) Brannan, was born October 8, 1848, when this part of Calhoun County, West Virginia was included in Gilmer County, Virginia. He was united in marriage with Dorothy J. Laughlin in Calhoun County, October 26, 1871, Elder John Bennett officiating clergyman.
     Their children are five: Ulysses G., born August 15, 1872; Daniel W., August 15, 1875; Sylvester R., November 4, 1877; Lewis, December 15, 1879; Effie L., July 2, 1882 - all are living at home.
     The wife of Mr. Brannan was born in this county, a daughter of Robert and Elizabeth (Parsons) Laughlin. Her parents are residents in this county, and were living here at the date of its organization. Oliver Brannan has passed the years of his life in the pursuits of agriculture, his farm lying in Washington district, and his postoffice address is Arnoldsburg, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Sylvester Brannan, a prosperous farmer and stock raiser of Washington district, Calhoun County, West Virginia, was here born when the district was included in Gilmer County, West Virginia. The date of his birth was September 20, 1850, and the date of his marriage was February 16, 1873. On the last named day, in Calhoun County, William Brannan, J. P., joined him in wedlock with Mary Brannan, who was born in Gilmer County, on the 7th of October, 1854. She was a daughter of Henry Brannon and Mary J. (Laughlin) Brannan, now deceased.
     Thomas P. and Lydia (Wilson) Brannan, the parents of Sylvester and Oliver Brannon, are still residents in this county, in which they were pioneer settlers. The former is now aged 79 years, and the latter 75, and both are in the enjoyment of sound health and intellect though they have passed through the many trials and privations known only to the early settlers in a frontier country. Mr. and Mrs. Sylvester Brannan have two sons in the home established by their marriage: Horace G., born in 1873, and Oliver D., born in 1874. Sylvester Brannan receives his mail at the postoffice at Arnoldsburg, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     William A. Brannon was born in Kanawha County, Virginia, was a son of William A. and Catherine (King) Brannan, and was a resident here when Calhoun County was organized. His mother is no longer living, and his father, who was born in 1805, still resides in this county.
     In Calhoun County, William L. Brannan married Mary E. Figgins, who was born in Lewis County, Virginia, February 29, 1848. James E. and Mary A. (Harvey) Figgins were her parents. Her mother died July 11, 1873, and her father died May 9, 1880, at the age of 87 years. He served three years in the Confederate army during the civil war.
     The children of Mr. and Mrs. Brannan are five living and two deceased, born: Flora, July 11, 1868; Lucinda C., May 2, 1870; Calvin A., March 2, 1872; Mary A., January 1. 1874, died November 9, 1874; Martha, September 3, 1875, died March 16, 1876; Simon P., December 22, 1878; Thomas A., April 4, 1881. The subject of this sketch is a farmer and lumberman in Washington district, Calhoun County, has served two years as district trustee, and is still the incumbent of the office. His address is William L. Brannan, Newton, Roane County, West Virginia.


     Francis Marion Cain has been a teacher in Calhoun County, West Virginia for five years, having received his scholastic training at Brooksville, in this county. He taught his first school at the head of Laurel Creek, winter of 1878-9, and taught five months in Wirt County, in the years 1880 and 1881. He was born in Calhoun County, January 2, 1863, a son of Enoch Washington and Minerva Cain, well known and honored residents of this county. During the war between the States, he lost one uncle, Rufus King, who was killed in action at Lynchburg, in 1865, while serving in the Confederate army. Francis Marion Cain's postoffice is Big Bend, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Perry Commodore Campbell, born in Rockbridge County, Virginia in 1830, was a defender of the principles of the Southern Confederacy during the conflict between the States, serving three years in the ranks of the Confederate army, and suffering five weeks imprisonment at Camp Chase, Ohio. The first marriage of Perry C. Campbell resulted in the birth of seven children, namely: Alva, born December 25, 1859, deceased; Opheoly (Petty) April 11, 1856, and Missouri (Petty) March 14, 1858, who live in Wirt County; Melvina, May 11, 1860; San Francisco, August 11, 1861; John A. W., February 4, 1863; Norval, March 23, 1865 - these three living at home.
     In 1871, with his little family, Mr. Campbell settled in Calhoun County, and in 1882 he was joined by his father, John A. Campbell, and Sarah (Messenger) Campbell, his step-mother.
     At Grantsville, in this county, December 22, 1877, Perry C. Campbell was joined in wedlock with Melissa, daughter of James N. and Catherine (Summers) Norman. Her birth was in Lewis County, Virginia, September 6, 1833, and she has lost by death both her parents. She was first married to Lafayette Webb, by whom she had seven children, namely: Mary C. (Wilson), born November 3, 1855, and Emily (Smith), September 10, 1868, live in Calhoun County; Sarah E., August 7, 1861, died May 7, 1863; Phoebe A. (Norman), February 9, 1864, lives in this county; James W., June 16, 1871, lives with their mother. Mr. Webb served two years in the Federal army, and was then discharged on account of sickness.
     Perry C. Campbell is actively and prosperously engaged in business as ferryman and hotel keeper at Grantsville.


