Chapter XL - Schools for the Deaf and Blind

History of Hampshire County West Virginia From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present
By Hu Maxwell and H. L. Swisher
Morgantown, West Virginia; A. Brown Boughner Printer; 1897

PART 2 County History
Pages 463-480

There is no surer evidence of advancement in civilization in a state or community than that it has a care for those of its members who are unfortunate. When we remember how those physically or mentally unsound were treated in centuries past, and even today in those social societies where little advancement has been made, we can congratulate ourselves that we live in a more enlightened time and country.

Doubtless more than one person felt pity for those unfortunate persons to whom the whole world of light and shade, the smiling landscape, and sparkling stream is worse than unknown, before any active steps were taken to better their condition. In this state it was left for one who knew the hardship of sightless eyes to do something for his fellow-beings who were afflicted in like manner. The history of the founding of this benevolent institution is so closely connected with the history of one man, who first gave it shape and has since devoted more than a quarter of a century of his life to its success, that it will be necessary before going further to give some account of his life.

Professor H. H. Johnson, founder of the West Virginia schools for the deaf and blind, was born near Franklin, in Pendleton county, then in Virginia, February 19, 1846. From infancy he was afflicted with very imperfect vision, and in a few years became totally blind. Having heard of the Staunton school for the blind, he went there at the age of eleven and remained four years. His progress in his studies was remarkably rapid and his ability was a subject of remark among his teachers and acquaintances. Leaving Staunton, he went to his home at Franklin, where his brother, James Johnson, some years older than himself, was conducting a school. His brother was also blind. After this he attended school at New Market, Virginia, for two years. His teacher while here was Professor Joseph Saliards, a ripe scholar, an able teacher and an author of considerable note. Professor Johnson was accompanied to New Market by a young man named Clark, who read his lessons for him and in turn was assisted by young Johnson in his studies, especially in French, with which his blind friend had early made a familiar acquaintance. Leaving New Market Mr. Johnson again returned to Franklin, where, during the winter of 1865-66, he taught a private school in connection with his brother. Not yet satisfied with his accomplishments in fields of study, in the fall of 1866 he re-entered Staunton school for the blind and remained there one year, taking advanced studies.

The next year we find him teaching at Moorefield, and also the year following he is at his post in the school room at the same place. It was early in the year 1869 that Professor Johnson became imbued with the idea of establishing a school for the blind and so perseveringly did he labor that his idea now has a material representation in the West Virginia schools for the deaf and blind. Governor William E. Stevenson had been recently inaugurated and Professor Johnson opened a correspondence with him in regard to his hope and ambition to found a school for the blind. The governor assured him of his sympathy and support. Mr. Johnson then took it upon himself to make a canvas of the state, stirring up public thought and discussion concerning his enterprise. Unquestionably much good was done and it is doubtful if the bill could have been gotten through the legislature the next spring had it not been for the sympathy and good will aroused by this canvass. The legislature convened in Wheeling on January 18, 1870, and it was decided to make an effort to have the school established that year. With the bill already written Professor Johnson set out for Wheeling. He was at this time only twenty-four years old yet he had undertaken a work from which many an older person would have shrunk and which was encompassed by so many difficulties and discouraging circumstances that even a stout heart might well despair of success.

On his way to Wheeling Mr. Johnson fell in with Ex-Governor Francis H. Pierpont at Fairmont and soon endeavored to get him interested in the proposed institution. When asked to present the bill to the legislature he replied that he could not afford to connect his name with an enterprise so sure to fail. Hon. Joseph S. Wheat, the member of house of delegates from Morgan county, when approached in regard to the matter, declared the bill would fail because it ought to fail, the state, as he claimed, not then being able to establish any more public institutions. Not discouraged by these rebuffs, Mr. Johnson persevered and through the kindness of some friends was granted the use of the hall of the house of delegates in which to give an exhibition in connection with his brother, James Johnson, and Miss Susan Ridenour, also blind. This exhibition consisted of music, recitation and class drill. The hall was full of people who had gathered to witness the performance. After the exhibition was over Professor Johnson arose and for an hour he reasoned and pleaded with the law-makers of the state for the establishment of a school for those who were denied the sense of sight. This speech had a wonderful effect, and, when he had closed, people crowded around to congratulate him upon his wonderful effort. Mr. Wheat who the day before had been opposed to the bill and had declared the measure ought to fail, pressed up to him and grasping his hand, said earnestly, "Johnson, I'll vote for your bill if it costs a hundred thousand dollars." After this there was no lack of persons who were willing" to put the bill before the house. It was finally done by Hon. John J. Davis, Harrison county's representative.

