Johann Michael Ernst Hoerner - Notes

1. Henry Z. Jones, Jr., The Palatine Families of New York; A Study of the German Immigrants Who Arrived in Colonial New York in 1710 (2 vols., Universal City, CA, 1985), I, p. 378. The additional surname, Hoerner, appears with other spellings as well, such as Horner (either with or without an umlaut over the "o") or Herner. It usually means someone who works with horn, often a button-maker. A second surname sometimes is added to distinguish among men of the same name in the same village or ares. We will see in what follows that the basic surname was Ernst.

2. Jones, I, p.157.

3. Records of St. Paul's Lutheran Church (Begun by Pastor Joshua Kocherthal) At West Camp. Ulster Co N.Y. 1708-1899, as detailed and cited in Jones, I, p. 378. This church book contains the marriage of Michael's sister, but also identified the father and their home. The West Camp was a cluster of Palatine German villages on the west side of the Hudson River, opposite the huge holding of the Livingston family. The mother may have been dead before they left, or could have died at sea as so many did. Since the four of them were in New York in 1710, we can assume they were in Rotterdam and London with the other Palatines; but, they probably came after June 1709 when authorities had quit listing the emigrants because there were too many. There was another person over age 10 enumerated with them until the end of 1710, but not otherwise unidentified. It could have been a sibling or some other person who was shepherded by the family, but who died before 1711.

4. Jones, I, pp. 157, 378.

5. Ibid. Teenage heirs or orphans with little or no funds regularly were apprenticed by the New York governors. It must be assumed that other families took in some of the younger orphans, which seemed to be the case here. The 31 December 1710 subsistence list accounted for Margaretha, Johannes and his mother, and now a person under 10, which must have been Michael, because the young Kaysers did not have their first child until 1712.

6. Simmendinger Register, compiled by Ulrich when he and his wife had returned to Germany after having lived among the Palatines on the Hudson and the Schoharie, cited by Jones, I, p.158; II p.1211. Back in Wurtemberg in 1717, Ulrich published this lengthy list of the immigrant German families still in New York and where they were living at the time of the Simmendinger departure. The Kaysers he located in Neu-Heesberg, or Fuchsendorf, the Dieffenbachs in Neu-Ansberg, or Hartmansdorf. See also Jones, I, pp. xiii-xvi.

7. Jones, I, pp. xiv, xvi, 158, 439-440. Michael and Elizabeth may have married by 1723, for perhaps as many as 4 or 5 of their children were born in the 1720s.

8. Tax Assessments, Tulpehocken Twp., Chester County, Pennsylvania, microfilm at the Pennsylvania State Archives, courtesy of Sara Stevens Patton. The spelling of his name on the Oley Road petition varies slightly with each researcher who reads the original names written in old German script; see Walter A. Knittle, Early Eighteenth Century Palatine Emigration; A British Government Redemptioner Project to Manufacture Naval Stores (Philadelphia, 1937; Baltimore, 1970), p. 300; and compare with Annette K. Burgert, comp., A Research Guide to the Tulpehocken Region: Lancaster (Now Berks and Lebanon Counties, PA (c. 1994, Myerstown, PA), p. 9.

9. Knittle, pp. 300-301. Among the other patent holders and petitioners were several later South Branch residents: Leonard Reed, George Zeh and a Neff. Copies of Lindemuth's map frequently are reproduced despite the dating discrepancy. The fact that Michael's lot lies astride the creek is considered a good argument that he [and his father-in-law] was among the earliest of the Schoharie Palatines to reach the area.

10. "Records of Reed's Church, Tulpehocken, Berks Co., Pa. 1742 - " as cited in Jones, II, pp. 785,1210. Jones, I, 378, points out that despite the claims of a few Harness descendants, he and his German researcher found no evidence at all to support the claim that "Kraft" was part of the surname. Our introduction to these studies, and later in this part, demonstrate the wide range of imagined surnames. Young Riedt/Riet/Reed was the son of a brother-in-law of Catharina Margareta Dieffenbach Riedt, a daughter of Conrad Dieffenbach and his first wife.

11. Will of John Conrad Tiffebogh [Johann Conrad Dieffenbach], dated 22 July 1737 at Tulpehocken, PA, probated in Philadelphia County, PA, 11 October 1738. See the latter part of the study of Maria Elisabetha for the wide variety of ways "Dieffenbach" was entered into records by court clerks. See below for the only docemented first date by which we find this family on the South Branch.