     William H. Campbell and Nancy C. McCoy were united in marriage in Hillsboro, Pochahontas County, West Virginia, April 2, 1867, by Rev. Mr. Dunlap. She was born in that county while it was part of Virginia, the date of her birth November 4, 1843, and her parents, now deceased, were William and Elizabeth (Oldham) McCoy.
     William H. was born at Glenville, Gilmer County Virginia, January 27, 1844, a son of John A. and Clarinda (Ayers) Campbell. His mother died September 28, 1858, his father came to Calhoun County in 1882.
     In the war between the States, William H. Campbell and his brothers, Benjamin, Sida H., and John A. Campbell, all served the cause of the Confederacy in the field. John A. Campbell was four years in Company A., 31st Virginia Infantry, and his brothers were in Company K, 19th Virginia Cavalry. Sida H. was commissioned captain. They were in about twenty engagements, and the three brothers were all wounded, but all recovered. Sida H. was shot under the right eye, the ball passing out back of the right ear. Benjamin was thirteen months a prisoner at Fort Delaware, and eleven at Fort Chase.
     William H. Campbell and wife having no children kindly took three to raise, each when about five years old. William is now 17, Melinda J. is 15, and Samuel is 7.
     William H. Campbell is an energetic man of business, combining the labors of farming with the trade of blacksmith and the dealing in lumber. He may be addressed at Eden, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     R. J. Chenowith was born in Randolph County, Virginia, October 29, 1829, and settled in the county in which he now makes his home in 1849. He is a farmer, stock raiser, and engaged in the mercantile business, and he has served in the following public capacities: two years constable, secretary and member of the board of education of the first organization of free schools in the county; assessor 1871- 3.
     His parents were Robert and Edith (Skidmore) Chenoweth, his father now deceased, and his wife is Elizabeth J., daughter of Joseph and Mary (Arnold) Knotts. She was born in Jackson County, Virginia, November 11, 1858, and her father died March 12, 1855.
     The marriage of R. J. Chenoweth and Elizabeth J. Knotts was solemnized in Gilmer County, Virginia, by Elder Daniel Huffman, January 4, 1853. The children of the union are sixteen: William W., born March 30, 1854; Roxalena, January 3, 1856, deceased; Jemima B., May 7, 1857; Mary, twin of Jemima B., deceased; Matilda, March 24, 1859; Prudence E., January 6, 1861; Elizabeth J., November 6, 1862, deceased; Loverna, March 7, 1865; James G., February 25, 1867; Florence, December 18, 1868; Alice, February 25, 1871; Eva, November 3, 1872; Masolona, July 17, 1874; Wood, May 23, 1876; Emma D., December 5, 1878; Knotts, October 10, 1880.
     William W. lives in Stumptown, Gilmer County, West Virginia; Jemima B., in Laurel, Roane County, this state; Loverna, married William Stalnaker, in Almira, Braxton County, this state; Prudence E., married to L. D. Stalnaker, in Minnora, this county, and the other children at home. The family receive their mail at Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Isaac N. Collins, son of Isaac C. and Rachel (Cunningham) Collins, was born in this district, August 22, 1833, his parents having been among pioneer settlers here. February 10, 1853, in what is now Wirt County, West Virginia, was recorded the marriage vows of Isaac N. Collins and Sarah Ann McGee, and their children were twelve, born: James A., February 3, 1854; John William, October 29, 1856, died in 1859; Joseph, August 9, 1858; Leah Jane, January 8, 1860; Rosanna, September, 1862; and Sophia, August, 1863 - these three died in January 1865; Cynthia Ellen, January 12, 1865; Phelix W., May 20, 1867; Robert H., September 29, 1869; George W. McClellan, March 12, 1872; David E., June 20, 1874, died May 20, 1875; William S., January 11, 1879.
     The wife of Mr. Collins was born in Preston County, now in West Virginia, where her parents, Ephraim and Nancy Ann (McGinness) McGee, continue to reside. The maternal grandmother of Mr. Collins died February 1, 1883, at the age of 96 years, at her death probably the oldest person in the county. Her mother, whose name was Phoebe Cunningham, was captured by the Indians and lived among them for three years. With her was captured a little son, at that time about three years old, who lived with the Indians until he was seventeen.
     Isaac N. Collins is prosperously engaged in the pursuits of agriculture, with his address at Big Springs, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Samuel B. Cooper is one of the farming residents of Washington district, Calhoun County, West Virginia, a son of Thomas and Nancy (Basnett) Cooper, deceased. He was born in Marion County, Virginia, March 4, 18??, was married in the same county, in December, 1845, and he took up his residence in Calhoun County, West Virginia, in 1877. He has buried his wife and three of the six children of their union, Mary A., daughter of John and Henrietta (Lang) Darley, who became his wife, was born in Marion County, in April 17, 18??. The children were: Louisa E., born April 8, 1847; George E. January 21, 1849; William R,, January 6, 1852; died September 4, 1854; Henrietta, March 22, 1854, died August 3, 1878; Ulysses E., April 2, 1860 died February 21, 1872; Ida V., September 3, 1857.
     The post office address of Samuel B. Cooper is Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Stephen S. Dix, whose occupation is farming, and whose residence is in Washington district, Calhoun County, West Virginia, was born in Harrison County, Virginia, June 10, 1837. John and Catherine (Synnott) Dix were his parents and are now deceased, his father dying on the 14th of February, 1873.
     In 1858, Stephen S. Dix came to Calhoun County, and he was married here in the following year. Elizabeth J., daughter of Peter and Janet (Connoley) Parsons, was born in Kanawha County, Virginia, July 26, 1843, and was united in marriage with the subject of this sketch on the 20th of August, 1859.
     Their children are seven: John J., born August 30, 1862; Peter P., January 4, 1867; Henry J., November 22, 1869; Benjamin E., March 7, 1872; Mary A., March 9, 1875; William M., July 24, 1878; James E., October 5, 1882.
     Stephen S. Dix served four years in the Union army, a member of Company G, 9th Virginia Infantry (Federal), and was a participant in thirty engagements. He was taken prisoner in October, 1862, and held till March 1863, when he made his escape and rejoined his regiment. In 1864 he was wounded. His address is Stephen S. Dix, Arnoldsburg, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     James K. Douglas, son of Martin V. and Rowena (Hays) Douglas, was born in Clay County, Virginia, January 27, 1861. At the age of six years he came with his parents to Calhoun County, West Virginia, and in this county he has grown to manhood, and embarked upon a prosperous career, following the most independent and honorable, as well as most ancient of occupations, the tilling of the soil.
     Martin V., the father of James K., was born in Roane County, in 1847. Of the brothers and sisters of James K., who is the oldest child now living, the record is: Dawson, born in 1859, deceased; Joshua L., born July 7, 1863; Martin S., October 28, 1865; George L., May 1, 1868; Louisa, October 25, 1870; William, June 5, 1872; Alice, February 28, 1875; Cornelius P., August 16, 1877, deceased; Perry G., May 9, 1881.
     James K. Douglas' argricultural labors are in Washington district, his postoffice address is Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     James H. and William M. Ellison are sons of M.T. and Nancy (Greathouse) Ellison. James H. was born while this section was part of Gilmer County, Virginia, his birth on the 22nd of August, 1857, and William B. was born after the organization of Calhoun County, the date of his birth, February 5, 1860.
     The wife of James H. Ellison is Margaret M., daughter of H. L. and Elisa (Collins) Burns, and they were joined in wedlock by Elder W. W. Lane in Roane County, West Virginia, September 28, 1879. They have one son, Lafayette, born August 27, 1882. The birth of Margaret M. Burns was in Kanawha (now Roane) County, West Virginia, the date August 30, 1863.
     William M. Ellison married Mary Dawson in Calhoun County, June 17, 1882, Elder A. W. Lane recording their marriage vows. They are the parents of two daughters, Laurinda and Minnie. The wife of William M. Ellison was born in Kanawha County, on the 28th of February, 1862.
     James H. Ellison has been an extensive traveler, having visited every State in the Union, and a number of foreign countries. He was four years United States marshal during a residence in Illinois. His profession is that of attorney-at-law, and his success is marked in the field he has chosen.
     William M. is a teacher by profession, and in the highest of callings is achieving success. Both brothers receive their mail at Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Daniel M. Hardway was born in Kanawha County, Virginia, January 18, 1851, before the organization of the county of Calhoun. He was married in Gilmer County, West Virginia, October 22, 1872, by Elder John Stump, and Caroline Stump became his wife. She was born in the county in which her marriage was consummated, the date of her birth April 21, 1843. Her father, Absalom and Kesiah (Rucker) Stump, are still well known residents in Gilmer County. The mother of Daniel M. Hardway, whose maiden name was Barbara Jarvis, lives in Calhoun County.
     His father, George W. Hardway, was killed by an accident, November 27, 1882. His team ran away, and the wagon struck a fence, scattering the rails, one of which gave him a blow from which he died.
     Mr. and Mrs. Daniel M. Hardway are the parents of James W., born April 11, 1874; Carry A., February 16, 1876; Serena J., July 24, 1878; Absalom S., April 6, 1881. Daniel M. Hardway is a farmer of Washington district, his address Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     James A. Harris was born in Braxton County, Virginia, September 26, 1868, a son of William and Rebecca (Williams) Harris. His father came to Calhoun County with him in 1877, and his mother died in Lewis County, West Virginia, in 1872. Mr. Harris receives his mail at Grantsville, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Oscar S. Harshman was born in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, December 15, 1848, a son of George Harshman, who was born in 1812, and Elizabeth (Buttermore) Harshman, who is now deceased.
     During the 1861 war he served thirteen months in Company A, 57th Pennsylvania Infantry, and was in battle at Hatches Run, Yellowhouse, Petersburg, Weldon R. R. and others.
     In 1876 he came to Calhoun County, West Virginia, and here he was united in marriage, March 27, 1880, with Mary Z., daughter of Absalom and Prudence (Arnold) Knotts. She was born in Harrison County, Virginia, October 28, 1851, and the one son of their marriage, Norval, was born March 22, 1882. The business pursuits of Oscar S. Harshman are house carpenter and joiner and farming and his address is Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Benjamin F. and Albert P. Hendershot are sons of Rev. Jonathan and Martha J. (Powell) Hendershot, who live in Wirt County this state, and whose personal sketch will be found in the Wirt Department of the Encyclopedia.
     Benjamin F., was born September 7, 1856, and Albert P. on the 3rd of October, 1854, both in Wood County, this state.
     Benjamin F. Hendershot wedded Mary S. Tucker in Wirt County January 26, 1879 and they have two children: Hattie M., born June 14, 1880, and Albert A., born September 21, 1882.
     The wife of Albert P. Hendershot was Harriet R. Tucker, whom he married October 23, 1879, and who was killed by lightning, May 20, 1880, while they were living in Jackson County, West Virginia.
     Mary S., wife of Benjamin F., was born in what is now Calhoun County, West Virginia, the date of her birth October 12, 1861.
     The brothers settled in Calhoun County in 1881, and are honest and industrious and have built up a lucrative business. The last year he lived in Shirtzville, Wirt County, Benjamin F. Hendershot was postmaster at that place, 1879-80. B. F. Hendershot & Bro., blacksmith and wagon makers, Brooksville, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     William J. Hobart ws born in the state of Illinois, October 27, 1848, a son of Isaac and Maria (Shields) Hobart, who in February, 1849, left Illinois and made their home in Ohio. At a later date his father died in Champaign, Illinois. William J. Hobart engaged in the mercantile business at Hemlock Grove, in Meigs County, Ohio, and then in Athens County, at Coolville, and then in Wilkesville, in Vinton County, before coming to Calhoun County. He married in Wilkesville, Vinton County, December 28, 1876, Julia E. Wells, who was born in that county, September 12, 1852.
     Three children have been born of the wedlock , only two are now living. Marion Carl, born January 2, 1878; Isa Dora, September 15, 1879, died of cholera infantum June 23, 1880; Homer Bruce, April 10, 1881.
     Lyman and Susan (Douglas) Wells, parents of Julia E. Hobart, are still residents of Vinton County, Ohio, the former at the age of 55 years, and the latter at the age of 52 years. In April, 1879, William J. Hobart moved to his present place of business in Calhoun County, becoming one of the firm of McConaughy, Hobart and Company, Richardson, Calhoun County.


