UPPER MILL CREEK PART 2
SETTLEMENTS ON FROZEN CAMP

The first man to settle on Frozen Camp was the redoubtable Captain Billy Parsons, who erected his humble cabin on the eminence at the end of the point near the Iron Bridge, now cut off by the public road. There were two reasons for choosing this location. One was the bottoms were low and subject to overflow when the creeks were at flood tide. The other, the principal factor in locating all the pioneer cabins, proximity to a spring.

This settlement may have been made between 1820 or 1830, possibly a few years earlier. A sketch of Captain Parsons will be found in the Parsons Family given earlier in the book.

A half mile or less up the creek, Isaac Rollins made the first clearing on the present farm of L. D. Parsons. There are some old apple trees still standing, where he planted an orchard, near his house, which was in the bottom near the creek. He is said to have settled here then he married Polly Parsons, about 1843.

The old orchard across the road from the Parsons house was planted by William Fouty. He married a Ruble and lived there in the 1800's, in the old Rollins house.

At the next farm above, now owned by John Hyre, a son of John A. and Rebecca Rader Hyre, who lived on what is now the “Hamp” Parish farm, on the creek below, first settled about a quarter of a mile below a road crosses to Gay, on Elk Fork.

The next place above is the Old Payne farm, where Levi Payne once lived. J. C. M. Rhodes lived there, and D. W. Knopp, son of Gideon Knopp, has built across the creek, up on a point from the old building site.

David Knopp received a deed for land here, for maintenance of Payne’s widow, after his death. She was still living at Knopps in 1906, and said to be one hundred years old.

A quarter of a mile below, lived George W. Vint, who came from Lewis County, about 1856.

He is said to have been rather an eccentric individual. He died August 9th, 1869, and was buried on the farm, at the upper side of the road, a short distance below the house. The graves, three in number, are enclosed with a cut stone wall three and a half feet high on the lower side.

There was a pine tree there when the grave was made, but it is gone now.

His wife and her sister are buried by his side. She was Miss Elizabeth Johns, and died April 29th, 1872, in her seventieth year.

She was a sister of the late William Johns, of Elk Fork, and aunt to Mr. W. L. Johns, and Mesdames John A. Harpold, J. H. Evans, and Martin Casto.

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KELLEY FAMILY

A fourth mile below the Vint farm is the old home of Mr. John L. Kelley, who moved there in the woods in 1855.

John L. Kelley was born at Front Royal, Virginia, March 1st, 1803, and his father was a soldier in the war of 1812.

John L. married Tacy Davis, of Harrison County. She was born in Harrison County, October 10th, 1805, and died February 10th, 1876.

Of their children were:

William D. Kelley, born in Harrison County, March 28th, 1826, married Margaret Carter who was born in Lewis County, in 1828, and moved to Roane County (then Jackson County) in 1849.

W.D. Kelley was in the Seventeenth Virginia Cavalry (Confederate), and served eight years as Commissioner of the County Court in Roane County. He lived on the Lower Flat Fork of Poca.

Ichabod Kelley was in the same command as his brother, and died at Montgomery Springs, Virginia, in May of 1863.

Abraham Kelley was a local preacher of prominence in the Methodist Church.

James Kelley married Amazetta Rollins, daughter of Isaac Rollins. She died about 1889, on Little Creek.

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HOGSETT FAMILY

A Hogsett came from Pocahontas to Lewis, or Braxton County, and married a Cochran. They had nine children.

Jim Hogsett married a Wolfe.

Henry Hogsett married a Wolfe.

A daughter married Tom Rader, son of Will Rader.

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SETTLERS ON JOE'S RUN

If the Joe Parsons cabin was on the site of the store house at the mouth of Joe's Run, it was by years the first on that stream. If at the ford below them, the first was the cabin built at the above mentioned spot. By just whom, or at what date, does not appear clearly. "Wash" (G.W.) Rader, married Nancy Miller, a daughter of Kitts Miller, of Millwood. He was clerk in the first store at the Three forks of Reedy. He lived here for a time before moving to Station Camp, where C. Shinn now resides.

Probably the first improvement up on the run was at the John Smith Carder place.

By whom this improvement was made, I have been unable to ascertain. A man named Adams is said to have lived there at a comparatively early date. He was the father of Andy Adams, who was in the hardware trade with John McIntosh, and in 1840, the house was occupied by Adam's widow and her father, familiarly spoken of as Old Tommy Tolley. Later, Lige Runyan lived here. He was a son of the Runyan who lived out between Ripley and Ravenswood, on Sandy, about a mile. He was a Methodist exhorter, and married Harriet Smith, sister of John V. His son, Sam, was a preacher.

Mrs. Westfall said, September, 1906, that "Wash" Rader, who had married after she came from Indiana, in 1839, built a cabin on the site off the storehouse, and moved into it about that date.

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WIBLIN FAMILY

After the M. C. Rader farm, mentioned previously, was the Old Wiblin farm. There is a diversity of opinion, as to who first settled here.

One account says the first improvement was made by Moses Doolittle, about 1826.

He married Susanna Seaman, who was born in Monongahela County, in 1801, and died in Ripley.

Moses Doolittle, born in 1802, died in Ripley in 1877. He married on Reedy, lived there a while, and at the salt works on the Big Kanawha.

Williamson W. Wiblin lived for a number of years at this place. He came as a sailor from France (says M.M. Parsons), and married Deborah Ruddle (note that Dr. John Rader married Polly Ruddle). He lived at this place when the pike was built, and kept the first tollgate out from Ripley.

He died in 1858.

His children were:

James, married Virginia Lattimer.

Washington was killed in the Confederate Army.

Mike lived at White Sulphur Springs.

Malinda married Charles Parsons.

Elizabeth never married.

Catherine married William Knopp.

James Wiblin was born August 7th, 1831, and died May 24th, 1903, aged seventy one years. He married Catherine Knopp. He had seven children by each marriage.

He made the first improvement on the left fork, at Frozen Camp, and afterward lived on Mill Creek, at the first house above the Henry Knopp place.

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JOHN A. HYRE

The first man to erect a cabin at the Hemp Parish farm was John A. Hyre, who married Rebecca Rader.

This is one of the most beautiful locations for a residence on Mill Creek.

It is situated on top of a gentle eminence, and well back from the creek, which it overlooks for quite a distance. Immediately in front, the opposite hill comes down to the water, while a little wooded hollow and a rocky bluff add picturesqueness to the scene. A run flows into the creek a short distance east of the house, which comes down out of the hills a half mile back, reaching the creek after meandering over a wide rolling plain.

Above the run, the hill runs back in a smooth slope of easy grade, that along the creek is a cliff sixteen or twenty feet high, of rocks, here and there covered with a scant soil, to which cling a row of spruce pine and other trees and bushes, their gnarled roots fastened in the crevices of the cliff.