12."Orange County, Virginia, 31 Dec. 1742, Humble petition of ye Enhabitence of ye South Branch of Poetomack River," in Orange County Court Papers, Orange, Virginia (from a photocopy in Orange County Court Papers, Virginia State Archives, Richmond, courtesy of Sara Stevens Patton). Robert Worthington, who transmitted the petition seems to have written most of the names. As discussed later, Herness would be a natural derivative of "Ernst/Ernest/Erness."

13. F. J. F. Schantz, transl., Records of Rev. John Casper Stoever. Baptismal and Marriage, 1730 - 1799 (Harrisburg, PA, 1896; reprint, Baltimore, 1982), p. 24. Anna Dorothea "Hock" was named in their father's 1737 will; see citation above, note #11. Dorothea had married Johannes/Hans Georg Hock (also Haak, Haag, Hack and other varieties, including a later Hawk), who may well have been a later child in the Hauck family that left Wiesloch with the Dieffenbach family in May, 1709; see Jones, I, p. 158. It was the Reverend Stoever who stated in his record that this daughter of Michael and Elizabeth was born in 1741; unfortunately, he did not say where.

14. For Bogard see Augusta County, Court Order Book 1, pp. 220-221, and Will Book 1, p. 77; for Woolfe/Woolfaller see Order Book 2, p. 5, and Will Book 1, p. 215; for Coburn see Order Book 2, p. 69, and Will Book 1, p. 165-169; for Rutledge see Order Book 2, p. 491; for Mitts see Order Book 2, p. 516, and Will Book 1, p. 409 [orig. p. 24]; for Thorn see Order Book 2, p. 522, and Will Book 2, p. 294; and for Scot see Will Book 2, pp. 407-409. We could infer the probable Michael for each estate based only upon the importance of the person then deceased, and upon previous ties with other appraisers or with the family. These rather vague criteria caused us to lean to Michael Ernst, the father, on the Bogard, Coburn and Rutledge estates, and with Michael, Jr., on the others. But, as yet we have no proof; we must find original court documents with signature marks really to confirm any of these.

15. "Augusta County, Virginia, Court Judgments, Original Petitions and Papers Filed in the County Court," as listed in Lyman Chalkley, comp. Chronicles of the Scotch-lrish Settlement of Virginia; Extracted from the original Court Records of Augusta County, 1745-1800 (3 vols., Baltimore, 1965),1, p. 433. Other jurors were neighbors.

16. Revolution, Wm. J. Hinke and Charles E. Kemper, eds., "Moravian Diaries of Travels Through Virginia," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, vol. II (1903), p. 121. The longer quotation from the diary indicates other settlers along the river who provided hospitality to the missionaries. Michael Ernst's family's earlier religious affiliation seemed to be Lutheran rather than Reformed, but it is doubtful that, with his father's early death, Michael had any tradition of his own.

17. "Estate of Francis Yoakum," Frederick County, Virginia, Order Book 3, p. 493; and Will Book I, p. 481. This was Michael Ernst's first appearance in the Winchester court, although his son Michael had been there several times the year before. The copyist, as sometimes happened, reversed the marks of Matthias and Michael, but the latter's mark, "M E," did not fit his friend at all.

18. "Leonard Reed, Receipt for Wheat. 1755;" "Appraisement Order, December 1757;" and "Michal M E Earnist receipt to John Reed, March 10 1769," in Hampshire County, Virginia Court Records, 1736-1785, Box 1, Envelope 7 [LDS microfilm # 0186352].

19. Loc. cit., "Estate of Adonijah Scott; and Estate of Christian Dousher," in Chalkley, III, p. 53, from Augusta County, Virginia, Will Book 2, p. 307.

20. "Administrator's Bonds of Michael M E Harness for Estates of Adam Harness, dec'd, and Jacob Harness, dec'd," both bonds dated 14 February 1759, in Hampshire County, Virginia, Court Records, 1736-1785, Box 1, Envelope 4[LDS microfilm # 0186352].

21. Ibid.

22. "Will of Michael M E Ernest, 1779, proved 8 March 1785" in Hampshire County, Virginia, Court in Probate Case Papers, Romney, West Virginia. A somewhat corrupted version was copied into Hampshire County Will Book 2, pp. 111-113, and seems to serve as the official recorded copy, even though the copyist made considerable spelling and capitalization changes. Also, on the verso of page 3 of the original will, when first noted as having been "Recorded & Examined," it is written "Will Bk 1-22, Page 18" [apparently that book was "retired" from use and the contents recopied into what is now Will Book 2 (1780-1794), pp. 110-112]. Another so-called "Will Book" copy, found typed [!] in a book of miscellaneous wills labeled as "Vol. I (1756-1860)" contains so many errors and omissions that it never should be used!