     Samuel T. Isenhart was born in Alleghany County, Maryland, October 22, 1822, a son of Jacob and Susanna (Rhodes) Isenhart. Early in life he took up his residence in Virginia, and was living here at the time of the organization of the county. His present marriage was consummated in Washington district, this county, when Rev. Benjamin Rodgers, on the 30th of September, 1867, united his life with that of Lucinda, daughter of James and Nancy (Shewmate) Moore, and widow of Perry Conley.
     Their children are four: Rosa L., born February 27, 1869; Florence C., September 17, 1870; Ida M., January 18, 1872; Hattie O., July 4, 1873. By a former marriage, when Sarah Hewlmick became his wife, Samuel T. Isenhart is the father of A. R., born October 20, 1846; J. R., March 4, 1848; B. E., December 24, 1851; B. E., August 13, 1853; H. G., October 29, 1858.
     The first husband of the present Mrs. Isenhart was killed January 4, 1862, while serving in the Southern Army. The children of this marriage were: Caroline, born September 26, 1856; James P., November 11, 1858; Perry D., November 16, 1861. Samuel T. Isenhart was also for three a member of the Confederate Army, serving through thirty-six engagements, and receiving nine shots in his clothes. He was first lieutenant of Company E., 14th Virginia Cavalry. His parents and the parents of his wife are now deceased.
     He is a prosperous farmer of Washington district, and since his residence in this county he served fourteen years as constable, eight before the war, and six since then, has been two years a member of the board of education, four years deputy sheriff. His address is Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     John W. Jarvis, son of Alfred and Sarah (Hensley) Jarvis, was born in Calhoun County, June 24, 1856. His marriage was consummated in this county, October 3, 1875, Aaron Hensley joining him in wedlock with Sarah J. Downey, whose birth was in Calhoun County, the date April 9, 1853. Alexander and Sarah J. (Brannon) Downey and her parents.
     Two sons and one daughter bless the union of John W. and Sarah J. (Downey) Jarvis. Edith, their daughter, was born August 12, 1876; Alfred A., was born November 9, 1878, and Charles W., on the 21st of June, 1881. Farming is the business of John W. Jarvis, his land lying in Washington district. His mother is deceased. His address is Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Samuel K. Jarvis was born in Gilmer County, Virginia, May 26, 1855, and was living here when Calhoun County was organized. His parents are Weeden H. and Elizabeth (Hensley) Jarvis, whose married life has been passed in this county.
     In Calhoun County, West Virginia, April 27, 1879, Samuel K. Jarvis and Ida V. Cooper were united in marriage, and in the home they have established are two children: Emery Otis, born April 22, 1880, and Erra Jessie, born August 25, 1882. Ida V. Cooper was born in Marion County, Virginia, on the 3rd of September 1857, and is the daughter of Samuel B and Mary A. Cooper.
     Samuel K. Jarvis owns and successfully conducts a productive farm in Washington District, with his postoffice address at Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Alexander Robert Johnson is one of the most popular residents of Sherman district, Calhoun County, West Virginia. His whole life has been passed in this county, where he was born in September, 1858, his time given to the acquisition of knowledge and the maintenance of an honorable independence. He is the son of John H. and Mary (Huffman) Johnson, who settled in what is now Calhoun County in 1834. His postoffice address is Grantsville.


     Peter Johnson is the fortunate owner of 130 acres of rich land in Center district, Calhoun County, in the cultivation of which his time is employed. His home has been in this county since 1833, and his birth was in Gilmer County, Virginia, October 6, 1826.
     Robert and Elizabeth (Huffman) Johnson, both now deceased, were his parents, and his father died when Peter was but two years of age. July 19, 1856, in Calhoun County were spoken the words joining in one the lives of Peter Johnson and Matilda Ball, and the years that have followed have witnessed the births of their nine children and the death of two, as given here: Laura V., born May 26, 1857, died July 18, 1859; D. Franklin, July 18, 1860; Cordelia B., May 6, 1862; Floyd V., April 2, 1864; Evalena B., May 18, 1866, died December 9, 1866; Henrietta F., August 31, 1869; Willie K., February 24, 1872; Jefferson C., May 2?, 1875.
     John and Rachel (Barr) Ball were the parents of Matilda, wife of Mr. Johnson. They are no longer living. Her brother, Franklin Ball, was killed during the war of 1861, while acting as a scout on Bear Fork of Steer Creek.
     Peter Johnson served two years as justice of the peace, some years ago; in 1880 he was again elected to the office and is now serving. In 1875 he acted as assessor, re-assessing the land in Calhoun County. He may be addressed at Grantsville, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     John H. H. Keaton is a native of the "Old Dominion" State, born in Augusta County, Virginia, August 14, 1843, a son of James M. and Martha A. (Leckie) Keaton. His father died on the 11th of May 1852.
     When the war between the States had been inaugurated, John H. H. Keaton entered the Confederate Army as a member of Company E., 26th Virginia Infantry, he served three years, participating in the fortunes of that regiment, among which were the battles at Fayette C. H., Cotton Hill, Charleston, Dry Creek, New market, and others.
     In Kanawha County, West Virginia, May 26, 1866, Rev. Elias Kendal joined in marriage the hands of John H. H. Keaton and Mary J., daughter of Thomas and Ailsy B. (Conley) Jarvis, and widow of Lewis W. Ellison. Their children are eight: Alfred H., born February 19, 1867; Ailsy B., September 19, 1868; James F., February 23, 1871; John W., July 1, 1873; Martha E., October 28, 1875; Josephine E., November 16, 1877; Alpheus N., July 23, 1880; Mary J., October 10, 1882.
     The father of Mrs. Keaton died in February 1879, and her mother died June 5, 1814, and the children of her first marriage were born: William W., Ellison, October 10, 1861; Mahala C., February 1, 1863; William W. died August 2, 1866. John H. H. Keaton has served one term as school trustee in Washington district, where his farm and home is. His postoffice address is Newton, Roane County, West Virginia.