Jesse Allen, whose wife, Mahala Flesher Allen, a sister of George Flesher, of Reedy, who died here in 1861, was long a resident of this spot. He sold it to D.W., son of Elias Parsons, in 1865.

Hyre was living here in 1839. The land was a part of the Doolittle farm in 1826.

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LUKE PARSONS FARM

The Parsons farm was a part of the John Allison survey, and probably belonged to either the M. C. Rader, or Captain Billy Parsons tracts. Macklin Walker bought the land where Parsons lives, and lived there in 1839, and until the time of his death, in 1841, someone said. Possibly this was included in the Wash Burdette purchase.

The farm was known during the war as the Old Davy Cole farm, and in 1866, Cole sold it to (three hundred fifty acres) Joshua F. Parish. Afterward, Parish sold forty acres to John Smith, and he to Parsons.

The Walker house stood below the run, and nearly where the up_creek end of L. Parsons barn now is.

Just above Luke Parsons, on a little point, where the old road used to go up the hill, stood one of the "old field" school houses, much patronized in the pioneer days. Built over seventy years ago, there is nothing left to mark the site of this early temple of learning, save a pile of rocks there the capacious chimney stood, and the gigantic boulders, which served as corner stones and still lie near the spot, a monument of the past.

The schoolhouse was built of round logs, and the low wide door reached to the first rib, while the fire place, with its wide stone hearth, occupied the end next the creek, and one log was chopped out on the side opposite the door and over the writing bench, to serve as a window, greased paper serving to admit the light, while excluding some of the coarsest of the cold. Some low white oak trees stand round the spot, and the creek still rolls majestically thro the bottom lands at the foot of the hill, as of yore, when it wound its way among the stately white columns of sycamore and birch.

The little brook flowing near is a shady secluded spot, and the whole wears an air of peace and restfulness. Here went to school, in the sixty odd years ago, many of the old men and women of the Mill Creek valley, Henry Knopp, Hiram, Lewis and Jim Parsons, Jim and Wash Wiblin, Van, Exra and Flora Graham, Mary and Elizabeth, daughters of Michael C. Rader, Angeline Parsons, and others, many of whom have passed to the great beyond.

Henry Bigler wielded the rod, and taught the three R's, for three terms, and Clark Westfall was another of the "Old Field masters", who taught at the primitive academy.

As a yet earlier day, the Rev. W. P. Walker, the most renowned minister the Baptist Church of West Virginia ever possessed, was enrolled as a scholar at this humble cabin, and from its rude walls started on the road to fame.

When this house began to fall into decay, another and more pretentious one of hewn logs was built, a quarter of a mile further down the creek, which, from the clay bank in the road near, was known as Red Hill.

Still later, and some time after the inauguration of the free school system, a building was erected under some oak trees, in the mouth of a little hollow, below the present residence of Hoyt Knopp. It served both for school and church purposes, until the completion of the Baptist Grove Church, at Frozen Camp, in 188

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REMINISCENCES OF PIONEER BIG RUN

The first settlements on Big Run was that of Charles Parsons, at Gravel Run, as noticed in a preceding part of this book, where his son, Elias, continued to live, and that of his son, Charles, Jr., near where the old apple trees are growing, just beyond the present residence of C.A. McVey.

This house was built about 1827, and about two years later, or 1829, John Bord, who had married Nancy Casto, the widow of George Casto's oldest son, and sister of Elias and Charles Parsons, moved from Little Creek, to a little cabin at the mouth of the large run, which comes in from the left, just above the mouth of Big Run, since known from him as Bord Run.

He lived here several years. The cabin stood for a long while, and may have had other tenants, beside William Davis, who wintered here in the 1800's.

Mr. Hiram Parsons relates that when a boy, he used to take dogs and hold them in the old cabin, and watch flocks of wild turkeys fly off the hill back of the church, where George Mitchell used to live, and settle in the cornfield in the bottom around the house. When they became engaged busily eating the corn, he would let the dogs loose, and they would pull some of the turkeys down before they could rise and fly out from among the standing corn. This was between 1840 and 1845.

Another interesting reminiscence Mr. Parsons tells of his boyhood days __

When about five years old, he and a sister were sent one day on an errand to a neighbors, Mr. Thomas, who lived up Little Creek at the second hollow above the C.C. Casto house.

They crossed the hill from Gravel Run, coming down on to Little Creek, near the Casto house, much as the path does at this day. Just before reaching the Thomas house, they passed through a swampy place, grown up with grass, where, seeing several pretty little kittens, such as they had never seen before, they determined to secure one a piece of them, to take home for pets.

With this idea, they gave chase, but to their surprise, the kittens did not run from them, and though they never laid hands on the pretty little animals, they caught them, thoroughly.

In going home, just as they came, down on Gravel Run, back of the blacksmith shop, a pheasant flew up from the path, with about a dozen young ones, which, fluttering up around their feet, frightened them, so that they ran all the way home, surely an eventful trip for the two little children.

One night, about 1840, perhaps, the wolves came down into the swamp above where the Big Run bridge now is, and howled dismally. Parsons put his dogs on them, and ran them clattering up the hill through the dry leaves. When they got to the top, and away from the house, the pack of wolves turned on the dogs and closely pursuing them, ran them back almost to the house.

When Parsons "sicked" his dogs, and the wolves again turned and ran across the valley, but when they found the men were not after them, again brought the dogs home in a hurry. This was kept up back and forth until the man got tired and called his dogs off.

A few days later, he found the carcasses of nine sheep torn and mangled by the wolves. Organizing a party of men and dogs, they succeeded in surrounding the animals in the low gap, near what is known as the old Hudson field, and killed all of them, five or six old ones, and nine pups.

These were the last wolves seen in this section.

In the earliest days of the Mill Creek settlement, those who tried to keep sheep would build a rail pen against the back side of the cabin, which was covered with heavy logs, and in this, the sheep were folded at night.

Charles Parsons and his brother, Captain Billy, would often hunt together. One of them would follow around the hillside, and through the coves on the Little Creek side of the ridge, the other on the Big Run side. Whenever one heard the other shoot, he was to go to the top of the ridge and ascertain if he had killed game, and if so, help to dress and hang it up out of reach of wolves. Thus, they would follow round the hills, sometimes over on to Trace Fork and Sandy water, until evening, taking a packhorse the next day, to bring in their spoils.

One day while thus engaged, probably about the winter of 1824, Charles, when around near the low gap, heard the report of his brother's gun in the opposite cove. Being a clubfooted man, it took him several minutes to reach the top of the ridge. When he gained the summit, a strange sight met his gaze. Down the hillside a short distance, he could see through the underbrush, the form of a large buck, with its head down, rearing up partially, and churning down with its forefeet.

Seeing there was something wrong, as indicated by the peculiar actions of the deer, he hastily raised his rifle and fired, the ball passing through its body, near the heart. With the report of the gun, the buck reared to his hind fee, bringing up the redoubtable Captain Billy, a man of full two hundred pounds weight, hanging on to his horns, and pitched off down the steep hill, in the agony of death.