23. A very persistent family legend has the family coming from Pennsylvania to the South Branch in 1738, a date based solely upon some calculation that their oldest daughter, Elizabeth, was 11 at the time. However, the activities of that 11 year old girl as told in that legend are so preposterous that we are forced to dismiss all the "facts" that were part of it. There is no documented date of birth for that Elizabeth.

24. Will of "Johan Conrad Tiffebogh [Johann Conrad Dieffenbach]," 22 July 1737 at Tulpehocken, probated in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, 11 Oct 1738. This was indexed at the Courthouse as the will of "John Cynraed Tiffebogh;" and it was translated, poorly, from the original German by one Christian Graff, 19 June 1739. Despite Graff's translation, the original will clearly was signed "Johan conrad Dieffenba [the last two letters covered by his seal]."

25. Annette K Burgert, comp., A Research Guide to the Tulpehocken Region; Lancaster (Now Berks and Lebanon) Counties. PA (c. 1994, Myerstown, PA), pp. 6, 7, 8-9. Although Burgert did not read Michael's name clearly as Ernst, others do. It is quite likely that Elizabeth and Michael were married during the years of these assessments and petition.

26. "Will of Michael ME Ernest," 1779, proved 8 March 1785 in the Hampshire County, Virginia, Court; Probate Case Papers, Romney, West Virginia.

27. Reformed Churchbook, Wiesloch [Henry Jones No. 6908], Baden. This and subsequent pinpointing of her journey with her family are found in Henry Z. Jones, Jr., The Palatine Families of New York; A Study of the German Immigrants Who Arrived in Colonial New York in 1710 (2 vols., Universal City, CA, 1985), I, pp. 157-159; II, pp. 1207-1211.

28. Jones, I, p. 158.

29. "Palatine Embarkation Lists From Rotterdam. Holland, 1709," in the Public Records Office, London, England, as cited in Jones, I, p. 158; II p. 1210.

30. "Lists of Germans From the Palatinate Who Came to England in 1709," Tribbeko and Ruperti, P. R. O., London, as cited in Jones, I, p. 158; II, p. 1209.

31. "N.Y. Palatine Subsistence Lists of Governor Robert Hunter 1710-1712", P. R. O., London, as cited in Jones, I, p. 158; II p. 1208.

32. "Simmendinger Register," compiled by Ulrich when he and his wife returned to Germany, cited in Jones, I, p. 158; II, p. 1211.

33. Ray J. Dieffenbach and George L. Irgang, Johann Conrad Dieffenbach of Tulpehocken, Berks County, Pennsylvania (Elizabethtown, PA, 1982, 1983), pp. 5-7. The mother's name had been Maria Barbara Christler, originally from Switzerland, whom Conrad married in the Reformed Church in Wiesloch on Christmas Day, 1702. Ray is considered the foremost authority on the Dieffenbach families in America; George, also a Dieffenbach descendant and historian, was instrumental in locating Conrad's will in Philadelphia.

34. The most important support for this conclusion is the age at which the boys began adult activities. Please consult the studies of the sons that are part of this work. There is no documentary proof of the specific birth dates for any of their children, despite descendants making up such dates. Even the year of birth is known for only one child, Dorothea (born in 1741). For Dorothea's baptism, see footnote 13.

35. See footnote 26, above. It is usual, at this time, for wives to be invisible, except in deeds where they have a legal marital interest in the land. What seems so unusual about Elizabeth is her immediate descendants' complete lack of knowledge about her name and origins. This important woman has suffered the ultimate rejection by the family into which she married, and for whom she gave birth to 13 children and nurtured them in childhood. How sad that for some 275 years since her marriage, no descendant has even known what her maiden name had been.

36. Hampshire County, Virginia, Personal Property Tax Lists, 1782-1841, in the State Archives, Library of Virginia, Richmond; 1785 List, p. 8. Virginia initiated this new tax in 1782 for all citizens.

37. Hardy County, Virginia, Personal Property Tax Books, 1786-1861, in the State Archives, Library of Virginia, Richmond. Each year's taxable articles for her, 1786-1796, varied only slightly.

38. One or two experienced researchers in West Virginia are investigating a different possibility: that Elizabeth died earlier, and Michael married another woman named Elizabeth, who left a late 1798 will and who died in 1802. Thus far, they have found no direct or solid proof. Until such proof has been uncovered, we must assume that Maria Elisabetha Dieffenbach Ernst died as mentioned in the text above. Had she died earlier, it seems that Helen Black or someone else, would have commented, even in passing.