     Jabez H. Kingsbury, Jr., is a native of Pennsylvania, born in Wayne County, June 16, 1845. He was a son of Jabez and Sarah (Travis) Kingsbury, both of whom died in Wayne County, and in one night, in the year 1872.
     In Calhoun County, West Virginia, December 20, 1868, Jabez H. Kingsbury, Jr. was joined in wedlock with Maria Downs, and their children were born and live in this county, except the second son, who is deceased. Their birth record is: George J., born September 17, 1869; Robert Lee, February 19, 1872; Laura Gay, November 16, 1875; Charles Elmore, May 5, 1878; Robert Lee died October 2, 1873.
     The wife of Mr. Kingsbury was born in Marion County, Virginia (now W. Va.), April 7, 1844, a daughter of George and Elizabeth (Parish) Downs, both born in Marion County, and coming thence to make their home in Calhoun County in 1855. Elias Kingsbury, brother of Jabez H., served two years in the Federal Army during the 1861 war as a member of Company A, 56th Pennsylvania Infantry.
     Mr. Kingsbury's paternal grandparents resided in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, and died there, leaving two sons, Jabez and Charles. Jabez Kingsbury's children were named Asceneth, Benjamin, Elias, Rachel, Elisha, Charles E., Bathia, Lena, Martha, Mary (twin of Martha), and Jabez, Jr. The last named left home in 1856, and for one year resided in Cattaraugus County, New York; he then moved to Parkersburg, West Virginia, thence to Burning Springs, Wirt County, this state, where he lived one year before coming to Calhoun County. He is now in the mercantile business, name and style of firm, Kingsbury and Company, Arnoldsburg, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Absalom Knotts, attorney-at-law and farmer, was born in Harrison County, Virginia, December 11, 1830, and was a resident here when Calhoun County was organized. Joseph and Mary (Arnold) Knotts, the former now deceased, were his parents, and in the county of his birth, November 26, 1850, he wedded Prudence Arnold, who was born in Harrison County April 7, 1827. She was a daughter of Simon and Prudence (Webb) Arnold, and her father is no longer living, his death occurring in September 1854.
     During the war between the States, Absalom Knotts served two and one-half years in the Confederate Army as captain of Company E, 14th Virginia Cavalry, and was in battle at Winchester, Gettysburg, Brandy Station, and in numerous skirmishes. He was taken prisoner in August 1864, and held until the close of the war. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Knotts are six, all living in Calhoun County. They were born: Mary, October 28, 1851; Simon A., March 18, 1853; Minnora E., April 5, 1855; Joseph, September 21, 1856; Louise, April 6, 1858; Edward C., May 14, 1860.
     Absalom Knotts has served one year as constable, as justice of the peace about one year, and as presiding justice of the court four years. He has been representative to the State Legislature one year while Calhoun was represented in the Virginia Assembly, and one year at the West Virginia Legislature. For eight years he has been, and still is, the postmaster at Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Rufus Knotts, son of Joseph and Mary (Arnold) Knotts, was born April 11, 1830, in Jackson County, Virginia, and was living here at the time the county was organized, as were his parents. His father is now deceased, his death occurring on the 12th of March 1855.
     In Weston, Lewis County, Virginia, February 2, 1859, Rufus Knotts and Matilda H. Flesher were joined in wedlock, and their children are seven living, one deceased, born: James, March 13, 1860, lives in Augusta, Illinois; Elizabeth J., November 24, 1861, died December 29, 1865; William R., July 18, 1863; Mary, December 7, 1865; Alice, May 8, 1867; Absalom, August 19, 1868; Annalee, March 28, 1870; Charles C., August 15, 1874. Matilda H. Flesher was born in Weston, Lewis County, April 24, 1832, a daughter of Elijah and Nancy (Lewis) Flesher. Her father died in October, 1862. Rufus Knotts served three years in the Confederate Army, in Company E, 14th Virginia Cavalry, and was in battle at Gettysburg, Williamsport, Sheppardstown, Martinsburg, and many others; and was taken prisoner and held one year, about ten months of the time at Camp Chase, Ohio.
     He has been two years justice of the peace, deputy sheriff three years, overseer of the poor three years, and for two years has represented Calhoun County in the State Legislature. His business is farming, and his address is Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Simon A. Knotts, born March 18, 1853, in Gilmer County, Virginia, was resident here when this part of that county was set apart as Calhoun County, as were his parents, Absalom and Prudence (Arnold) Knotts.
     In Roane County, West Virginia, June 24, 1880, Rev. R. C. Flummer recorded the marriage vows of Simon A. Knotts and Jennie B. Riffle, and on the 6th of August 1882, their son, Homer, was born.
     In Monroe County, West Virginia, William D. and Harriett C. (Boggess) Riffe were resident at the time of the birth of their daughter, Jennie B., which was on the 16th of April 1864.
     Simon A. Knotts combines the occupations of an argricultural life with the professional duties of a teacher, and in both is achieving the success which accompanies ability and industry. He receives his mail at Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Linn and Hamilton, attorneys-at-law, are practicing in the counties of Calhoun, Wirt, and Gilmer, with their office and residence at Grantsville, Calhoun County.
     Robert George Linn was born in Glenville, Gilmer County, Virginia, April 6, 1849, a son of Robert and Sophronia S. (Newcomb) Linn.
     John M. Hamilton was born at Weston, Lewis County, Virginia, March 16, 1835, a son of Dr. John M. and Mary M. (Lorentz) Hamilton. His father died in August 1860. Mary Hamilton, a sister of John M., was born at Weston, July 1, 1852, and in the place of her nativity, June 12, 1876, the words were spoken joining her life with that of Robert G. Linn. Their children are three, two daughters and one son, born: Edna, June 25, 1878; Mary, April 25, 1830; Robert, July 25, 1882. George W. Newcomb, uncle of Mr. Linn, served in the Confederate ranks during the entire time of the war between the States.
     Robert G. Linn was prosecuting attorney for Gilmer County 1871-2 and since 1872 has held the same office and discharged the same duties for Calhoun County. He is one of the regents of the West Virginia University.
     John M. Hamilton was recorder of the town of Weston for one year, from May 1876, to May 1877. He has been for the past two years committee clerk in the West Virginia Senate, and is said to be one of the best who ever filled the office. He was census enumerator of Center district in 1880. He is a very popular young man, and is a rising politician from whom the future will hear. The second best speech made at the Democratic convention at Point Pleasant in August 1882, his friends claim was his. The firm of Linn and Hamilton are to be addressed at Grantsville, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Henry C. Lockney is a Virginian by birth, born in Barbour County, April 26, 1855. His family were for four generations residents of Virginia, his grandfather, who was born in Shenandoah valley, settling in Fluvanna County, Virginia, where his three children were born: Dollie, who married James Jones, and moved to Jefferson City, where she died in 1863; Calvin, who died in Fluvanna County at the age of 5 years; Samuel S., father of Henry C., was taken by his parents from Fluvanna County to Bath County, Virginia at the age of 2 years. At the age of nine he went to Barbour County, where he grew to manhood, married Lucinda Payne, and their children were born namely: Julia A., Mary E., Amanda J., Maggie F., Charles S., Abraham L., Lizzie, and Henry C. In 1872 Samuel S. Lockney moved to Jackson County, West Virginia, where he lived until 1875, when he took up his residence in Calhoun County.
     Henry C. Lockney commenced teaching in 1872, in Gilmer County, West Virginia, then taught one term in Calhoun County, and three terms in Jackson County, where he is still engaged in the profession.
     He owns over 1,000 acres of land, of which he has cleared 150 acres. He also read law, and was admitted to practice and has been a successful member of the bar in Calhoun, Gilmer and Roane Counties for three years. He was appointed notary public of Calhoun County in 1850, and became a member of the board of examiners of the same county in 1882, and at present holds both offices.
     He has also been a surveyor for several years, and in November 1882, surveyed the line between the counties of Calhoun and Gilmer, where a change of the county lines was made at his insistence, thereby giving a part of Gilmer territory to Calhoun County. His postoffice address is Arnoldsburg.


     George Lynch, Jr., son of George and Mary (Gregory) Lynch, was born on Williams River, Nicholas County, Virginia (now West Virginia), February 14, 1813. His parents both died in Gilmer County, this state, his father in 1860, and his mother in 1875, but he has made his home in what is now Calhoun County since 1843. In that year he left Gilmer County, and settled on West Fork, building a mill near where he now lives.
     In Arnoldsburg, this county, February 15, 1843, the words were spoken joining in one the lives of George Lynch, Jr., and Jemima Knotts, and the years that have ensued have given them fourteen children, born: Mary, January 22, 1844; Joseph K., and Julia Ann, December 18, 1845; Pembroke, May 28, 1848, died October 1, 1872; Louisa, November 17, 1851; Rufus, August 14, 1853, died November 7, 1858; Amy, March 15, 1856; Sarah E., May 1, 1858; Almira E., October 16, 1860; Leuverna S., January 28, 1862, died December 25, 1866; Kosciuske and Pulaski, April 16, 1866, died January 18 and 19, 1867, respectively; George L., January 14, 1868; Matilda J., September 28, 1870.
     The wife of Mr. Lynch was born September 18, 1827, in Harrison County, then in Virginia, a daughter of Joseph and Mary (Arnold) Knotts. Her father is now deceased, her mother living in Washington district, Calhoun County.
     George Lynch, Jr., has served Calhoun County in many official positions, From 1854-56 he was justice of the peace; 1856, for a number of years was surveyor for the county, serving until ill health forced him to resign; in 1870 he represented Calhoun and Gilmer Counties in the legislature, and 1771-72, he was representative from Calhoun and Ritchie Counties. Farming and surveying now occupy his time, and Arnoldsburg, Calhoun County, West Virginia is his address.