Billy's hunting shirt was cut into strings by the knife_like hoofs of the deer, and he carried marks of the encounter for many days.

Mrs. Westfall, mother of the late E.B. Parsons, related some interesting reminiscences of the Rader family. They were of Dutch stock, and very superstitious, having firm faith in signs and omens, tokens, prognostications, witches, ghosts, and the whole long array of the mystic and supernatural, which formed a part of the life's creed, with so many of the early settlers.

About 1839, Mrs. Westfall's mother being lately widowed in Indiana, lived in a cabin across the creek from the schoo lhouse atLuke Parsons.

Being dependent on the labor of her hands to support herself and children, the widow, Mrs. Graham by name, worked arou nd among the neighbors, to earn means of support for the family left to her care.

At one time, while she was sewing at young Mike Rader's, some strange epidemic malady attacked the cattle of Mill Creek valley, and many were lost, among others, a beautiful young heifer that Mrs. Graham had wanted to buy, but which Rader had refused to part with. On the death of the heifer, they suspected the widow of being a witch and laying a "spell" on their cattle through spite, so Abe was dispatched to Mason County, to consult a witch doctor who dwelt there. This worthy directed the young man how to proceed to discover who the witch was, and accordingly, the next animal that died, he opened, and taking from it the liver, went to the house, and walking backward to the fire place, without speaking, cast it upon the glowing logs, where it lay sizzling and frying, until it burned up.

Mrs. Graham was in the room when Rader came in, but, suspecting mischief, refrained from speaking or noticing him. Consequently, the charm failed to prove good, as the witch was supposed to come and remove the liver before it was consumed.

Once Mrs. Westfall, then a child of about fifteen or sixteen, seeing a black boy, Pete, one of the Rader slaves, whipping a pot of milk which was boiling on the fire, asked what he was doing. He replied enthusiastically "Whoppin de 'ole witch. My! but I'll stripe her old back".

The custom was if a cow gave bad milk, to put the milk in a pot or "kittle", over the fire, and after it came to a boil, whip it with withes until the milk was all whipped out of the pot.

Lawrence Hopkins, who lived at the Otmer Parsons, or Wiblin farm, was a witch doctor, and was sent for by Old Joesy Rader, to "cunjer" with a boy who was 'doin no good', and supposed to be under the malign influence of some neighboring witch. Whether the spell was lifted does not appear.

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KOONTZ FAMILY

Michael Koontz married Susan Rader, a daughter of Michael Rader, Sr. He lived in Mason County.

A son, John Koontz, (sometimes spelled Kouns) lived at the mouth of Elk Fork, on the Young farm.

He was a Justice of the Peace, in 1839.

Henry Koontz was an early settler on the Fisher farm, on Grass Lick.

Nelson Koontz, a son of Henry, and John Koontz, were on the Greene venire, at Ripley.

John and Henry both moved to the vicinity of Ravenswood.

Michael Koontz, who married Susan Rader, had a son, John Koontz. His wife's name is not given. Their children were:

Nancy Koontz, who married D.J. Jack Keeney, as a second husband.

Maggie Koontz.

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SMITH FAMILY

John V. Smith lived up on the left branch of Big Run, about 1844, and was the pioneer of that section.

His house was on the site of the present residence of Mr. E.L. Waybright. The head of the creek was in woods many years later. The cabin he first lived in was known as the Corbett house.

He was living with his third wife, who was a daughter of John W. Carder, one of the first pioneers of Upper Sandy.

His first wife was a Hardman, and the second a Hartley.

Gary McPherson came from Harrison County, and located at the forks of Big Run, in 1854 or 1855. His father, James McPherson, lived in Loudoun County, Virginia, where Gary was born.

Gary McPherson was of Scotch stock, and his mother a Loudoun, sister of Old Billy Loudoun. She crossed the ocean, from England to Virginia. His wife was Keziah Davis, a daughter of John Davis, of Harrison County, whose history will be given elsewhere.

Their house was burned by Captain Boggs, in July, 1862, as were those of Charles Parsons, and his son, Wilson. Their children were:

Sam McPherson.

Irvin McPherson, married a Hartley.

Gary McPherson.

Mary McPherson, married Ephraim Carder.

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BUTCHER FAMILY

Peyton Butcher, the fourth child of Samuel and Hannah Drake Butcher, was born June 28th, 1786, "somewhere in the mountains". He came to the Little Kanawha valley from Randolph County, where he had married Elizabeth, daughter of George Renick, in 1810.

He was manager for years of the Creel saw and grist mill at Bald Eagle Riffle. He died in 1853, and his wife died in 1850.

Of his children:

Samuel, born in 1811, married Jane Melrose, daughter of James and Eleanore Dawkins Melrose. Melrose was in the war of 1812. They raised a large family.

Effie, born in 1814, married Burr Triplet, son of Major Robert Triplet, of Pleasant County. He died in 1890, and is buried at the Triplet graveyard, at Willow Island.

John A., born in 1819, married Eleanor Dawkins, daughter of Thomas. Thomas Peyton was their son, and Benjamin Neal Butcher was a grandson. Deborah, Emily and Peyton were other children.

Thomas Jefferson, another son, married Lodena Lee. Of their children, two were residents of Jackson County, Burr and John, who lived on Big Run.

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AYERS FAMILY

Jeremiah Ayres lived at the "Clem" Davis place, a short distance up the right fork of Big Run, at the opening of the Civil War.

Ayres was from Carrol County, Ohio, and father of Jeff Ayers, formerly of Wirt County, and Buenos Ayres, County Superintendent of Roane County, in 1876.

There was another family of Ayres, who lived near Ripley, William G. Ayres, and his wife, Phebe. They came from Pocahontas County, and are buried in the Old Ripley graveyard, side by side.

He was born in 1800, and she twenty four years later, so may be a second wife. He had a son, John, buried by them, who died in 1857, aged twenty four years.

The Harpers were in some way connected with them.

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THE HENRY KNOPP FARM

The next farm on Mill Creek, above the village of Frozen Camp, at the old Parsons homestead, is that of Mr. H.F. Knopp, at the mouth of Little Creek. As has been recorded, the first settler here was Joe Parsons, the squatter, who built a cabin there before 1818.

Joseph Bord, of Reedy, had bought this land in October, 1823, and moved on it that fall, or the next spring.

In 1826, George Knopp bought the farm, Bord then lived in a double pole cabin, which stood where the pike now is, between the creek and Mr. O.H. Knopp's barn, and about three rods from the latter.

There was a well in the middle of the road, next Little Creek, from the cabin.