It must be remembered that all this time the labor was in behalf of a school for the blind. When the bill was put before the legislature no mention was made in it of a school for the deaf. After the bill had passed through all the stages necessary to becoming a law and just when it was at the last possible point where it could be amended, Hon. Monroe Jackson, of Wood county, offered as an amendment that the words, "deaf and dumb and" be inserted before the word blind in every instance in which it occurred in the bill. The amendment was accepted and the bill became a law March 3, 1870, establishing what was first called the West Virginia Institution for the deaf, dumb and blind. The dual character of the school is now more definitely shown by the name which has been changed to the West Virginia Schools for the deaf and the blind."

Some of the provisions of this bill were, first: "That immediately after the passage of this act the governor* shall appoint one person from each senatorial district of the state, to constitute, collectively, a body corporate, with powers to rent, purchase and convey real estate, and with all the powers necessary for the establishment of a temporary institution for the education of the deaf and dumb and blind youth of West Virginia, as hereinafter provided, and to be known as the Board of Regents of the West Virginia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and Blind." Another provision was that "the board of regents of the West Virginia Institution for the deaf and dumb and blind shall meet in Wheeling, at a time to be specified by the governor within a fixed period of three months after the passage of this act, and shall proceed at once to adopt and put in execution the necessary means for the education of the deaf and dumb and blind youth of West Virginia." The eighth section of the bill reads: "The board of regents in the establishment of the institution herein authorized, shall provide accommodations for not more than forty persons, at first, including officers, assistants, etc. And they shall authorize their principal to notify the principal of the Virginia institution and the superintendent of the Ohio institution for the deaf and dumb and blind, at as early date as practicable, of the time at which the West Virginia institution for the deaf and dumb and blind shall be open and ready to accommodate the indigent and all other deaf and dumb and blind youth from this state, who have been so kindly and so liberally accommodated in their respective institutions; and the board shall at that time furnish the necessary means for the transportation of such indigent youth as may then be in said institutions, to their own institution."

Further on it was provided that "all deaf and dumb and blind youth, residents of the state of West Virginia, between the ages of six and twenty-five years, shall be admitted to pupilage in the institution on application to the principal until the institution is filled."

In section eleven of the bill it is declared that: "In addition to their other duties, the assessors of the state are hereby required to register in a book, to be furnished them by the auditor for the purpose, the names of all deaf and dumb and blind persons in their respective districts, with the degree and cause of their blindness in each case, as far as can be ascertained from the heads of families, or from other persons, whom the assessors may conveniently consult, their ages, the names of their parents or guardians, their address, and such other circumstances as may constitute useful statistical information, in making the institution herein authorized promptly efficient in, ameliorating the condition of the deaf, dumb and blind by education." The last provision of the act appropriates "the sum of eight thousand dollars, to be paid out by the treasurer of the state, upon the order and warrant of the board of regents of the West Virginia institution for the deaf, dumb and blind; which sum shall be used by said board in meeting the expenses of the establishment of the institution hereby authorized, and in supporting the same from the date of its establishment to the thirtieth day of September, eighteen hundred and seventy-one."