     Andrew C. Maze, son of Rev. Joseph and Mary (Callow) Maze, was born May 16, 1839, in the district in which he now makes his home. His wife is Rebecca R., daughter of Jacob C. and Sarah Smith, and she was born September 1, 1835, in Kanawha County, this state, on Elk River. Her marriage with Mr. Maze was solemnized in Roane County May 1, 1861, and they have eight children, namely: Orpha A., born February 17, 1866; Sarah E., September 12, 1867; Robert E. L. May 21, 1869; Joseph A. J. and Hannah A., May 21, 1867; Mary A., April 22, 1872; Tracy E., April 25, 1874; Clara, February 28, 1879.
     During the war between the States, Andrew C. Maze was a member of Company H., 17th Virginia Cavalry, Jenkins brigade, for three years, and for nearly eighteen months was a Federal prisoner, held at Rock Island, Illinois. He was in battle at Winchester, Jones Cross Roads, Gettysburg, and others. His brothers, G. W. Maze, was a soldier of the Confederacy.
     The grandparents of Andrew C Maze, on his father's side, James and Charity S. (Stout) Maze, built the first cabin on 17-Bend, when their son, Joseph, was a small boy, about 1814. James Maze was in the Indian wars. Joseph Maze, father of Andrew C. Maze's home farm consists of 250 acres on the river, and 70 acres of the Anahia flats, and he is largely dealing in lumber. He may be addressed at Big Bend, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Hamlin McCoy was born in Guernsey County, Ohio, May 7, 1852, and was wedded in the state and county of his birth, September 9, 1875. On that date Rev. J. H. Stewart solomnized his marriage with Phebe Boyd, who was born in Guernsey County, March 23, 1855, a daughter of Andrew and Drusilla (Forest) Boyd. The father of Hamlin McCoy was Benjamin McCoy, born August 21, 1808, died May 28, 1875. Mary A. (Ballard) McCoy, mother of Hamlin, died February 25, 1875. He had five brothers in the Union army in the war of 1861. Henry W., served three years in Company B, 15th Ohio Infantry, re-enlisted, served three months, and then was wounded and discharged. J. H. and Stephen were in Company A, 97th Ohio Infantry, for three years. C. C. served about one year. John T. served in Company H, 116th Ohio, about nine months, was taken sick and died, August 7, 1863, at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.
     Hamlin McCoy has given his services in Washington district as school trustee for three years and has been three times appointed judge of election. He is extensively engaged in farming and the raising of stock in Washington district, and in his home are three daughters of his marriage: Mintie B., born August 10, 1876; Emma F., December 14, 1878; Venia I., December 11, 1881, Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia is the postoffice address of Hamlin McCoy.


     Timothy McCune, son of Peter J. and Margaret (Bush) McCune, was born November 11, 1838, in what is now Calhoun County, West Virginia, and has here passed his life, with the exception of the time he spent in the Southern army. He enlisted in December 1861, in the 19th Virginia Cavalry, and was in battle at Spencer, (Roane County), Webster Glades, Huntersville, Lewisburg, White Sulpher Springs, Jackson Bridge, the Wilderness, Cedarville, Lynchburg, Milford, Waynesburg, Mt. Woodstock, Fishers Hill, Curranstown, Bunker Hill, Shannons Mill, and was at Appomattox at the surrender of Lee.
     His brother, John H., was killed in October 1862, while a member of the 19th Virginia Cavalry.
     Mr. McCune's paternal grandfather was born in Ireland, came to America and settled in Virginia on South Branch, Potomac River, where Peter, father of Timothy was born on July 1, 1796.
     Peter McCune's children were six boys and seven girls. His wife's father was George Bush, born in Germany, who on coming to America settled near Norfolk, then moved to Harrison County, Virginia, where Margaret, mother of Timothy, was born December 24, 1799.
     In 1831 Mr. and Mrs. Peter McCune came to what is now Calhoun County, and here Peter McCune died August 18, 1877, leaving more than 200 descendants. His widow is still living.
     Timothy McCune married Sarah Jane Smith, in Roane County, this state, May 24, 1857, and their children were born: Noah W., May 10, 1859, died October 15, 1860; Jennings Wise, May 21, 1861; Malvern H., October 14, 1866; Charles H., October 21, 1868; Minnie L., January 6, 1872; Eva D., March 21, 1877, died February 12, 1878. Sarah Jane Smith was born in this county June 2, 1840, a daughter of George P. and Margaret (Life) Smith, who now live in Roane County. Timothy McCune is a miller of Lee district; his address, Richardson, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Daniel Mason Minney owns and carries on a fine farm of fifty acres, lying along Steer Creek, in Sherman district, Calhoun County, West Virginia. He was born in Doddridge County, Virginia, March 21, 1840, and was married in Calhoun County, July 7, 1861, when Mary Shock, born in Calhoun County, July 7, 1845, became his wife. He was a son of Jonathan S. and Rececca A. (Walls) Minney, and her parents are Robert and Margaret (Stump) Shock.
     Nine children were born to bless the union of Mr. and Mrs. Minney, eight still brighten the home circle, and death has taken one away. Their record is: Albert H., born February 14, 1864; Matilda Jane, Jane 12, 1866; Margaret Rebecca, January 28, 1868; Jeremiah Robert, October 20, 1869; Elizabeth Ann, October 13, 1871, died February 1, 1877; Martha Ellen, July 5, 1874; Hannah Louisa, September 14, 1876; Jonathan Lemuel, July 13, 1879; Archibald Dwight, January 10, 1882.
     Mr. and Mrs. Minney have been for twenty-two years consistent members in good standing of the Baptist Church. Their son, Albert, joined that church at the age of seventeen years, and their two daughters, Matilda Jane and Margaret Rebecca, are in the same fellowship. Daniel M. Minney's postoffice address is Stumptown, Gilmer County, West Virginia.


     Perry Mollohan was born in Braxton County, Virginia, August 13, 1845, and in that County was married, November 14, 1865, after the county had become part of West Virginia. His parents were Nathan and Mary (Boggs) Mollohan, and his wife is Rebecca, daughter of Robert and Mary (Carr) Boone. Her birth was in Braxton County, February 24, 1849. In 1866, Mr. Mollohan settled in Calhoun district, and in the home here established are his four children, born: Arminta, May 25, 1867; Mary, December 14, 1868; Okey, July 1, 1871; Robert P., March 10, 1878. The father of Perry Mollohan was born February 9, 1812.
     Mr. Mollohan has five brothers and one sister living, and a brother and a sister deceased. Martin lives in Clay County; Ellet, deceased, was drowned in Elk River; Lila, deceased; Benton lives in Braxton County; Anise lives in Clay County; Jerusha lives in Calhoun County.
     Mrs. Mollahan has four brothers living, two sisters and three brothers deceased. The names of the living are: James C. Boone, John A., William and Isaac; all live in Braxton County. The names of those deceased are: Sarah J., Franklin P., Mary, and a brother and sister who died unnamed.
     For six years Perry Mollohan has been a member of the board of education, and his other pursuits are farming and carrying on a mercantile establishment at Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Alpheus Norman is a son of James N. and Catherine (Summers) Norman. He was born in Randolph County, Virginia, now a part of West Virginia, December 11, 1823. June 5, 1845, Alpheus Norman became the husband of Elizabeth Bunner. She died August 5, 1859; on February 29, 1860, he was married to Catharine Goldsmith, late Catharine Jarvis. She had one son, John W. Goldsmith.
     The subject of this sketch was elected high sheriff of Calhoun County in 1860 for the term of two years, and again in 1866 for the term of four years. He enlisted for the late war, November, 1861, for the term of three years, which he faithfully served; he enlisted in Company C, 11th Virginia regiment, under Capt. J. L. Simpson; he was discharged January 2, 1865.
     He owns 1,800 acres of land in Webster County, and 750 Calhoun. He has no children of his own, but has two adopted children living with him. Mrs. Catharine Norman, his present wife, was born in Lewis County, Virginia, March 7, 1828. Alpheus Norman is a farmer, stock raiser, and ferryman, and his postoffice address is Big Bend, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Charles Poling was born June 25, 1857, when this part of the present county of Calhoun was included in Gilmer County, Virginia. In Calhoun County, Elder Adam Westfall joined him in wedlock with Virginia S. Stevens, who was born in Marion County, Virginia, July 14, 1857. The date of their marriage was August 4, 1878, and their children were born: Laura, February 5, 1879; Homer, June 1, 1881, Laura died June 27, 1880. Nicholas and Rachel (Robinson) Poling, the latter now deceased, were the parents of Charles Poling, and his wife is a daughter of Samuel G. and Margaret (Bell) Stevens.
     Wesley Poling, brother of Charles, served three years in the Union army, Company C, 11th Virginia Infantry, and was nine times in heavy engagements. Charles Poling follows the trade of a carpenter for a livelihood, and is a skilled workman. He may be addressed at Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     William Price, born in Barbour County, Virginia, January 27, 1824, and Bethany Payne, born in that State and county, February 20, 1827, were there united in marriage on the 14th of November 1844.
     Their children were eleven, with the following record: John G., born October 2, 1845, lives in Barbour County, West Virginia; James N., February 18, 1847; George W., December 12, 1850; William P., October 27, 1852; Mary E., May 25, 1856; these four living in Calhoun County; Louisa I., April 27, 1857, lives in Barbour County; Lewis W., December 22, 1858, lives in Calhoun County; Jacob C., September 2, 1860, died May 3, 1872; Marshall M., March 15, 1863, died March 12, 1864; Elza E., January 24, 1866, lives at home; R. Virginia, July 8, 1870, died March 25, 1871.
     John and Margaret (Bennett) Payne, still residents in Barbour County, are the parents of Bethany, wife of William Price. His father and mother were James A. and Jemima (England) Price. His father died in Preston County, West Virginia, his mother lives with him in Calhoun County.
     William Price's grandfather, also named William, was one of the first settlers of Preston County, locating at Kingwood, where James A., father of the subject of this sketch, was born.
     The brothers and sisters of William Price are: Sarah, John G., Gradison T., Mary E., Elisha, George W., and Baldwin.
     William Price was made prisoner by the Confederates at Beverly, West Virginia, July 2, 1863, and was held in Libby prison, Richmond, until in March, 1864. He served eight years in Barbour County as justice of the peace, 1864-72, and lieutenant colonel of State militia. In 1880 he came to this county, and he owns 500 acres of good land in Lee district. His address is Arnoldsburg, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     B. S. Raybuck is a native of the "Keystone State" born in Jefferson County, Pennsylvania, a son of Balser and Susannah (Reitz) Raybuck, who still make their home in the state and county of his birth.
     In that county, November 1, 1873, Rebecca J. Fike became his life's companion, and their children were six: Albert W., born August 7, 1874; Edward F., June 19, 1876; Reuben R., April 12, 1878; Ellen S., September 2, 1879; Parentha Estella, May 22, 1881; Florence R., February 2, 1883, died May 25, 1883. With Mr. and Mrs. Raybuck also lives her son by a former marriage, Samuel T. Nolf, born October 24, 1872. Mrs. Raybuck was born August 14, 1854, a daughter of Peter and Ellen (Glonts) Fike, residents in Jefferson County, Pennsylvania.
     B. S. Raybuck was born August 23, 1849, and became a resident in Calhoun County in 1879. He is a mechanic, a painter, a builder of public and private buildings and bridges, and he is dealing in iron bridges; he is also a farmer, owning 200 acres of land in Sheridan district. He receives his mail at Big Springs.