The road, or trail, then came up on the south side of Mill Creek, crossing back of the village of Frozen Camp, and following the bank of the creek, to the Knopp's place, crossed Little Creek below two large sycamores, which still stands, below the new iron bridge, and ran to the forks of the road near the large elm, where one path went up Little creek, around the fence, and the other followed with the present site of the pike, past Knopp's log barn, and then bore to the right, through the bottom again.

The first one hundred acres of the Knopp farm was patented in 1818, to W.L. Parsons. It was a strip of bottom, reaching from the Duke line to the upper line of H. Knopp's farm, and about three quarters of a mile up Little Creek, and a plat of the land looks like the diagram of a gerrymandered Congressional district, or the picture of some prehistoric animal.

The whole country had been patented in large blocks, to eastern land speculators years before, but these had been allowed to lapse, or by some means, the bottomlands were repatented, in tracts of one to two hundred acres, by actual settlers. Later the old claims were brought up by the North American Land Company, and other companies, and many harassing, vexations and costly lawsuits followed.

Sometime in the 1800's, Knopp patented another tract of land, of one hundred fifty acres, comprising the bottomlands, up above the mouth of Buffalo, and later he bought of James Dundas and Benjamin Kugler, trustees of the North American Land Company, eleven hundred and thirty six acres of hill land adjoining what he already owned, for twenty five cents per acre, the company also releasing its claim on the two hundred fifty acres of bottomlands already in his possession.

The pioneers though the hill lands unfit for farming, and left them as hunting ground and game preserve.

Below is a copy of the first patent, issued to Captain Parsons, for the original Knopp land.

James P. Preston, Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

To all to whom these presents shall come, Greeting: Know Ye, That in conformity with a survey made on the 30th day of January, 1813, by virtue of a Land Office Treasury Warrant. No. 4751, issued the 12th of June, 1811----

There is granted by the said Commonwealth unto William Lowther Parsons, A Certain Tract or Parcel of Land containing One Hundred Acres, situate in the County of Mason, and bounded as followeth, towit.

Beginning at a large Lynn, on the right hand side of the left hand fork of Big Mill Creek, on a line of a survey of one Hundred Acres, made for Charles Parsons, it being the land whereon Joseph Parsons now lived.

To have and to hold the said Tract or Parcel of Land, with its appurtenances to the said William Lowther Parsons, and his heirs forever. In witness whereof, the said James P. Preston, Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia, hath hereunto set his Hand and causes the lesser Seal of the Commonwealth to be affixed at Richmond, on the thirtieth day of March, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and eighteen, and of the Commonwealth, the forty second.

(signed) James P. Preston
Seal of Virginia

This patent is written on parchment, and is in a good state of preservation.

On the back of the document are two entries:

Willm L Parsons
100 Acs
Mason
Recorded and Exd
Book No. 67, page 205


William Lowther Parsons hath title to the within granted land.
Wm. G. Pendleton
Reg. L. Off.

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KNOPP FAMILY

The ancestors of George Knopp came from Germany to Pennsylvania, where they became incorporated in the host of frugal, industrious Americans, known as “Pennsylvania Dutch”, and, like so many of their neighbors, drifted south, into the valley of Virginia.

George Knopp was born in the Shenandoah Valley, on July 23rd, 1794, and died on Mill Creek, February 18th, 1855, aged sixty years, five months and eight days. This is the record taken form his tombstone in the Baptist Grove Cemetery, but his son, H. F. Knopp, thinks he was probably several years older. His wife died at the home of one of her children, in Indiana.

He married Catharine Richwein, and lived for a time in Meigs County, Ohio, and in Mason County, West Virginia, before moving to Mill Creek, in 1826.

When Knopp came to Mill Creek, the country was yet wild and full of game of all kinds.

There were three little fields of two or three acres each, cleared, one around the house, one up Little Creek, and one across where the present residence of Mr. Knopp stands.

He belled his horses and turned them to the woods, where they fared well on the rich succulent pasturage of wild grasses, pea vines, weeds and “brouse”.

Sometimes when wanted, they would be found two miles or more out the ridge, between Buffalo and Little Creek, or up the streams from the house.

Cattle and sheep and hogs also ran at large. The sheep did not do much good in the earlier years, owing to the ravages of the wolves and bears, and frequently had to be penned in the yard, or against the cabin.

Hogs, however, throve wonderfully, notwithstanding the onslaught of the wild beasts. Once or twice a year, the neighbors would try to corral all the hogs in the woods, each marking with his private mark, all the pigs and shoats that were judged to be the offspring of his swine, and in the fall when they were fat with the rich abundance of oak, chestnut, and beechmast, each would drive in and butcher, or shoot in the woods, dress, skin, and pack in anything he could find in his mark.

Many hogs, however, annually escaped notice, and the woods was full of wild hogs, which like the game, was accounted the common property of all.

Once, while Mrs. Knopp was out hunting her cows, she met in the path in the woods, a large sow, with a brood of little pigs running along before her, while the mother was fighting back a large black dog that sought to levy toll on her family. Mrs. Knopp hollowed at the dog, which, being a wolf and afraid of a human being unless very hardpressed by hunger, bounded away into the forest.

George Knopp’s children were given according to age:

Gideon, married Nancy Stewart, of Reedy, a daughter of Old Billy Stewart. He settled first on his father’s farm, where the late Henry Brown lived. He died about 1858.

Lucinda, married John Stewart, a brother of Old Billy. She lived on the J. J. Miller farm, below Buffalo, after his death, on the Kyger farm on Reedy, about 1846.

Phoebe, married Basil Wright, who lived for a time on his father’s farm, near Reedy.

William, married Catharine Wiblin, and settled on the Charles C. Casto farm, on Little Creek.

Sevilla, married Kelley Flesher. He lived on the Hall farm, on Little Creek, and on the lower part of his father’s farm, three quarters of a mile up Left Reedy from the Three Forks.

Abraham married Delila Carney, a daughter of Spencer Carney, of Middle Fork of Reedy.

Henry Fisher, married Rachel Ann Cain, a daughter of Alfred Cain, of Reedy.

Kitty Ann, married Thomas Bord, son of “Sandy” Bord, of Reedy. After his death, she married James Wiblin, and lives on a part of the home place above Henry Knopp’s.

There was a son, Jesse. He lived on Right Fork Reedy, where Rev. C. E. Tallman now resides. He went west later, as also did Kelley Flesher and William and Abraham Knopp.

Henry Knopp was born in 1838, and so is now about sixty eight years old. He lived on the old home farm, where he was born.

His father brought the first wagon to the upper Mill Creek Valley. This was about 1833. He remembers when all the hill land and much of the bottoms were standing thick with heavy oak, poplar and walnut timber.

He and neighbor boys used, while “sky-larking”, of Sundays, to visit the old improvement where peach trees were still bearing in the thickets, as late as 1850.

The first teacher he remembers in the old field schools was Henry Bigler, who taught three terms at the schoolhouse near L. Parsons, sometime during the forties. Bigler is remembered by many of the elder people of Mill Creek and Reedy, and was afterward a Mormon elder in Utah.