According to the first provision of the act the governor proceeded to appoint the first board. It was composed of the following members:

Hon. Wm G. Brown, president, Kingwood, Preston county; Rev. D. W. Fisher, Wheeling, Ohio county; General D. N. Couch, Concord Church, Mercer county; Rev. T. H. Trainer, Benwood, Marshall county; Rev. R. N. Pool, Clarksburg, Harrison county; Col. G. K. Leonard, Parkersburg, Wood county; Hon. Henry Brannon, Weston, Lewis county; J. D. Baines, Esq., Charleston, Kanawha county; Major J. H. Bristoe, Martinsburg, Berkeley county; Prof. H. H. Johnson, Moorefield, Hardy county; Capt. A. W. Mann, Falling Spring, Greenbrier county. This board met in Wheeling, April 20, 1870, and proceeded to formulate plans for the school. Towns and cities throughout the state were invited to compete for the location of the institution; the one which would make the best offer was promised the school. Wheeling, Parkersburg and Romney all offered strong inducements. Wheeling proposed to give the property known as the Female College, and so liberal was the offer that it was decided to locate the school there. After the board had adjourned, however, the authorities were hindered from transferring the property to the board by an injunction gotten out by friends of the Female College, who were unwilling to see that school discontinued. The matter was not contested. and at the next meeting, which was held at Parkersburg, June 23 of the same year, the board decided upon Romney as the place where the school should be established. The literary society and citizens of Romney agreed to give the building known as "Romney Classical Institute," together with fifteen acres of land attached. This property was situated just east of the town. Its value was twenty thousand dollars. The acceptance of this offer gave the institution a home, and the only thing yet to be done was the election of a corps of teachers.

The board met again on July 20, 1870, in Romney. H. H. Hollister, A. M., a teacher in the Ohio institution, was elected principal at this meeting. The other teachers and officers chosen to serve at the same time, were Prof. H. H. Johnson, teacher in blind department; Holdridge Chidester and Miss Rosa R. Harris, teachers in deaf department; Henry White, watchman; Mrs. Lucy B. White, matron; and Dr. S. R. Lupton, physician. With this able crew at the helm the institution launched upon its career September 39, 1870. Its success from the beginning was assured. The first year twenty-five deaf mutes and five blind pupils were enrolled. Robert White, secretary of the board of regents, in his report to Governor Stevenson at the close of the first year, says: "The board has to express its entire satisfaction with the present flourishing condition of the institution. The discipline, the progress of the pupils in their studies and their general improvement, deserve the highest commendation and entitle our deaf and dumb and blind institution to the unstinted patronage of the state."

Some excerpts from the report of the principal for the first year may prove interesting. After some introductory remarks concerning the repairs made in the building and auspicious opening of the school, he says: "It is believed to be the first time in the history of similar institutions that the number of applications received before the opening was greater than the building could possibly accommodate. At the commencement of the session, or soon thereafter, thirty pupils (twenty-five mutes and five blind) were received. Among these are three (two mutes and one blind) transported according to law from the Virginia institution. The pupils were immediately classified and put under instruction. The teachers whom you appointed have all shown a commendable zeal and faithfulness in the discharge of their duty. Professor Johnson, in the instruction of the blind, has displayed a marked ability which is showing, and will show, good results in this department. Professor Chidester brings to us an experience of fifteen years as private teacher and as instructor in a sister institution. His skill, diligence and enthusiasm are ample proof of the wisdom of the board in his appointment. Miss Harris, in the facility with which she is acquiring the sign language and the peculiar processes of deaf mute instruction, gives promise of great future usefulness. With the assistance of an advanced pupil she also gives musical instruction to the blind. The board were fortunate in securing the services of Mrs. Lucy B. White as matron. She has discharged her duties with kindness towards all the inmates, and with a marked ability and zeal for the interests of the institution. The number of pupils already admitted is fully equal to the capacity of the building; and as if is, we have to dispense with many conveniences which a well regulated institution should have."