39. These include the Florence Dyke Papers at the State Library of Ohio, at Columbus [probably the most informative of the lot]; the massive, unwieldy Ernest Bracken's LaPorte, Indiana, Scrapbook [first 4 vols.], at the Historical Genealogy Department of the Allen County Public Library, Ft.Wayne, IN; Harness materials at the Hardy County Public Library, Moorefield, WV; Harold Duncan Harness, A Glimpse of the Past: The Harness Family History (Baltimore, c. 1983), the disappointing one quarter of it that is not taken up by his autobiography; Helen L. Harness, The Harness Heritage; Michael Harness. 1701-1785. and Descendants through the Direct Line of William Harness, (1983); and numerous small collections and short written accounts used to commemorate much later Harnesses.

40. Helen Black, Letter to Jesse Cunningham, Honey Grove, Fanen [Fannin] Co., Tex[as], May 30, 1873; at the Hardy County Public Library, Moorefield, WV. Patton's two letters carry dates of 29 Oct 1872 and 30 May 1878 [?1873].

41. All variations visited on the surname of Johann Conrad Dieffenbach are from Ray J. Dieffenbach and George L. Irgang, Johann Conrad Dieffenbach of Tulpehocken, Berks County, Pennsylvania (EIizabethtown, PA, 1982, 1983). The following Bedford County data is a selection from "Bedford County, Colrain Twp. Taxables," Western Pennsylvania Genealogical Society Quarterly, vol. 14, No. 1, p. 34; Pennsylvania Archives, 3rd Series, Vol. 22, pp. 16, 67, 90, 138, 174 211, 281; Vol. 25, pp. 492-496; and 1800 United States Census, Pennsylvania, Bedford Co., Penn Twp., p. 401.

42. There have been a few West Virginia genealogists who, upon stumbling on a "Tevebaugh" spelling in material dated in the 1780s, and seeing a relationship to Dieffenbach mentioned, and without study of the developmental process of the immigrant surname, Dieffenbach, have for some reason jumped to the conclusion that "Tevebaugh" was the original surname. They are completely wrong; they have it backwards. "Tevebaugh" is just one of dozens of "new" surnames fashioned by clerks from the sound of the original surname.

43. Virkus, whose subtitle reads, The Standard Genealogical Encyclopedia of First Families of America, originally consisted of 7 vols. printed in Chicago, 1925-1942. It was reprinted in 1968. Publishers such as Goodspeed, Perrin and Beckwith published these county histories for many years. The extracts from public records that often made up the first of two volumes usually were sound data, happily, where a courthouse fire would later destroy important records.

44. The most ridiculous story about Elizabeth came from the Bracken collection and told of how one William Tepebo and his 11 sons and 1 daughter, Elizabeth, age 9, sailed from Holland early in 1700, landed on an unidentified Virginia peninsula and claimed land there. After that, this Elizabeth Tepebo married one Peter Michael Harness in 1723. The author of this seems to have combined these two names in an effort to make the husband seem more like the head of her brood; also, nothing was said about how he got there.

45. Augusta County, Virginia, Court Order Book 1, pp. 227, 230, 263 [LDS microfilm # 0030374]. Among the others were James Coil, Henry Servis [?], and Henry Lancisco, who were in their twenties and of the generation of Michael, Jr., not of the generation of the father, Michael Ernst. Crunk was plaintiff in a number of similar suits at this time. It is possible, of course, that the one defendant was Ernst, but we probably will never know; our usual measure, signature marks or more full identification, was not provided by the copyist. Ernst, by then in his mid-forties, probably would have been too involved with family responsibilities on the South Branch to get into trouble east of the mountains in the Shenandoah valley.

46. Court Order Book 1, p. 221 [LDS microfilm # 0030374]. The copyist wrote the name "Michell Harnis" in the Augusta County Will Book 1, p. 77 [LDS microfilm # 0030314]. As noted in the study of Johann Michael Ernst Hoerner, there is no clear evidence to identify father or son here.

47. "Will of Jacob Wevebaught", 7 January 1750/1, Frederick County, Virginia, Will Book I, pp. 472-473. When this will was copied into the formal will book, the clerk wrote young Michael's name as "Michael M Harness, Junor," his first recorded signature mark. The "M" and the "Junor," and a "Jr.," would appear from time to time as part of his mark until shortly before his death. These often were in some combination with the "+" he used on Hampshire County documents. Jacob Wevebaught is thought to be the Johann Jacob Dieffenbach who was a half-brother of Michael's mother; and whose surname spelling was just reaching the final stage of its transition by record-keepers to Tevebaugh.

48. "Waveboughts' Admx Bond," 18 August 1751, Frederick County, Virginia, Will Book 1, pp. 473-474.

