RETURNED CAPTIVES

by Terry Gruber

In the fall of 1764, Col. Henry Bouquet of the Royal American Regiment, organized an expedition to the Ohio Country to demand a surrender of the tribes that participated in Pontiac's War during 1763 through the first half of 1764. With the call for surrender, he intended to, as a contingency for mercy, require the return of all captives taken since the outbreak of hostilities in 1754.

With Bouquet when he left Fort Pitt were several companies of Virginia volunteers (the Virginia Regiment was disbanded in 1762 and the militia was, by law, not allowed out of the colony). When the companies returned to Fort Pitt, they accompanied the Virginia captives back to their homes.

Fortunately, the names of the captives returned with the Virginia volunteers and a list of some prisoners returned later survive in James Sullivan et al, eds. The Papers of Sir William Johnson, 14 vols. (Albany, 1921-62), 11:484-91 and Donald H. Kent et al, eds. The Papers of Henry Bouquet, 6 vols. (Harrisburg, 1951-94), 6:753-54.

The Johnson Papers list captives from Pennsylvania and Virginia, but do not indicate the counties that the captives were taken from. For the Virginia captives, the papers only mention the returnees going with Colonel McNeil and Major Field. A document in the Bouquet Papers enables a researcher to separate the Virginia prisoners into those from Hampshire and Augusta Counties. In a letter from Bouquet to Hay, 15 Nov 1764 (6:708-09) in the Bouquet Papers, he states that Colonel McNeil will take his group to Augusta and Major Field will accompany the Hampshire Countians.

The spellings of the last names in the following list are exactly as they are spelled in the originals. It should be noted that there were no spelling rules in the 18th century; all spelling was phonetic. One should use imagination to determine the names. Initial names are spelled as in the original except those abbreviated are fully spelled conventionally. Some of the prisoners were taken so young that the only known name was the name given by the Indians.

Hampshire County Captives
MenYear
Taken
Women & ChildrenYear
Taken
Frederick Myers Eve Ice 
Leonard Hyard1764William Ice 
James Bell1763Lewis Ice 
Thomas Collins 1763 John Ice  
James Price 1757 Thomas Ice  
William Young 1757 Elizabeth Ice  
James Harris   Catharine Ice  
Christopher
Hirmntroud
  Rebecca Bryan  
Michael Cobble   Anna Catherine  
Bridget's Son   Sarah Price  
Cawacawache   Sally  
Nicholas Petro   Caty Westbrook  
Philip Petro Hanah Price 
Hance Polly 
John Williams Hannah 
Daniel Rhoads Experience Wood 
Henry Punnet Mary Clouser 
Mordocai Babson Betty Clouser 
Michael Rhoads Magdeline Clouser 
  Mary Closer 
  Peggy Colly 
  Conogoncony 
  Allice Stedler 
  Molly Milch 
  Mary Craven 
  Pegy Punnet 

Augusta County Captives
MenYear
Taken
Women & ChildrenYear
Taken
Michael Patterson1756Barbara Rigar1758
John Bird1756Dorothy Rigar1758
George Yokeham1763Margaret Sivers1758
Stephen Blankship1758Elizabeth Sivers1758
Thomas Harper1764Catherine Sivers1758
Michael See1764Mary Lancises & her Child1755
George See1764Elizabeth Foster1764
John Huntsmen1764Eleonor Kincade1764
Adam Huntsmen1764& two children 
Solomon Carpenter Elizabeth Mouse1758
John Gilmore Eve Harper 
Thomas Wheat Christina House 
John Freeling Margaret Yokeham1763
  Mary McCord1763
  Elizabeth Gilmore 
  Elizabeth Gilmore, Jr.1763
  Florence Hutchenson1764
  Mary See1764
  Catharine See1764
  Barbara Huntzmen1764
  Susan Fishback1755
  Peggy Freeling 
  Peggy Cartmill 
  Molly Cartmill 
  Pegy Reyneck 
  Elizabeth Stover 
  Elizabeth Stover, Jr. 
  Tamar 
  Elizabeth Snodgrass 
  Elizabeth Castle 

Not all of the captives could be returned before Bouquet left Ohio during the last half of November 1764. In a letter to Bouquet from Capt. William Murray, commander at Fort Pitt, dated 31 Jan 1765, Murray enclosed a list of more prisoners returned (Bouquet, 6:753- 54) to Fort Pitt. All nine returnees were taken from colonial Augusta County. All spellings and notations have been kept as those in the original.

List of the Prisoner's delivered up by the Shawanese Indians
at Mackwayack & arrived at Fort Pitt 5th Janry 1765
Mary Hamilton
15 year old
taken in July 1763 from Kerrs Creek Augusta County, /her father says he Purchased her from the Indians
Miriam Hamilton
10 Year Old
taken at the same time & sister to the former. /Her father purchas'd her.
Jane Gilmore
a Woman
taken at the same time & place /her Brother purchased her from the Indians
Margt Bird
an old woman
taken 8 years ago from Jackson River Augusta County. Died since her Arrival att Fort Pitt.
Elizth Yoakim
12 Years Old
taken July 1763 from Greene Bryar Augusta County.
Eliz' Fulkison
16 Years Old
taken about Seven years ago from Smiths River Augusta County
Eliz Counsman
9 Years Old
taken in July 1763 from Green Bryar her Mother was given up at Camp no 16. [from Bouquet's November expedition]
Mary Williams
An old Woman
taken in July 1763 from Greene Bryar Augusta County.
Davd Williams
4 Year Old
Son to Mary Williams

Further Reading:
To learn more about captives and their treatment during captivity see, James Axtell. The Invasion Within: The Contest of Cultures in Colonial North America, (New York, 1985), Chap. 13, pp. 302-27.


The author welcomes your e-mail comments and questions: Terry Gruber

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