The following further quotation from his letter shows how a person may reconcile himself to the absence of conveniences: "When the institution was located at Romney I felt that the lack of a railroad would prove prejudicial to its highest interests. But our location has advantages which are a large compensation for our isolation. It gives us cheaper provision of every kind; it relieves us from all anxiety lest our pupils should wander away and be killed on the railway track, as has happened a score of times in other states, but above all, it gives us a retirement favorable to the advancement of the pupils." Let another quotation, showing the financial condition of the institution, suffice: "From an inspection of the expenditures so far, it will be seen that the appropriation made by the last legislature is not sufficient to meet the expenditures of the establishment and support of the institution until September 30, 1871. Of the eight thousand dollars appropriated nearly one thousand dollars were expended before the organization of the institution could be completed. About three thousand dollars were expended for repairs and furniture. Thus about four thousand dollars were left for the support during a little more than one year — a sum hardly sufficient to pay the salaries and wages of employees and the traveling expenses of the board, leaving" no provision for current expenses and clothing of indigent pupils. In view of all these facts I would ask an appropriation of five thousand dollars to meet the deficiency. Besides these amounts, not less than eleven thousand dollars will be required to support the institution during the current years of 1871 and 1872. Therefore I respectfully recommend that you ask our next legislature for forty thousand dollars for the above purposes.

"It is desirable at no distant day to make arrangements for the training* of the pupils m some useful trade. The trades most commonly taught are carpentering, printing and shoe making for the deaf, and broom making for the blind. Permit me here to acknowledge the great assistance which Colonel Robert White, your secretary, has given me in the duties I have had to perform. The unfortunate children entrusted to our care owe him a debt of gratitude for the interest he has taken in their welfare. Also to acknowledge the skill with which Dr. Lupton has performed his professional duties to the inmates of the institution, and his many suggestions and cordial cooperation to promote the physical well being of the pupils."

Such is the history of the founding of the institution and a review of its first year's work. This was twenty-seven years ago. Around the old "Classical Institute," as a nucleus, the beautiful and spacious buildings have grown. Two wings, each 70 by 30 feet, were added to the original building in 1871-72. This gave the building a front of 194 feet. The same year thirty-three new pupils were enrolled and many were turned away because of lack of accommodations. Mr. Hollister continued as principal for three years, and under his careful management the school grew from thirty in 1870 to seventy-seven in 1872. In October, 1873, Mr. Hollister resigned to practice medicine.

When Mr. Hollister severed his connection with the school, Dr. S. R. Lupton, who had been serving the institution as physician since its foundation, was elected temporary principal. On the 15th of December, of the same year, the board of regents met and chose Mr. C. H. Hill as principal. Mr. Hill was at that time a teacher in the Maryland school at Frederick city, and being offered additional inducements by that institution, declined the tendered principalship. The board met again on January 5, 1874, and selected Leveus Eddy, Esq., a teacher in the Wisconsin school for the deaf, for principal. Mr. Eddy came immediately and took charge of affairs, but remained only until the next July.

The same month the board elected Major John C. Covell to the principalship, and in the fall of 1874 he began his long and successful career of thirteen years. Previous to this time Major Covell had for some years been principal of the Virginia school at Staunton. The unprecedented success of the school under his management was largely due to his splendid scholarship and remarkable aptness, coupled with wide experience, which he made to serve him in this work. The year preceding the election of Major Covell showed a falling off in the attendance of thirteen, but under his administration the school at once began to grow. Finding that twelve out of the fifty-four counties in the state had no representatives in the institution, he at once urged upon the board of regents the necessity of making a canvass to discover if there were not in these counties persons who would be glad to avail themselves of the advantages of the school. His recommendation was adopted, and investigation showed that his supposition was founded on fact. In his first report he urged the necessity of introducing gas into the buildings for purposes of light. This was afterwards done. The present supply of pure water is another improvement urged in his report and soon afterwards arranged for.

A new system of classification was introduced into the school in 1875, by which the pupils were arranged in grades similar to the present system. A committee consisting of Messrs. John Johnson, chairman; H. L. Hoover and John Wilson, jr., appointed in 1875 to examine into the condition of the school, gave in a very favorable and flattering report, Culminating in the statement that, "in the judgment of the committee it can be said in reference to this institution, from the board of regents and principal down through every grade of office that the right man is in the right place." It was the year following that the first biennial report was published, covering the years 1875 and 1876. Hitherto the reports had been published annually.