Another teacher he recalls was Clark Westfall, who lived on Frozen Camp.

The Knopp family were Democrats in politics and members of the Presbyterian church.

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OTHER SETTLERS BELOW BUFFALO

James brown, who married Dorcas Carney, lived above the Gideon Knopp (now Henry Brown) place, across the road from F. Bee's. He died there in 1878, probably was the first settler.

Gideon Knopp built at the Henry Brown place about 1841.

Above this was the George Knopp farm, and, in a cabin in the mouth of the run, just below Buffalo City, and nearly opposite Mr. T.J. Mitchell's, lived Charles Sheppard, who married Ann Parsons, daughter of Captain Billy Parsons (no kin to Jonathan's family).

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LITTLE CREEK PIONEERS

All the farms on Mill Creek, above the mouth of Buffalo, are of comparatively recent date.

The first settlers on Little Creek, were, as before narrated:

Joseph Parsons                before 1818

Joseph Bord                               1823

George Knopp                           1826

The only other pioneers were:

John Bord, who settled two miles up on the creek, about 1827.

James Thomas, who located a short distance above the Knopp line, probably sometime in the thirties.

The land about the mouth of Little Creek was patented in 1786, by Albert Gallatin. There were two blocks, one known as the Gallatin No. 15, the line of which crossed below the Thomas house, and above C. C. Casto's barn.

The other, the Gallatin tract No. 22, the upper line crossed at the upperside of what is commonly known as the Alpin land. On this land were both the pioneer settlements mentioned.

Thomas' house was at the mouth of a rough hollow that comes down from the hills, on the left of Little Creek, about one fourth mile above the Casto house.

This improvement is supposed to have been made not later than 1832 or 1833. Thomas's wife was a sister of Colonel Armstrong, and came to Jackson County, it is said, about the same time, that is in 1831.

The Bord settlement was made about a mile above this, at the mouth of the run on which E. Mitchell resides.

Here he settled in the heavy beech bottom, and cleared out about five or six acres, including a strip on the lower slope of the hill. He stayed here about two, possibly three, years, but, becoming dissatisfied, "pulled up stakes" and left it, saying there was too many hazel bushes in the bottom for it to ever be farmed.

One year he lived here, he sowed a piece of land in buckwheat, but it was completely taken by the wild turkeys.

Examination of some of the stumps of the second growth timber, which sprang up over the cleared fields after they were abandoned, showed on a poplar seventy one rings, and on two oaks, seventy and seventy two rings, respectively. This timber was cut by Mr. Elihu Burdett, in 1901, for W.L. Rector, who purchased the timber, and manufactured it into lumber and crossties. Some of the second growth trees cut two ties to the block.

From this record, kept by Mother Nature, I deduce that the place was abandoned about 1829.

When the ground was cleared, in 1903, the old corn rows still showed through the woods, on the hillside.

The house was built on a little elevation, almost on the creek bank, and a few rods above the mouth of the Mitchell run.

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BUFFALO TRAIL

Less than a half mile below this, on a fork’s point of a hollow, which enters Little creek at Dr. Conant’s residence, is the old pack horse trail, which crossed from the settlements on the head of Sandy, to the mouth of Buffalo. In places, it is worn and washed to a depth of five or six feet, among the rocks and boulders. Over this path has been carried many a bushel of salt, haunch of venison and jug of whiskey in “ye olden, golden time”.

There were all the settlements on Little Creek, claiming the name of pioneer.

William Knopp built at the Casto place about 1850, and there were settlements on the head of the creek about 1854 or 1856.

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APLIN FAMILY

William Aplin was born in Connecticut, in 1813, and died at his home on Billy's Run, at the head of Elk Fork, in 1907, at the advanced age of ninety four years.

The Jackson Herald says that fifty or sixty years ago he was a shoemaker at Ripley.

Two brothers, Benjamin and Welcome Aplin, bought large tracts of land at delinquent tax and commissioner's sales. Sometimes they paid as low as five cents per acre for it.

These lands passed by inheritance to William, who owned many thousands of acres, and was, at one time, reported to be the wealthiest man in the county. A large tract of this land was on the waters of lower Little Creek.

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RHOR FAMILY

In 1852, John H. Rader, of Greenbrier County, bought a large tract of land on the head of Mill Creek, and in 1859, he sold a tract containing two hundred twenty five acres, lying at the forks of Little creek, to Philip Rhor, and at the same time, Rhor's brother-in-law, Joseph Eagle, bought of Alfred Cain, of Reedy, a piece adjoining, which contained two hundred sixty eight acres. The Rader land was wholly in the woods, but there had been a cabin on the Eagle farm, close the lower line, and near where the first Jefferson schoolhouse was built.

I have been told that this cabin was built by William Rader (a brother, perhaps, of John H. Rader), for the purpose of trying to hold the land in some legal controversy.

Philip Rhor was born March 16th, 1808, Rockingham County, Virginia. He came from Barbour County to Mill Creek, the spring of 1860, having purchased land the fall before.

He died May 11th, 1874.

A daughter, Hester, who died the fall before, is buried by his side, in the Street graveyard, about one mile east of his residence.

Another daughter married Jonathan Smith, and he made the first improvement at the mouth of Gardiner's Run, a short distance below the forks of the creek. Smith was a son of John V. Smith, of Big Run, and he and Rhor, his wife's brother, had a little corn mill on the creek above his house, which was carried away by a flood.

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EAGLE FARM

Joseph Eagle was born in Augusta County, Virginia. He died March 8th, 1884. In 1833, he married Harriet J. C. Rhor, who died also in 1884. In 1859, he bought the Little Creek land, which comprised the most of Poplar Fork. He bought of William Rhor. He moved on the land sometime during the spring of 1860, and built a large hewed log house, just in front of where the house now stands, on the point between the two branches of the creek. This house faced down stream, and was surrounded with locust trees, which had been planted around it, one of which is still standing.

Eagle lived on the land eleven years, and cleared strips along the bottom, and in places back on the hills. A son built where W.H. Ludwick lives, and a son_in_law at the present residence of Mr. I. Gordon.

Mr. John Hall once told me that his father, Samuel Hall, contracted for the Poplar Fork land before he came to Mill Creek, or about 1850, and came out from Shenandoah County and cut a set of cabin logs, intending to build in the little bottom lot, below the residence of the present owner (myself), that he went back and brought his family cut as far as Dempsey Flesher's, on Reedy, where he put up for the night. During the night, there fell a snow over two feet deep, which prevented him from proceeding on his journey. This snow laid so long, he had to stop at Mr. Flesher's about two weeks and during that time, he bought the Joe Miller place, on Reedy, where William Davis now lives, it having the manifest advantage of a house into which he could move his family.

He first came to Reedy in 1851.