49. There is some confusion about the given name of Westfall, because Lyman Chalkley, in his magisterial and sometimes error-prone, Chronicles of the Scotch-lrish Settlement of Virginia: Extracted from the Original Court Records of Augusta County. 1745-1800 (3 vols., Baltimore, 1965),111, p. 58 [and elsewhere] refers to this Westfall as "Euric." That is his incorrect reading of the nick-name of "Jurien," or George in English. It actually is spelled "Eurie" in the Augusta County Court Order Book 3, n.p. [p. 424], and in Will Book 1, pp. 490-491.

50. "The Jurien Westfall Family," in Virginia Carpenter Jansen and George Jansen, Jr., Westfall Ancestry of the Jansen Daughters (1996-), p. 43. The Jansens list Catharine's birth date as 17 November 1728, but cite no document. Although she was listed as the fourth of six children, there is no record indicating whether Eurie and Blandina brought other children with them. the Jansens also note that when a son, Simon, had his first child baptized in Minnisink, New York, on 23 April 1744, Eurie and Blandina were listed in the church records as the sponsors.

51. Court Order Book 3, n.p. [p. 424].

52. Court order Book 3, n.p. [p. 421], and Will Book 1, pp. 491-492.

53. See Order Book and Will Book citations in notes 51 and 52 above.

54. Will Book I, pp. 524-525. We have no idea if the deaths of Catharine's parents were due to Indian attacks connected with the French and Indian War then raging throughout the valley, disease or physical deterioration. Eurie was not yet 60 when he died. The estate value probably represents a valuation in Virginia pounds, not English.

55. "Administrator's Bond, Estate of Conrad Harness, dec'd," 14 December 1757, Hampshire County, Virginia, Court Records, 1736-1785, Box 1, Envelope 4 [LDS microfilm # 0186352]. As pointed out in the study of Conrad, finding this bond for his estate pushes his death some 7 years earlier than previously thought by most descendants. What Harness family historians previously had seized upon as the time of Conrad's death actually was when brother John assumed the administration in 1764, after the death of Michael, the first administrator.

56. Loc. cit., "Administrator's Bond, Estate of Margaret See, dec'd," 14 February 1758.

57. Administrator's Bonds, Estate of Jacob Hagler, Estate of Adam Harness, and Estate of Jacob Harness, 14 February 1759, Hampshire County, Virginia, Court Records, 1736-1785, Box 1, Envelope 4 [LDS microfilm # 0186352]. Henry "Lansiscus," and "Lansisco" was co-surety for each bond.

58. These warrants are abstracted in Peggy Shomo Joyner, comp., Abstracts of Virginia's Northern Neck Warrants and Surveys, Vol. IV, Hampshire. Berkeley, . . . and Lancaster Counties. 1697-1784, (1987), pp. 26-27. Two of these tracts were sold by Michael's heir, Adam, in 1777 and 1778; see Hampshire County Deed Book 4, pp. 203, 209. Even these abstracts tell a lot about the family's history.

59. Kenneth Scott, "Genealogical Data from the New York Post Boy, 1743-1773," National Genealogical Society, Special Publications, No. 35 (1970), p. 95. Although it is an unexpected bit of data from a surprising source, there is no reason to question its validity. The few previous writers who have used this source here have not cited it correctly.

60. "Administratrix's Bond, Estate of Michael Harness, jnr., dec'd," 25 February 1764, Hampshire County, Virginia, Court Records, 1736-1785, Box 1, Envelope 6 [LDS microfilm # 0186352]. The years before 1765 had been ones of frequent Indian depredations in the South Branch Valley. Because these severely interrupted normal routine, estate bonds and appraisements often occurred long after life had ended for the deceased person. Although this is the only such document found, it seems Michael's wife actually wrote her name as "Catrina herniss" on this band.

61. Besides the two deeds cited in the text, Abraham Kuykendall's will, written 20 February 1777 and proved 12 January 1779, is found in Hampshire County Will Book 2.

62. Credit for this argument goes to Tim Thompson, a Harness descendant, whose unpublished treatise on Michael, Jr., contains a recognition of many of the sound documentary sources for that Michael and for each member of his family. E. L. Judy, History of Grant and Hardy Counties, West Virginia (Charleston, WV, c. 1951), p. 205, presents an undocumented list of Hardy County persons killed by Indians that includes the name of Isaac Harness.