     Charles H. Richardsonn was born in Watertown, Massachusetts, on March 27, 1841, a son of Thomas and Lydia (Teale) Richardson. In 1866 he came to Calhoun County, West Virginia from Pennsylvania, and settled at Wilson's Mill, commencing a general mercantile and milling business, with a capital of $7,000. He cleared 400 acres of land, and introduced the celebrated Holstein breed of cattle, for the improvement of the stock in this county, and is still keeping the stock full blooded.
     He established the village of Richardson, and was its first postmaster. In 1873, he removed to Oil City, Pennsylvania, and remained there until 1879, engaged in oil producing. He then returned to Lee district, and has ever since been identified with the best interests of the district and county, making special efforts for the development of educational facilities.
     He has never sought political favor, and though often solicited to represent the people in the legislature has always declined. In political affiliation, Mr. Richardson is a Democrat.
     In Spencer, Roane County, March 10, 1867, was consummated the marriage of Charles H. Richardson and Margaret S., daughter of Joseph L., and Nancy (Hacker) McCubbin, and their children are six: Thomas J., born June 10, 1868, lives at home; Lydia A., August 18, 1869, is at school in Boston, Massachusetts; M. Frances, July 21, 1871; Charles H., Jr., August 20, 1873, and Mary H., July 14, 1877, who were born in Oil City, Pennsylvania; George M., April 1, 1880, born in Lee district. Mrs. Richardson was born in Gilmer County, now West Virginia, November 20, 1851; her father is now resident in Central City, Colorado. Charles H. Richardson receives his mail at Richardson, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     George K. Rogers, son of Robert and Mary (Stafford) Rogers, long since deceased, was born in Taylor County, Virginia, on the last day of the year 1813. He came to what is now Calhoun County, West Virginia in November 1839, and is the oldest pioneer of Sheridan district.
     He built the first grist and saw mill in the district, on Yellow Creek, in 1841 and 1842, and his business has always been that of a miller and farmer. In Taylor County, West Virginia, December 27, 1863, he married Cynthia Ann, daughter of Joab and Catherine (Bartlett) Wolverton. She was born in Hampshire County, Virginia, August 30, 1826. The children of her marriage with Mr. Rogers are three: James William, born October 11, 1864; Sophia P., February 22, 1868; John W., born March 9, 1872. By a former marriage she had been the mother of eight children, of whom seven are living. These children are Bennett Saunders, born February 19, 1846; Rebecca C., April 5, 1847, died February 13, 1866; Sarah E., May 24, 1849; Mary Agnes, July 6, 1851; Joab W., July 15, 1854; George W., March 1, 1857; Lucy Ann. October 24, 1859; Albert J., September 18, 1862. Mr. Rogers receives his mail at Big Bend.


     John F. Shafer was born in Marion County, Virginia, December 3, 1848, a son of Michael and Sarah (Bartlett) Shafer. His father died October 28, 1861, and his mother is also deceased, her death occurring September 2, 1875.
     During the war between the States, John F. Shafer served twenty months in Company I, 15th Virginia Infantry, and was in the active service all of the time. He was a participant in the battles of Cloyd Mountain, New River Bridge, Lexington, Lynchburg, the fighting in the Shenandoah Valley, the two battles at Winchester, two at Cedar Creek, the engagements at Kernstown and Snickers Gap, the three days fight at Hatchers Run, and was present at the surrender of the Confederate forces at Appomatox.
     At Fairmont, Marion County, West Virginia, April 30, John F. Shafer and Josephine Minor were joined in marriage, and in 1882 with two little ones, Lena B., and Sarah I. E., they took up their residence in Washington district, Calhoun County, where the subject of this sketch combines the avocation of farmer and blacksmith. Joseph and Elizabeth (Rich) Minor, the former died June 3, 1863, were the parents of the wife of Mr. Shafer, and her birth was in Monongalia County, Virginia, April 23, 1858. John F. Shafer's address is Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Martin Luther Sharpes was born July 25, 1856, in what is now Taylor County, West Virginia, a son of George and Priscilla (Zinn) Sharpes. In 1872 he accompanied his parents, who in that year made their home in Calhoun County, and this county has since been his place of residence.
     Henrietta Barr was born in Calhoun County, November 3, 1860, a daughter of Alfred and Cynthia A. (Smith) Barr, her parents well known and highly esteemed residents of this county, which has always been their home.
     In Ritchie County, West Virginia, December 30, 1880, Martin L. Sharpes and Henrietta Barr were united in marriage, and one little one brightens their home established by their union; Amos Beatty, born November 17, 1881.
     William Sharpes, brother of M. L., was four years a soldier in the service of the Confederacy, 1861-5. Farming is the occupation of Martin L. Sharpes, and his address is Sycamore, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Henry Stallman, son of Philip and Nancy (Haverty) Stallman, was born June 17, 1828, in what was then Lewis County, Virginia, and he was between two and three years of age when his parents settled in what is now Calhoun County.
     At DeKalb, Gilmer County, December 30, 1854, Henry Stallman was united in marriage with Zilpha E. Riddle, who was born in Gilmer County, March 17, 1838, a daughter of James H. and Agnes (Smith) Riddle.
     David Stallman lives in Center district, where he owns and cultivates an excellent farm, his family consisting of his wife and their eight children, namely: Martha J., born February 12, 1858; Mary E., September 5, 1860; Samiramus E., December 2, 1863; William E., June 21, 1866; Thomas Lee, December 29, 1868; Arzannah A., December 9, 1870; Roanna S., November 19, 1875; John J., July 9, 1878. Grantsville, Calhoun County, West Virginia, is their postoffice address.