In bygone days, pine tar was the only lubricator used for wagons and other vehicles, and not only did farmers burn pine knots to extract the tar for their own use, but, occasionally, one would burn a kiln, there being a considerable commercial demand for the article in the neighborhood, and at Ravenswood and other points. The method of extracting the tar on a small scale, for home use, was as follows. Having first selected a rock, flat, smooth and large enough to answer the purpose, a trench was cut in circular form on top of it, with outlet for the escape of the liquid pitch. A sugar kettle was then turned over the split pine knots, which had been piled on this rock, and the tar roasted out by building a fire on top of the kettle.

There were several tar kilns burnt on this farm, one place on top of the ridge toward the head of Gardner's Run, a kiln has been burned fifty years ago, and though the ground, which is a stiff red clay, has been cleared and farmed for twenty five or thirty years, the spot is clearly discernible by the burnt clay.

There is also a rock by the side of the run, near the house, where tar was burned under a kettle, piling dry wood over it.

In burning a tar kiln, a large quantity of pine knots were gathered and having been split coarser than for burning under a kettle, were carefully piled, provision being made for ventilation and the escape of the tar. The pine was then fired, and when well started, was banked with earth, like a charcoal pit, and the wood burned with as little air as possible, would smolder and char, the tar running out into a vessel provided for its reception.

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FLOODS AND WASHES

Since first known to white men, the Mill Creek valley has been visited by sudden heavy downpours of rain, which put the creeks and smaller streams out of banks, and send the floods of water over the bottoms. The streams are consequently continually cutting and wearing on their banks, sometimes cutting on one side, and again on the other, as the current may chance to set. Since the hills have been cleared, these raises are more frequent and sudden, as the water runs off the surface into the hollows, and drains almost as fast as it falls. The roots being rotted in the ground, the erosion, too, is much greater, but there is not as much driftage as formerly, nor does it lodge and pile up, damming the waters and turning the streams into entirely new channels, as when the bottomlands were standing in brush and timber.

Sometimes, the bed of the stream would be completely changed in a few hour's time, and the old channels so completely filled with drift and gravel that its course could not be traced on the surface after a few years.

In cutting a ditch in 1895, I found under the surface, a heavy drift of logs, limbs and chunks buried under a foot or more of soil, and absolutely no surface sign that the stream had once flowed where I was trying to induce it to go.

In June, 1903, there was a sudden rise of about five feet, in less than an hour, in Poplar Fork, and neighboring streams, which laid bare much that had been hidden for many years.

I found in one of my fields the next morning, projecting from the side of a newly cut bank, what had been an impromptu roller for a one horse sled, roughly hewed out of a green hickory pole, with a very dull axe, the scars made by the nicks in the axe being as plainly visible as when first made. There were also marks made by worms under the bark, showing the piece of wood had been laying about a year before being hermetically sealed under the three and a half feet of gravel and dirt, perhaps forty or fifty years before.

In another place where the run cut through a drift two or three feet below the surface, I found poplar logs with bark on, shell bark hickory, beech leaves, walnuts, twigs, etc., etc.

Both these drifts were covered with a blue grass sod, and showed no signs on the surface that the stream had run there before.

In another place, in a bank of heavy red clay, was the form of a maple log, perhaps sixteen or twenty feet long, sound, and bedded in the clay.

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BURNING CHARCOAL

In his younger days, Uncle Henry Ludwick had been a charcoal burner, and he gave me the following interesting account of the manner of manufacturing the coal.

The wood used was mostly pine and chestnut oak. Black smiths, who used charcoal altogether for the forge, would take a little hickory and would take yellow poplar, but did not like to, pine and birch were preferred.

The wood was out into four foot lengths and split, like cord wood. In building the kiln, as much as twenty five cords would sometimes be put in a kiln. The wood was placed upright, three tiers deep, an aisle would be left open through the middle until the last, through this passageway they would drive with a sled, unloading on each side. When completed, a triangular furnace was provided, with a flue up through the center of the kiln, which was banked with dirt, about four inches thick on the ground, and thicker on the shoulders and top. Before putting the dirt on, the wood was thickly bedded with leaves, to keep the dirt from sifting through. Limbs, laps and rough knotty sticks were built next the outside. Holes were left around the top of the kiln, for ventilation. The wood would char up through the middle, across the top, and down the outside. If one side burnt too freely, the vents on that side were closed, and more holes punched on the other, so as to throw the fire that way. When there was too much air, the kiln would burn out hollow. Both green and dry wood were used. The green made the hottest fires, the steam keeping the kiln hot. One cord made forty bushels of charcoal, and a good hand could set and cover twenty five cords in a day. A man was allowed one cent a bushel for cutting and burring.

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LUDWICK FAMILY

Joseph Eagle, by some means, lost his home on Poplar Fork, the land being sold to Alfred Cain, Esq., of Reedy, and by him in 1871, to Henry Ludwick, of Barbour County. He moved out in 1871, but Eagle refusing to give possession before the 1st of March following, he moved for a time in a cabin built by Alexander Kelley, where A. Duke now lives, which then belonged to Ziba Weas, of Sandyville.

Henry Ludwick was born on the 22nd of August, 1822, on a run that empties into Mill Creek, about a half mile from the North Mountain road, near the Shenandoah line in the northern part of Rockingham County. His great_grandfather, Jacob Ludwig, emigrated from Saxony, at a very early day, locating near Somerset, Somerset County, Pennsylvania. He died May 13th, 1909 aged eighty six.

Nothing is known of his family, except on son, George who is supposed to be American born. He spoke the Pennsylvania dialect of German, and talked English very brokenly. His wife was Maria Magdelena Weirs, nothing is known of her people, or where they were from, except that she was German.

George Ludwig died in Rockingham County, Virginia, about 1827, at near four score years. His children were Philip, Joseph, John, George, Daniel, Solomon and Jacob. There had been an earlier Jacob, who died while a child. George and Jacob married Muellers. Solomon moved to Highland County, Ohio.

The girls were Margaret, who married John Bowman, and lived two or three miles from Mt. Jackson, and had a son named Philip Bowman.

Elizabeth married Joseph Dotson, and who also lived near Mt. Jackson.

Mary married Isaac Hogg (German pronounced Hawk).

Jacob Ludwick married Nancy Mueller -- anglicized to Miller later. He lived in the upper part of Rockingham County, until 1832, when he moved to Hardy County, locating on Trout Run, a few miles from the mouth. Trout Run empties into Lost River, at Wardensville, and below that place, the stream is known as the Great Cacapon River.

Jacob Ludwick was in the war of 1812. He lived south west of Wardensville. Their children were:

Henry, married Margaret Shoemaker.

Sarah, married a Moore.

Anna, married Isaac Rhoe.

Jacob, married, wife's name not known.

Jacob Ludwick died in 1864, at the age of sixty two, and his wife on the 19th of May, 1865.