63. "Deed, Catharine Kuykendall to Luke Decker, 9 May 1804," Knox County, Indiana Territory, Deed Record A, pp. 244-245, clarifies the Sarah Harness-Luke Decker connection. For Adam's family see "Sarah Harness [Adam's wife, a Sarah Kuykendall], et al., vs. James Purcell" and others, in Chancery, 8 September 1823, Knox County, Indiana, Circuit Court, Complete Record E, March 1824-March 1825, pp. 117-128; and Hampshire County, Virginia, Personal Property Tax Books 1782-1784, in State Archives, Library of Virginia, Richmond. In the last, Catharine, listed as Widow Kuykendall, was listed in 1782 and 1783, but not thereafter; a sound reason to support their leaving the following year. Hampshire County Will Book 2, pp. 31, 83, show that Catharine also made the division of land called for in Abraham's will, and settled his estate in November, 1783. There are no later entries found for her in Virginia

64. Hampshire County, Virginia, Court Records, 1736-1785, Box 1, Envelope 6 [LDS microfilm # 0186352].

65. Same, Box I, Envelope 11 [LDS microfilm # 0186352].

66. There is a distinct possibility that it may have been the first. This depends upon the final identification of the 'Michael Harness" who was in the Augusta County Court, May through August 1747, on an assault charge; and whether the Michael Harness appraising the John Bogard estate in 1747 and 1748, and the John Woolfallier estate in 1748, was the father or the son. If the son were either, then his name would have been first; if not, Conrad's would be. Unless original estate papers from these estates are found, we simply will not know. A few Harness family researchers cite a list, claiming to be an "Official Copy of First Census Taken in 1748," which contained Conrad's name as evidence that he was a resident of Frederick County on the South Branch, and in South Branch Manor, by that time. Unfortunately, that list has never been found in the archives where it was said to be, despite 20 years of searching by the archivist; letter, Rebecca A. Ebert to the author, August 31, 2000. Therefore, it cannot be considered a valid document.

67. "Coroner's Inquest on the South Branch, Augusta County, into the death of Samuel Decker, son of Garrett, 14 April 1749," in "Augusta County, Court Judgments; Original Petitions and Papers. Filed in the County Court" [see Lyman Chalkley, comp., Chronicles of the Scotch-lrish Settlement of Virginia; Extracted from the Original Court Records of Augusta County, 1745-1800 (3 vols., Baltimore, 1965),1, p. 433].

68. Michael, the son, never was identified as a Hoerner in documents we have found, indicating only that confusion with his father through the use of the Hoerner surname did not happen.

69. John P. Alcock, "18th Century Virginia Law," Lecture to Friends of the Virginia State Archives, 17 November 1999.

70. Lancaster County was not formed as the 4th county of Pennsylvania until 10 May 1729. Until then the area was in Chester County.

71. "Appraisement of Estate of Conrad Harness" returned to the Hampshire Court, 11 May 1763, in Hampshire County Court Records, 1736-1785, Box 1, Envelope 6 [5 pages]; [LDS microfilm # 0186352].

72. George Trumbo's undated interview in the Draper Manuscripts, 12CC, 113-114.

73. Conrad's sister, Margaretha, probably the youngest sister and not yet in her teens when Conrad and his family were killed, married Andrew Trumbo some 10 or 11 years after that event. George was their oldest child. That family moved to Kentucky m the late 1780s.

74. Helen Black, Letter to Jesse Cunningham, Honey Grove, Fanen[Fannin] Co., Tex[as], May 30, 1873. Two other letters attributed to her, dated October 29, 1872, and May 30, 1878[?1873], both tell slightly different, and less detailed, versions of family tradition, and those two seem to contain items added by others. William Fisher's letter was written 8 March 1879 and was copied into Lillie M. Cunningham's Journal on 16 March 1929. Lillie was from Moorefield, WV. Her great grandson, George Williams, transcribed the letter, information about which was provided by courtesy of Sara Stevens Patton.

75. The new Hampshire County was created in November, 1753, but did not control all county operations firmly until 1754 and 1755. Estate administrations begun before November, 1753, in Augusta County, were completed in that county even as late as 1755.

76. Augusta County, Virginia, Court Order Book 2, p. 491. Unfortunately, subsequent Augusta records don't seem to indicate a closure of this estate or Conrad's role in it.

77. "Augusta County, Virginia, Court Order, 26 Feb 1750/1," Order Book 2, p. 516; Augusta County, Will Book 1, p. 409. The date of the court order is given in the old calendar style. Then, New Year's day was 25 March, and all dates between 1 January and 24 March belong to the preceding year [1750, as opposed to 1751]. That changed in Great Britain and the colonies on 3 September 1752, which became 14 September to catch up with the rest of the world's calendar; and New Year's day changed to 01 January. The common county court practice in 18th century America was to order "any three of" 4 appointees to inventory and appraise an estate. Occasionally, however, one does find 4 signatures on the document.

78. Augusta County, Virginia, Court Order Book 2, p. 522. Conrad's surname was written as "Harness" when appointed, but as "Harnse" when it was entered into the record [an example of the problems of recognizing surnames written by clerks and copyists].