     William Lewis Stevenson, deceased, belonged to one of the first families of Virginia, and was born in Spotsylvania County, Virginia, a son of Richard L. and Amanda (Herndon) Stevenson, now deceased. The date of his birth was November 22, 1822, and in 1856 he became a resident in what is now Calhoun County, West Virginia.
     His wedded life began in the same year, Elizabeth H. Sleeth, born January 15, 1831, in what is now Lewis County, West Virginia becoming his wife. The parents of Elizabeth H. Sleeth were Alexander K. and Catherine (Woh) Sleeth, both now deceased, her father dying in 1844.
     The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Stevenson was solemnized February 8, 1856, in Gilmer County, Virginia, and the children born of it were two: Fannie L. born May 20, 1860, died May 24, 1862; William L. born February 9, 1865, is living at home.
     When war was inaugurated between the States, William Lewis Stevenson entered the Confederate Army as a member of Company E, 14th Virginia Cavalry, Jenkins brigade, and served until the battle of Gettysburg, where he was wounded. James W. Stevenson, his brother fell in the Mexican War.
     Andrew Stevenson, uncle of William L., was Speaker of the House of Representatives under President Andrew Jackson, and was by him appointed minister in the Court of St. James. This honorable position he continued to fill through the remainder of Jackson's administration and through that of his successor, Van Buren. William L. Stevenson was also the first cousin to ex-Governor Stevenson of Kentucky.
     When Calhoun was organized as an independent county in 1856, William L. Stevenson was appointed prosecuting attorney, a position whose duties he discharged until 1861. He also held it two years after the war. He was commissioner in chancery for the circuit and county courts, and also for school lands in Calhoun County. His death was on the 22nd of March, 1883. His family are still making their home in Grantsville, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     John Stump Jr., was born in Gilmer County, Virginia, in 1824, a son of Absalom and Margaret (Bush) Stump. In 1842 he settled in what is now Calhoun County, West Virginia, and was married May 5, 1842 to Elizabeth Huffman. She was born in Randolph County, Virginia in 1824, a daughter of Alexander and Hannah (Vannoy) Huffman.
     Eleven children blessed the union of Mr. and Mrs. Stump, and their record is: Benjamin H., born March 22, 1843, served three years in the Confederate Army, and now resides in Jefferson County, Iowa; Daniel H., born May 11, 1845, deceased; Margaret B. (Wright) born June 19, 1847, and Alexander A., born May 9, 1850 live in their own homes in Calhoun County; J. C., July 13, 1852, lives in Kanawha County; William J., January 31, 1855, deceased; Johnson G., February 14, 1859; Hannah A., (Linger), December 24, 1860; Arena J., September 25, 1863; John Nelson, March 12, 1866, deceased; Levi Homer, July 12, 1873 - three are yet living at home. J. C., the fourth son, graduated from the Normal School of Gilmer County, and entered upon the work of the ministry as a clergyman of the Baptist faith.


     Salathiel Stump owns and successfully conducts a saw and grist mill near Brooksville, a generous and hospitable man, a kind neighbor and a useful citizen. He was born January 23, 1832, in that part of Lewis County, Virginia, now included in Gilmer County, West Virginia. In the same section of country, on the Little Kanawha, October 23, 1882, was born Permilia Ann Stalnaker, who became the wife of Salathiel Stump in DeKalb, a town of the county of their birth, the date of their marriage, November 7, 1850.
     Their ten children were born: Waynefield L., October 18, 1850; Mason W., January 31, 1854; Austin S., February 26, 1856; Bailey W., August 26, 1858; Aurelia Blanche, November 3, 1862; Scorpio L., June 29, 1865; Laura E. J., February 26, 1868; Levi K., May 4, 1870; Okey J., January 17, 1873; Jacob E., July 28, 1876. Okey J. and Bailey W. are deceased; Waynesfield L. lives in Gilmer County, and the other children in Calhoun County. Jacob and Jane Stump were the parents of Salathiel Stump, and his wife was a daughter of Salathiel and Frances Stalnaker. Salathiel Stump's postoffice address is Big Bend.


     Hon. Taylor R. Stump is descended from two of the oldest and best known of the families of this part of the Virginias. His parents are Lemuel and Melinda (Huffman) Stump, residents in Gilmer County, West Virginia, and in that county he was born May 25, 1847. There his wedded life began, January 14, 1866, when Samilda, daughter of Jacob J. and Mary (Vannoy) Stump, became his life companion. She was born in Gilmer County, March 4, 1845, and her parents still make their home in that county.
     Mr. and Mrs. T. R. Stump took up their residence with the people of Calhoun County in 1868, and in their home at Grantsville are their nine children, born: Loransan T., December 11, 1866; Pratt, March 2, 1869; Okey J., December 18, 1870; Roy, September 11, 1872; Franklin, April 13, 1874; Hester, March 2, 1876; Wade H., September 6, 1878; Robert G., April 27, 1880; Eustice Gibson, October 11, 1882.
     The paternal great grandfather of Mr. Stump was a colonel of the Revolutionary army and fought under Washington. Jacob Stump, grandfather of Taylor R., was one of the first settlers in what is now Gilmer County, and was the first man to take out a grub in the county about eighty-five years ago. He, with his father and a brother, killed a buffalo a day or two after the above named event, on Steer Creek in Gilmer County.
     The maternal grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was Alexander Huffman, one of the early settlers of what is now Calhoun County. He was sheriff of Glmer County when this county belonged to Gilmer, was many years justice of the peace, and was a member of the legislature from Calhoun County, 1867-8. He died in 1879, and Jacob Stump died in 1859.
     Lemuel Stump was a member of the constitutional convention which convened in Charleston, Kanawha County, West Virginia, in 1870.
     Taylor R. Stump is a Democrat in politics, and in 1882, at the October election received on that ticket a handsome majority for member of the legislature over the combined Republican and Greenback votes. He is still serving. He has a fine farm lying in Center district, and his postoffice address is Grantsville, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Alpheus W. Sturm, born in Marion County, Virginia, march 3, 1823, and Martha C. Bowman, born in the same county July 1, 1829, were united in marriage in the County of their nativity. The date of the marriage was June 2, 1842, and their children were born: Malvena I., February 28, 1845, lives at Arnoldsburg, this county; Mary E., March 2, 1847, died September 26, 1879; Benjamin F., March 19, 1849, lives at Arnoldsburg; William A., December 10, 1851, lives at Caldwell, Summer County, Kansas; Daniel C., March 29, 1854, was elected county superintendent of free schools of Calhoun County in 1881, which office he fills at present; Sarah E., May 5, 1856; Aletha S., November 18, 1858; Jefferson D., December 4, 1861; these four living in Minnora, Calhoun County.
     Mr. Sturm was four years magistrate while living in Marion County, entering upon duties of the office in 1871. His parents are both deceased, as is his wife's father. His father, Daniel Sturm, died April 17, 1880. Elizabeth (Martin) Sturm, mother of Alpheus W., died May 1, 1869.
     Addis and Mary (Cochran) Bowman are the parents of Martha C., wife of Mr. Sturm. Her father died February 12, 1866, and her mother who was born February 27, 1796, is still living. Her mother's mother lived to the age of 94 years.
     Nathaniel Cochran, father of Mary, was captured by Indians when about 17 years old, and was three years a prisoner. He was one of the pioneers of Harrison County of this state. Alpheus W. Sturm came to Calhoun County in 1876, settling on a farm in Washington district and his address is Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Alva H. Sturm is a great grandson of Jacob and Catherine Sturm, who were pioneer settlers of Maryland, near the present site of Cumberland. Jacob Sturm was a soldier under Washington, and was present at Yorktown when the sword of Cornwallis was surrendered, October 19, 1781.
     The farm he put under cultivation in Virginia (afterward included in Marion County, West Virginia), remained in the possession of some of his family for more than eighty years. In 1797, with his wife he settled near Morgantown, on the Monongahela River, and there his son, Daniel, grandfather of Alva H., was born. At the age of 22 years, Daniel Sturm married Elizabeth Martin, in Marion County, and their second child, and the oldest living was Alpheus W., father of Alva H. Sturm. Daniel Sturm was born August 11, 1798, and died April 17, 1880. His wife, Elizabeth, died May 1, 1869.
     Alpheus W. Sturm married Martha C. Bowman, and they settled in Calhoun County in 1876. Their children, brothers of Alva H., were Benjamin F., William A., Daniel C. and Jefferson D.; his sisters, Malvena I., Mary E., and Aletha S. I., in Marion County, this state, and the other children in Calhoun County.
     Alva H. Sturm was born in Marion County, February 28, 1845, and in that county was wedded, February 27, 1868, Sarena E. Morgan, born in Marion County, July 25, 1848, becoming his wife. Silas P. and Mary (Downs) Morgan, her parents, were born and still live in Marion County.
     Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Sturm settled on his farm in Lee district, Calhoun County, in 1876, and in their home are their four children, born: Freddie L., December 31, 1868; Carl E., October 6, 1870; Addie M., June 18, 1873; Lillian, July 3, 1875. Asbury and Charles Sturm, uncles of Alva H., were in Jackson's command, Confederate Army, war of 1861. Alva H. Sturm and wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church (South), which he joined in 1866 and she in 1874. His postoffice address is Arnoldsburg, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     James B. Tallman is a son of Samuel M. Tallman, born in 1820, and Lucinda (Cox) Tallman, born in 1825. James B. Tallman and Ruhama E. Stevens, daughter of A. W. and Louisa J. (Wells) Stevens were united in the bonds of matrimony in Washington district, Calhoun County, West Virginia, February 15, 1876. They have one son and one daughter, namely: Woodford, born April 20, 1877, and Laura B., born October 11, 1878.
     The birth of James B. Tallman was in Kanawha County, Virginia, May 3, 1852. His father and mother were both born in Virginia, and are now living in Roane County, West Virginia.
     The brother and sisters of James B. present the following record: Jackson, born in 1850, lives in Kansas; Julia A., born in 1854; Peter A., in 1856; John W., in 1858, lives in California; Daniel, born in 1860, died in 1862; Samuel, born in 1862; William C., born in 1865; Julia A., Peter A., John W., and William C. live in Roane County. J. B. Tallman made his home in Calhoun County in 1880, engaging in business as a carpenter, grainer, painter and paper hanger, at Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     William M. Taylor, son of Jesse M. and Jane (Burroughs) Taylor, was born September 27, 1846, in that part of Gilmer County which has since been set apart into Calhoun County, West Virginia. His father was born in Philadelphia in 1810, his mother in Maryland in 1822, and his paternal grandparents were among the earliest settlers, coming here when the territory was included in Kanawha County, Virginia, and was almost a wilderness. The father of William M. is living in Center district, this county, and his mother died July 22, 1875, in Philadelphia. Levi Taylor, brother of William M., served in the Confederate Army during the war of 1861, a member of the 14th Virginia Cavalry.
     William M. Taylor is a farmer with his residence in Washington district, and his home is blessed with the presence of two children, and the faithful companion chosen to be his wife. Death has taken from them five children. His wife is Sarah C., daughter of Phillip and Mary J. (Ferrell) Norman, and the 8th of July 1869, witnessed their marriage in Center district, Calhoun. She was born in this county, October 1, 1853, and their children were born: James E., born June 9, 1870, died February 27, 1876; Columbia J., February 28, 1872, died February 9, 1879; Chesterfield, July 28, 1874, died February 18, 1879; Lenora, August 20, 1876, died in March 1879; William, May 3, 1878; Bernard I., December 8, 1880, died February 1881; Frederick, December 5, 1882.
     Mr. Taylor's district has had his services three years as constable. His address is Eden, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Philip Trippett, born in Monongalia County, Virginia, December 28, 1838, was a son of Franklin and Lucinda V. (Lowe) Trippett, and came with them to Calhoun County, where the family settled in December 1853. His marriage was consummated in the county, and he chose for his wife Mary E. Ferrell, who was born in Barbour County, Virginia, March 7, 1844. U. M. and Hannah (Pride) Ferrell were his parents.
     The children of Mr. and Mrs. Philip Trippett were born: Byron M., March 15, 1869; Caleb W., April 1. 1870; Laura F., February 21, 1872; Lucinda A., May 15, 1874; Myrtle E., July 9, 1875; John B. F., November 21, 1877; Lemuel H., September 5, 1880.
     The father of Philip Trippett, one brother, and himself volunteered June 15, 1861, Company A, 19th Virginia Cavalry, and in 1863 Philip was commissioned second lieutenant, after which he served until the surrender of Lee. He is now engaged in farming in Sheridan district, with the postoffice address at Big Bend.