Nancy Mueller was a daughter of George Mueller. He had a brother, Henry, who lived in Preston County, Virginia, after whom her son, Henry, was named. Her mother was Margaret Wolf, of near Mount Jackson.

George Mueller's children were:

Jacob and Joseph lived in Shenandoah County, Virginia.

George in Hardy, and Henry in Licking County, Ohio.

Elizabeth married "Mike" Teets, and lived in Preston County, Virginia.

Susan married Abram Rhodes, in Shenandoah.

Anna married a Bauers, in Shenandoah.

Barbara married "Jake" Teets.

Henry Ludwick's children were:

William Harrison, born in 1842, married Jane Street.

Mary June, born in 1844, married John Street.

John Henry, born in 1846, died at the age of twenty years.

Sarah E., born in 1848, married Ezekiel Mitchell.

Uriah McCasson, born in 1851, married Matilda Bush.

Nelson, born in 1853, married Martha Hartley.

Nancy C., born in 1857, married Sanford Conant.

Amos, born in March, 1841, died in July, 1842.

Eli McClelen, born July, 1861, died in December, 1861.

William Henry Ludwick served in the Union Army, and after his discharge, re_enlisted and served for a time in the western Indian wars.

I have heard Uncle Henry Ludwick speak of the carrier pigeons, now long extinct, so this is probably an experience from his days in the eastern part of the state.

He says he remembers seeing them come along toward evening "so thick they darkened everything". They would select a patch of timber for roost, and would then alight upon one tree, so heavily limbs would often be broken off. In the morning when they moved on, there would be many left behind, dead or wounded, from the broken timber.

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MITCHELL FAMILY

Marshall Mitchell had come from Barbour County, to Jackson County, sometime before the war. William Hoffman, who had married Mitchell's sister, came in 1866.

Bet, a daughter of Henry Ludwick, was to marry a Hoffman, a cousin of Daniel and William Hoffman. The old folks approved of the marriage, but she fell out with Hoffman, and "ran off" with "Jake" Mitchell, got married and came to Jackson County.

It was while on a visit to her that Henry Ludwick became so pleased with the country that he sold his farm in Barbour County, and came to the waters of Little Creek, of Mill Creek.

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STREET FAMILY

Old George Street followed his children, who had married William H. and Janet Ludwick. He bought the Rader farm, on the divide between Little Creek and Buffalo.

He donated the lot for the graveyard, and for a church, and did most of the work in building the church, Buffalo or Street’s Church, until disabled. One day, while hauling logs for the church, he ran a splinter in his foot, which resulted in his death, from lockjaw.

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LITTLE CREEK CHURCH

The Southern Methodist Church on Little Creek was built in 1894. The first place above was settled by Kelley Flesher. John Stewart's widow and family lived there about the 1850's, and Samuel Hall moved to it about 1858 perhaps, and lived there until his death in 1886. (Ziba Weas owned the land, and had the first cabin built).

Samuel Hall was born December 7th, 1811, died June 18th, 1886, and his wife was born one year earlier and died one year later. They came from Preston County.

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FOUNTAIN FAMILY

The first house on the Duke farm was built in the mouth of the run, where the present stands, and convenient to a spring.

It was built by a man named Fountain, and finished and first dwelt in by Alec Kelley, a son-in-law of Ziba Weas.

Before this, perhaps about 1856, an old man by the name of Fountain had bought the land, and coming on partially completed a house, he and his two sons wintering under the large rock by the road above Duke's house.

His wife dying that spring, he sold off his goods, and went back from where he came, instead of moving his family out.

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WEAS

Zeba Weas married Phebe Leach. He came to Jackson County in 1840, and lived at Ripley, two years before moving to the head of Little Creek of Mill Creek. He owned a little mill at his home on the head of Mill Creek, on which he both ground corn and sawed timber. Mrs. Westfall says he owned the Sam Hall place, on the head of Little Creek of Mill Creek.

While in Ripley, he owned a hotel. He married first, according to Webb Chapman, Phebe Leach. He is said also to have married a Miss Hornbeck, and they had a daughter, Virginia.

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DAVIS FAMILY

The first improvement on Buffalo after that built by Joe Miller, on the Stewart place, and possibly earlier in point of time, was that of William Davis, a wild and picturesque character, said to be half Indian, who was a squatter on what was afterward known as the Rader land, before 1843.

He first appears on the scene living near Sandyville. Later, he had a shanty on Trace Fork, and in 1843, we find him on the lower end of the Morrison farm, in a camp shed, at the mouth of the run, below where M. W. Morrison lives, near where the old mill shanty stands. Some reports say this camp was at the forks of the creek at the site of Widow Dunn’s residence, but one who has lived nearby for the last sixty years, and certainly should know, says it was at the next run above. Some say he had one of his camps in the bottom below David Lattimer’s house. He lived by hunting and trapping, and raising little patches of corn and “truck”, and had “slashed down” most of the narrow bottom, from Lattimers to Dunns. He is described as being tall and straight, with long, coarse, black hair. His “houses” were made of poles pinned fast to forks set in the ground, and sometimes open at one side, for summer use.

When he left Buffalo, he built up in the cove, near the spring, just over the hill from the old Rader, or Street house. It is said the stones where the chimney of this shanty stood are still visible, although I failed to find them when I visited the spot in August, 1905.

I found, however, one of the most beautiful spots in all the country, for the lover of nature. I quote from Journal of the trip:

“This spring is about seven rods from the brook, and five from the top of the hill.

It comes out under a large rock, which has been worked off back for several feet, and the ground graded and filled below it, so as to make it freely accessible to cattle, though the water, which is clear and nice, but with a muddy and unpleasant taste, is in a walled basin, and some eighteen or twenty inches below the surface.

It is in a shady and picturesque spot, above is a cliff of rocks about eight feet high, overhung with saplings, an oak, gum, sassafras, and two or three hickories, all intertwined by a very large grapevine.

Just below is a large poplar tree, a red oak, and an ash, while other trees grow along the sides of the sprint drain, to its mouth, where, on the brookside, stands a large black willow, a foot in diameter, and fifty feet high, and leaning toward the spring at an angel of about forty degrees. About fifteen feet of the willow top is broken over to the ground.

The hillside opposite the brook is uncleared for several rods back, and is a tangle of brush and vines. Some distance above the mouth of the spring run is a large pool of clear water, reflecting in its limpid depths the rocky walls and bushes which line its banks.

A narrow strip of bottom reaches almost to this spot, over grown with tall grass and weeds, and waving with purple ironweed and wingstem, while walnut trees and copses of brushwood form an inviting retreat for roaming cattle, truly a pretty spot.”

Quiet and peaceful as s this charming spot today, it was in the days when the clouds of war hovered over the land, the scene of a premeditated and wilful depredation of war, thought being committed by men wearing the uniform of soldiers, it is characterized by a name less harsh. It occurred at a large rock, which lies even with the surface of the ground, a little ways from the spring.