It was recommended to the board at their June meeting in 1877 by the principal that they establish- the department of visible speech. The recommendation was considered and such a department was created. The things to be taught the deaf mutes in these classes were articulation and lip reading. The position as teacher in this branch of the school was tendered to Miss Susie W. Allen, a distinguished graduate of Professor A. Graham Bell's school in Boston. Miss Allen accepted the position and entered upon her duties on the 20th of November, 1877.

When the institution was ten years old in 1880 the attendance had reached 120. Of these, eighty-seven were deaf mutes and thirty-three were blind. During this year the following" distinguished gentlemen, Geo. W. Peterkin, G. W. Finley and C. F. Joyce, who, at the principal's request, attended the annual examination of the institution, reported that: "The classes gave gratifying evidence of proficiency in their studies and of the diligence and faithfulness of their teachers." They further report "the marked efficiency of the teacher of music, Mr. O. W. Schaeffer, and the progress of the pupils under his tuition."

The annual appropriation for the years 18S5-89 was twenty-five thousand dollars, which goes to show that more than three times as much was expended on this state charity in these years as was in the year of its organization.

Thirteen years of labor in the school on the part of Major John C. Covell was closed by his death June 4, 1887. Under his guidance the school had increased in attendance from sixty to one hundred and thirty. The benefits and influence of the Institution were made known in every section of the state, largely through his untiring labors an unflagging courage. The following resolution passed by the board of regents five days after his death, will serve to show the esteem in which he was held by that body:

"Whereas, We have learned of the death of Major J. C. Covell, the late principal of the West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and the Blind, therefore,

"Resolved, That we greatly deplore his loss to the Institution over which he presided with such universal acceptability; that in his death we recognize the loss of a friend worthy of the fullest confidence and an official "of marked ability <and adaptation to his duties which he always performed with a faithfulness and efficiency unexcelled."

No eulogy, however, could speak so high in his praise as the eloquent labors of love he performed when alive. Casting about for a new principal to fill the now vacant place, the board was fortunate enough to fall upon Hon. H. B. Gilkeson, a prominent lawyer of Romney. Any special training for this work that he lacked was amply made up by his broad culture and liberal education. His capacity for business enabled him to conduct the schools with economy and in a manner very satisfactory to the board. Mr. Gilkenson had left a lucrative law practice to assume the principalship and after a year's service he decided to return to his former more lucrative profession.

After the resignation of Mr. Gilkenson the board in their meeting in the summer of 1888 elected as principal Professor C. H. Hill, who was then teaching in the- North Carolina Institution at Raleigh. It will be remembered that Mr. Hill was offered the same position fifteen years before but had declined. This time, however, he accepted and entered upon his duties in September, 1888. His long experience in this work before coming* to the Institution has enabled him to maintain the high standard established by his predecessors as well as to further advance the work. Under his administration numerous additions have been made to the buildings and many improvements made in other buildings previously erected. He early recommended the purchasing of additional acreage of land to afford a place of recreation for the largely increased number of pupils. The buildings as they stand at present are very handsome and convenient. Two parallel buildings of equal dimensions, each one hundred and ninety-four feet in length, are joined in the middle by a cross building, which gives the whole structure the shape of the letter H. In the rear building, in the central part, is the general dining room on the first floor, school rooms on the second, with the third used as a chapel hall, and stairways in each wing communicate with these apartments so that the boys and girls can enter from opposite directions. The buildings are all of brick and finished in the French style of architecture. In the ends are extensive dormitories, sitting room and hospitals. The boys enter the north wing and the girls the south. The blind have exclusive use of the front building while the rear is occupied by the deaf. The size of the chapel is 42x64 feet with a pitch of thirteen feet, and the general dining room is 42x59 feet with a ceiling ten feet high. Behind the main building and connected with it by a covered way is another brick structure, 40x80 feet. In the basement of this is the laundry and boiler room. In the upper rooms of the same building are the kitchen, storerooms and bakery. In the rear of the north wing stands another large three story, brick building, 30x51 feet, in which the industrial classes are taught. Somewhat further back stands a comfortable two-story, six-roomed brick building used by the servants connected with the schools. The green campus in front is neatly mapped out by smooth walks covered with black shale that wind hither and thither among the trees and flowers and around the plots of fresh green grass. In the midst a pretty fountain jets its silver spray into the air, adding to the already beautiful spot.