79. Augusta County, Virginia, Court Order Book 3, entry for 22 March 1753, n.p. Conrad was one of six militia officers taking the oath at this time. Regular militia service, of course, was required of all able-bodied males, who usually served on rotations throughout the year. Officers, often nominated by the members of a company or officers of the county, went through formal commissioning upon further recommendation by the governor of their colony.

80. "Appraisement of Estate of James Scot/Scott," 10 November 1753, and "Appraisement of Estate of Alexander Scott," 10 November 1753, Augusta County, Virginia, Will Book 1, pp. 527-528. The two appraisements, signed on the 10th were admitted to record 21 November. Conrad's brother, Michael, was surety for Benjamin Scot/Scott, Administrator of James' estate. Conrad's signature marks were entered into the will book by the clerk or copyist; unfortunately, that was an exception rather that the rule.

81. Augusta County, Virginia, Will Book 2, p. 95.

82. "Administrator's Bond of 'Michael + Harness [Jr.],'" 14 December 1757, Hampshire County, Virginia, Court Records, 1736-1785, Box 1, Envelope 4 [LDS microfilm # 0186352].

83. See footnote 71, above. Earlier searchers, upon finding this appraisement, may have overlooked the fact at it came too early for the second administrator's bond.

84. "Administrator's Bond of 'John jH Harness,'" 15 February 1764, Hampshire County, Virginia, Court Records, 1736-1785, Box 1, Envelope 6 [LDS microfilm # 0186352]. John's sureties were Michael See and Felix Seymour. John's appointment here and his surety for his sister-in-law, Catharine Harness's Administrator's Bond for the Estate of Michael Harness on 25 February 1764 is testimony that, now that Conrad, Michael, Jr., Adam and Jacob I were dead, John is senior among the sons. This refutes the statement made in the supposed 1878 Helen Black letter that John was "the first child," a statement used by several Harness descendants in their family ordering. Of course, that letter also has John marrying "Elizabeth Yookum," which is completely in error.

85. Hampshire County, Virginia, Court Records as cited above in footnote 84. The court had appointed Felix Seymour, Jonathan Heath and Thomas Parsons to examine and sign the settlement.

86. Accounts of the Estate, 10 March 1772, Hampshire County, Virginia, Court Records, 1736-1785, Box 1, Envelopes 7 and 8 [LDS microfilm # 0186352].

87. "Administrator's bond of Michael ME Harness," 14 February 1759, Hampshire County, Virginia, Court Records, 1735-1789, Box I, Envelope 4 [LDS microfilm # 0186352]. The section of this study about Johann Michael Ernst Hoerner explains the significance of the signature mark, "ME," as identifying the father; the section about his son, Michael Harness, explains the cross as his signature mark. Henry Lancisco's surname is variously spelled in documents of that day, Lansiscus and Lansisco being the more common. He frequently shared bond surety and estate appraisal with members of this family. See John P. Alcock, "18th Century Virginia Law," Lecture to Friends of the Virginia State Archives, 17 November 1999, for certain legal requirements.

88. Helen Black, Letter to Jesse Cunningham, Honey Grove, Fanen[Fannin] Co., Tex[as], May 30,1873; and two other letters attributed to her, one dated October 29,1872, and said to be for America Ann Anderson, and the other dated May 30,1878 [perhaps a badly amended and generally less accurate version of the one of 1873] to Cunningham. Also, George Trumbo's undated interview in the Draper Manuscripts, 12CC, 113-114, pp.101-102; and George Yocum's interview, 12CC, 147, p.27.

89. Sara Patton presents an important, lengthy study of the second and third letters in The Letters of Helen Yocum Black; Transcripts and Footnotes by Sara Stevens Patton (November, 1999). This should be read and compared with the original letter, cited above in footnote 88; a copy of that letter is available at the Hardy County Public Library, Moorefield, West Virginia.

90. Will of "Michael ME Ernest," 1779 presented in Hampshire County, Virginia, Court on 8 March 1785, by John Harness, and proved by the Oaths of Joseph Petty and Jacob "Yoakam," in Hampshire County Probate Case Files, Romney, West Virginia. For extensive consideration of the father, see that section of this study.

91. Tohickon Lutheran Records (Lutheran Archives Center, Philadelphia), p. 363. This record states that she was "b. June 31 [sic.]; bap. Aug. 1756." First marriages, as this was, usually joined persons about five or so years apart in age. Of course, Michael would have had to be born by early 1759 at the latest.