     James Y. Waite, M. D., was born in Culpepper County, Virginia, December 6, 1816, a son of Joseph L. and Anna (Jones) Waite. In Frankfort, Greenbrier County, Virginia, May 6, 1836, James Y. Waite became the husband of Elizabeth Correll, who was born in that county, September 19, 1813. They have one daughter and have buried two sons. Samuel C., born in 1838, died in September 1864; James W., born in 1842, died in August, 1864; Elizabeth Agnes was born in 1844.
     The first born was in command of Horton's batallion, Jubal Early's brigade, when he was killed at Leetown, below Winchester. James W. was shot by bushwhackers in Johnson County, Missouri, by mistake, being taken for another man.
     James Y. Waite's grandfather and grandmother came from England about 1760, settled in Culpepper County, Virginia, and their children were: Obed, who settled in Winchester, and was president of a bank until his death; Jesse, settled at Fredericksburg and was mayor of city; Edward, went to Georgia; Joseph L., father of James Y., settled in Culpepper County, married Anna Jones, and both died in Ohio, leaving eleven children: Kesiah, Lydia, Sarah, Catherine, Hannah, Oliver L., Lemuel, Anderson M., Robert J., George, and James Y., the subject of this sketch.
     The parents of Elizabeth, wife of Dr. Waite, were John C. and Nancy (Hannah) Correll, who lived and died in Greenbrier County.
     James Y. Waite settled in Kanawha County in 1836, moved to Monroe County in 1840, and practiced medicine until 1879, when he moved to his present location. He is now engaged in practice and in the conduct of mercantile business at Arnoldsburg, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Francis M. Watkins and Louise E. Cooper were joined in matrimonial bans in Marion County, West Virginia, on the 23rd of August, 1863. Both were born in Marion County, while it was part of Virginia, and his birth was on the 11th of December 1838, while her natal day was April 8, 1847.
     Their children are: Samuel L., born November 16, 1864; Marshall C., July 13, 1867; Harriet V., March 26, 1869; Lloyd S., June 13, 1871; Leonard C., August 19, 1876; Mary E., June 10, 1879 - all are living at home.
     James and Nancy (Rutherford) Watkins were the parents of Francis M., and his wife was a daughter of Samuel B. and Mary A. (Darley) Cooper. Her mother died in April 1882, and Mr. Watkins lost his mother by death in December 1877.
     Francis M. Watkins was a soldier in the Federal Army during the war between the States. He became a resident in Calhoun County in 1877, engaging in the pursuits of agriculture in Washington district. He receives his mail through the office at Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     Capt. S. Williams was born in Rockbridge County, Virginia, August 11, 1827, and married in Kanawha County, Virginia, March 26, 1850. During the war of 1861 he served three years in Federal Army, as captain in the 13th West Virginia Infantry, and was wounded in action, July 24, 1864. In 1869 he cast his fortunes in with the people of Calhoun County, West Virginia, making his home in Sheridan district, and engaging in farming and the dealing in lumber. His wife was Minerva Lander, born in Kanawha County, February 25, 1831, and their children are two living and five deceased, born: H. L., September 7, 1752, deceased; Mollie E., March 1854; H. F., March 18, 1858; S. C., July 17, 1860, deceased; S., November 3, 1862, deceased. Capt. S. Williams receives his mail at Big Bend.


     Theodore R. Witte is a native of Germany, born July 27, 1850, who came to Calhoun County, West Virginia, in 1866, with Charles and Mary (Cuwatz) Witte, his parents. The father and mother of Theodore R., were born in Germany, the former in 1808, and the latter in 1814. They are both living in Calhoun County at present.
     In Calhoun County, West Virginia, October 24, 1875, Theodore R. Witte was united in marriage with Sarah E. Lynch, and their children are three: Learoy, born September 3, 1878; Jemima, August 28, 1880; Rufus, October 11, 1882.
     The wife of Mr. Witte was born in Calhoun County, a daughter of George and Jemima (Knotts) Lynch, who were residents here when the county was organized. The date of her birth was May 1, 1858.
     Theodore R. Witte is a carpenter by trade, and works at that business, which he supplements with farm labor, his land lying in Washington district. His address is Minnora, Calhoun County, West Virginia.


     John Franklin Wright and Mary Elizabeth Cade were united in Calhoun County, West Virginia, in 1880, and Howard, son of their union, was born March 21, 1882. The birth of John F. Wright was in Calhoun County, and he is the son of William and Martha Ellen (Hays) Wright, who became residents in this county in 1856. William and Sarah A. (Hays) Cade were the parents of Mary Elizabeth, wife of Mr. Wright, and she was born in Barbour County, West Virginia.
     Mr. Wright has been a church member for the past three years. He owns thirty acres of rich land on the Kanawha River, in Sherman district, in the cultivation of which his time is employed. He receives his mail at Grantsville, Calhoun County, West Virginia.