The two-fold character of the school is recognized in the name by which it is now officially designated; "The West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and Blind." This title is first used in connection with the Institution, as it is still popularly called, in the biennial report for the two years closing September 30, 1896.

At the last session of the legislature a bill was introduced for the separation of the two schools. The first section of the bill read as follows:

"Be it enacted, That the West Virginia schools for the deaf and the blind, located at Romney, in the county of Hampshire, shall, after the expiration of the present term, that is to say, after the 15th day June, 1897, cease to be a school for the education of deaf and blind youth, and shall thereafter be a school for the education of deaf youth only."

The bill then further provided for the establishment of a separate school for the blind. Professor H. H. Johnson, senior teacher in the blind department, framed the bill and labored for its passage, but it was defeated.

At the last meeting of the board, July 14, 1897, Professor James P. Rucker was elected principal vice Professor C. H. Hill. Mr. Rucker was for several years principal of the graded school at Lewisburg, Greenbrier county. While he is without special training for the work he will assume this fall, his energetic qualities and liberal education bespeak for him a successful administration.

The following - tables contain a complete list of principals, teachers and officers connected with the institution from its beginning to the present time, with the dates of entrance to the school:

Principals: Horace H. Hollister, 1870; Dr. S. R. Lupton, 1874; Leveus Eddy, 1875; J. C. Covell, 1875; H. B. Gilkeson, 1887; C. H. Hill, 1888; James T. Rucker, 1897.

Teachers in blind department: H. H. Johnson, 1870; Mrs. Cornelia Wilson, 1874; Miss Maggie Blue, 1875; Oliver W. Schaeffer, 1879; Mrs. S. E. Caruthers, 1880; Mrs. L. W. Campbell, 1886; Mrs. L. W. Ferguson, 1888; Miss Annie Fetzer, 1894.

Teachers in deaf department: Holdridge Chidester, 1870; Miss Rose R. Harris, 1870; Miss Lucy White, 1871; Miss L. M. Kern, 1873; R. G. Ferguson, 1874; O. D. Cooke, 1875; E. L. Chapin, 1875; Miss A. B. Covell, 1877; J. Brooks McGann, 1880; A. D. Hays, 1880; Miss M. H. Keller, 1890; John A. Boland, 1890; Miss Susie Chidester, 1894; J. W. Neel, 1894; A. J. Thompson, 1897.

Teachers in musical department: J. H. Holmes, 1872; Oliver W. Schaeffer, 1877; William Mooney, 1885; Miss N. Lucas, 1885; Richard McGee, 1888; Miss Lena Wright, 1897; Miss Leob, 1897.

Teachers in the department of visible speech and articulation: Miss S. W. Allen, 1877; Miss A. M. Grimm, 1884.

Matrons: Mrs. Lucy B. White, 1870; Miss M. McClelland, 1873.

Physicians: Dr. S. R. Lupton, 1870; Dr. John M. Snyder, 1873; Dr. R. W. Dailey, 1874; Dr. S. R. Lupton, 1876; Dr. R. W. Dailey, 1878.

Watchman: Henry White, 1870.

Governesses: Miss M. Blue, 1873; Mrs. S. E. Caruthers, 1874; Mrs. L. W. Campbell, 1884; Mrs. S. E. Burke.

Foremen of shoe shop: Henry Friddle, 1873; John S. Seeders, 1874.

Foremen of broom shop: J. H. Holmes, 1872; Herbert Estes, 1874; H. C. Jackson, 1878; R. H. Cookus, 1880.