92. The will of Michael Ernst cited above in footnote 90 demonstrates that she had married a Robinson; and John was the only one of several brothers with a wife of that name. An 1802 deed of Michael and Catherine makes reference to a 1773 farmlet from Lord Fairfax to Michael, Catherine, "and Elizabeth Harness Sister of the said Michael. . . ," testifying that she was not then married; see Hardy County, Virginia, Deed Book 5, pp. 474-477.

93. Hardy County, Virginia, Deed Book 4, pp. 4-12.

94. Hardy County, Virginia, Deed Book 2, p. 263. This farmlet, or lease, typical of the former ones, was to Michael for the "natural lives of" daughters Catherine and Molly, and son, John.

95. "More Decker Material", Northwest Trail Tracer [Knox Co., IN], XIV, No. 1 (March, 1993), p. 10. More about Job's life, and confirming identification of his parents is found in William H. Perrin, History of Crawford and Clark Counties. Illinois, Part II (1883), p. 276.

96. "Will of Michael Harness," 5 January 1825, Probate Records, Hamilton County, Ohio; courtesy of Richard M. Brown, who has collected considerable data for Michael, of whom he is a descendant. The will contains all the children's names separated into the two families and mentions Margaret as the surviving wife.

97. Harold Duncan Harness, A Glimpse of the Past: the Harness Family History (Gateway Press, Baltimore, c. 1983), p. 86. This book is littered with inaccuracies too numerous to mention. Other descendants are equally guilty. Perhaps it should be said on Harold's behalf, the "two certified researchers" he hired left him with an untenable genealogy. They greatly abused his trust, and dishonored the profession!

98. "Administrator's Bond of Michael ME Harness," 14 February 1759, Hampshire County, Virginia, Court Records, 1735-1789, Box 1, Envelope 4; [LDS microfilm # 0186352.] The significance of this signature mark "ME," is explained in the section of this study about the father, Johann Michael Ernst Hoerner; the signature mark "+" between the "Michael" and the "Harness" in the section of this study about the son, Michael Harness, Jr. The spelling of Lancisco in this and other documents varies from "Lansiscus" to "Lansisco" to other minor forms. He had a long association with the family.

99. John P. Alcock, "18th Century Virginia Law," Lecture to Friends of the Virginia State Archives, 17 November 1999.

100. Helen Black, Letter to Jesse Cunningham, Honey Grove, Fanen [Fannin] Co., Tex[as], May 30,1873, original copy at Hardy County Public Library, Moorefield, West Virginia.

101. For the practice of bleeding among these German and Swiss immigrants, see Oscar Kuhns, The German and Swiss Settlements of Colonial Pennsylvania: A Study of the So-Called Pennsylvania Dutch (New York, 1901), p.103. "Dutch" as in this term and in the use by descendants of these families really was "Deutsch,'' or German.

102. "Appraisement of the Estate of Michael Harness, Jr.," 21-22 January 1765, in Hampshire County, Virginia, Court Records, 1736-1785, Box 1, Envelope 6 [LDS microfilm # 0186352].

103. Another, somewhat remote, possibility might have come about as a result of excessive pietistic religious fervor among some German immigrants. There was a major "outbreak" of this some few years later, centering in the Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, area, when the fainting or swooning that often accompanied sudden blood loss was thought to have religious manifestations. Public "Bleedings" under the care of certain doctors sometimes were referred to as a "strange infatuation" among some of the immigrants. See Kuhns, p. 103, and footnote 35.

104. It would have to be their imaginations of a birth order because there is only one documented birth year among the 11 children, that of Dorothea in 1741.

105. Reformed Churchbook of Wiesloch [6908], Baden, Germany. Then she was Maria Elisabetha Dieffenbach; later she was a neighbor of Michael Ernst on the Tulpehocken in Chester/Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. She is considered in detail in another study in this series.

106. One or two Harness researchers have begun to advance another explanation for Jacob (II) that would eliminate the problem of Elizabeth giving birth at an age rather advanced for childbearing. One, a Harness descendant Tim Thompson, suggests that this second Jacob was a Harness, but that he could have been the son of Jacob (I). This would allow for the birth of a namesake anytime after about 1755 to Jacob's yet unidentified wife. That, in turn, suggests that she, too, died before 1759. Such an explanation is only circumstantial, and lacking further support. Until further documented support is found, this explanation must be held in abeyance. Other strong suggestions, found in Michael's will, lead to interesting deductions. Basically. however. there is a lack of any documentation.

107. Hampshire County, Virginia, Deed Book 5, p. 153.

108. Hardy County marriages, No. 481, Sarah Harness to William Snodgrass, 1820, by Benedict Reynolds, as listed in E.L. Judy, History of Grant and Hardy Counties. West Virginia (Charleston, c. 1951), p. 86.

109. Ibid., p. 78; married by Ferdinand Lair.