Foremen of tailor shop: A. J. Kreamer, 1873; George Smith, 1876; William W. Smith, 1884; William G. Smith, 1888; Louis Meier, 1890.

Foremen of cabinet shop: H. C. Jackson, 1873; A. D. Hays, 1875; William Bierkamp, 1880; W. C. Bierkamp, 1886.

Foremen of printing office: A. D. Hays, 1875; M. Rehlian, 1888.

Members of board of regents: First board, 1870: Hon. Wm. G. Brown, president; Rev. D. W. Fisher, General D. N. Couch, Rev. T. H. Trainer, Rev. R. N. Pool, Col. G. K. Leonard, Hon. Henry Brannon, J. D. Baines, Esq., Major J. H. Bristoe, Prof. H. H. Johnson, Capt. A. W. Mann, Capt. Robert White, secretary. Second board, 1871-73: Hon. Wm. G. Brown, president; Rev. D. W. Fisher, chairman executive committee: J. D. Baines, Esq., George W. Washington, Esq., J. C. Palmer, Col. Charles T. Beale, Geo. G. Orr, Esq., Col. Robert White, secretary. Third board, 1874-76: Thomas Maslin, president; Dr. George Baird, J. W. Mason, R. B. Kidd, Geo. G. Orr, G. W. Craig, W. S. Laidley, Isaac T. Brady. Col. Robert White, secretary. Fourth board, 1876-1880: M. F. Hullihen, M. D., president; J. W. Mason, W. S. Laidley, S. R. Lupton, M. D., G. W. Craig, John T. Pierce, Alex. Campbell, S. L. Flournoy, Henry B. Gilkeson, secretary. Fifth board, 1880-84: J. R. S. Hardesty, M. D., president; Col. Geo. W. Thompson, N. D. Baker, M. D., John T. Pierce, Charles L. Payton, G. W. Craig. John N. Holt, H. B. Gilkeson, secretary. Sixth board, 1884-88: John T. Pierce, president; A. L. Pugh, Charles L. Peyton, George Baird, M. D., V. S. Armstrong, William T. Smoot, J. Holt, W. H. McClung, M. D., John R. Donehoo, H. B. Gilkeson, secretary. Seventh board, 1888-1890: John T. Pierce, president; W. H. McClung, George Baird, M. D., J. E. Peck, W. P. Vicars, John R. Donehoo, A. L. Pugh, C. F. Poland, secretary. Eighth board, 1892-1894: John T. Pierce, president; W. S. Wiley, J. E. Peck, D. C. Casto, W. H. McClung, M. D., A. L. Pugh, J. R. Donehoo, J. J. Cornwell, secretary. Ninth board, 1894-1896: W. H. McClung, president; W. S. Wiley, J. E. Peck, D. C. Casto, George H Johnson, Jesse Fisher, C. W. Brockunier, J. J. Cornwell, secretary. Tenth board, 1897: F. M. Reynolds, president; Dr. W. C. Jamison, Dr. G. A. Aschman, Dr. H. G. Stalnaker, J. W. Shick, C. C. Watts, Benjamin Bassell, Jr., D. A. Pettigrew, S. S. Buzzard, M. S. Cornwell, secretary.

These tables are prepared from the annual and biennial reports of the institution. The year given as the first appearance of a teacher, or officer, is the first for which he is catalogued.

"In a pamphlet history of the West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and Blind, Professor Hill says: "The schools have thus far been most liberally supported by the state. The appropriation for some years has been twenty-five thousand dollars per annum, for current expenses besides one thousand dollars annually to cover the cost of transportation of indigent pupils. In addition to this the law provide that clothing shall be supplied all needy children, to an amount not exceeding forty dollars a year and charged to the counties from which they come. With competent and skilled teachers, comfortable buildings, a healthful climate, good medical attendance and the generous support of the state the future of the school is bright with promise, if only the large number within the borders of the commonwealth, who have not availed themselves of its benefits, can be brought under it ameliorating influence."

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