Joseph Rader, who lived at the Dunn place, was accused of harboring and assisting bushwhackers, and was decoyed to the spring with food, by two men disguised as Confederate soldiers, and shot by others concealed in the brush. This occurred in the fall of 1863.

Davis had one of his shanties here, and another in the bottom, across the creek from the Hall house, where Mr. Stewart now lives.

This was known as Stump Cabin, and was built by cutting off three saplings which were found growing in the proper position, and a post set in the ground formed the fourth corner. To these were nailed split slabs, or puncheons, and the whole roofed with long clapboards, which were carried back and forth, as Davis moved from his hill home to the bottom, and back again.

One year (probably after this), Davis lived in the Old Bord house on Big Run, and later he was stowed away for three months with the rheumatism, at John Smith’s, above there.

The impression is that he went back east, perhaps to Harrison County.

Mr. Lattimer thinks he went out about the Falls of the Kanawha, above Bulltown.

Possibly, he may have been east, and returned again.

There is no record of his wife that I have heard. Possibly she was dead before.

There are three or four children mentioned, a son, Joe Davis, and another son called Abe Davis, or Andy, or perhaps there was one of each name.

There was also a daughter-in-law, who was Davis’s housekeeper, while she lived. This girl, whose name was “Sinder Davis”, died suddenly, falling off her chair dead.

She left two children and, it is said, soon took to coming back, finally Davis decided, after she had returned several times, that if he saw her again, he would speak to her and find out why she could not rest easy in the spirit land.

One day not long after, while going through a wheat field, he saw the spook coming along the narrow path, meeting him, as she stepped to one side for him to pass, he mustered up the courage to ask her what she wished, in coming back to earth.

The ghost answered that being old and poor, he could not take the proper care of her children, so she wanted them put out with someone who would be able to educate them and bring them up right. Davis promised that this should be done, at which the girl expressed her satisfaction, and turned to pass on. When leaving him for this the last time, she, it is said, extended her hand to shake hands with him. This, however, was more than Davis had bargained for, and he strove to avoid the proffered hand. Two of the girl’s fingers struck his wrist, leaving yellow marks, which, of course, he carried with him to the grave.

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LATTIMER FAMILY

George Lattimer was born and raised in Washington County, Pennsylvania, and married Jane Niven, a native of Carrol County, Ohio, but at the time of her marriage, a resident of Washington County.

After some years, he emigrated to Jackson County, Virginia, settling on the Left fork of Sandy, about a mile above Sandyville. This was in 1838, and about 1840, he moved to Sycamore.

Four years later, he purchased a large boundary of land on the head of Buffalo, on which he erected a log house, which is still standing, probably the oldest log house in Roane County, or on Mill Creek. Through sunshine and storm, for sixty two years, its walls have given shelter to occupants of four generations.

It looks like it may have been built of small round logs, and "skutched down" --- or hewed after raising--- outside and in, is a story and a half high, with old fashioned porch on one side. It is now under its fourth roof.

George Knopp and his son, William, "took up" the north and east corners, respectively. The latter, then a young man, is, if living, now very old and the former has been dead over fifty years.

They commenced moving, on packhorses, the first of March, 1844, and the family took possession about the middle of April.

There was not then a family living between Gideon Knopps and George Goffs, at the mouth of Long's Run, on Reedy, save only the shack of Davis, previously mentioned.

There was, however, a little improvement and empty cabin at the mouth of Buffalo, where Joe Miller had lived.

The house stood by the side of the trail leading from the Carney colony on Reedy, to the Mill Creek settlements.

When Lattimer first came to Buffalo, deer and wild turkeys were abundant everywhere, and there were a few bears, wolves and panthers yet in the woods.

Though three miles to the nearest neighbor, neighbors were more plentiful than they are today, as was shown by the attendance at the log rolling and husking bee.

The neighborhood reached from below the three forks of Reedy to the mouth of Joe's Run.

Mr. David Lattimer, a son of the pioneer, lives on the home place, and has been a resident of the original house, since his newer dwelling, which stood by the run, several rods away, was destroyed by fire about several years ago. I spent a pleasant hour with him in December, 1904, when he gave me many interesting reminiscences of the early days of Jackson County. He was only seven years old when the family came to Buffalo, and but one when his father first became a citizen of Jackson County.

He remembers going to school, when a little lad, to a little log hut, which stood in the Walnut grove above the Sycamore bridge, with a fireplace occupying the most of one end.

The first teacher he recalls was "Sol" Parsons, of Parchment, a son of a descendant of Captain Bill.

He afterward lived on Long's Run, where Mr. Andrew Chancey now lives.

Sam Black was the first minister he remembers hearing.

He has seen plows with wooden mold boards used, but never plowed with one himself.

Mr. Lattimer has in his possession a pair of iron tweezers, which his father made for the purpose of extracting a honey locust thorn, which he had the misfortune to get in his bare foot while picking up walnuts, near the Sycamore schoolhouse, when he was five or six years old.

Uncle David vividly recalls that he would sometimes go barefoot until nearly Christmas, or even later some winters, when he was eight or ten years old. Sometimes he would wear a pair of one of his older sister's winter before shoes.

In those days, all wore home made shoes, built from heavy cowhide leather, built by the neighborhood cobbler, both on week days and Sundays.

He has gone barefoot through snow half knee deep, to feed the sheep. He would first get his feet as hot as he could bear at the old fashioned open wood fire, run to the oats stack, pull out a sheaf and stand on it, rubbing the snow off of his feet with one hand, while he jerked sheaves from the stack with the other. Then he would scatter the oats in the rack, and run home as fast as he could, heat his feet again, and when they were glowing hot, run out again and take a play in the snow, yet notwithstanding, this exposure and privation, he never was sick but three days until after he was grown, and that was when he had the measles.

When the Lattimers first came to Buffalo, in 1844, the nearest post office was at Ripley.

There were mills within seven or eight miles, but they had a mortar in which they pounded corn, to make meal for their bread.

This meal was made into "raised pones", "corn dodgers", and "johnny cake", the latter baked on a board before the fire, and, said the narrator "when eaten warm with milk for supper, better than any pie".

George Lattimer's children were:

George, born August 14th, 1832, died about March, in 1906. He married E. Stalnaker, and lived on the upper part of his father's place.

Jane, died in 1853, married James Logan, also from Washington County, Pennsylvania. He lived and died on what is known as the John Rader farm, at the mouth of Buffalo.

David, born in 1837, married Jennie Harpold.

A daughter married a Rand.

A daughter married Thomas Shephard, who built and owned the Sandyville mill.

Martha married Elias Parsons, Jr.

There are a few other settlers on Mill Creek, a mention of whose families should be made.

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HARPER FAMILY

The Harper brothers, who came from Pocahontas County about the same time Ayers did was related to them.

The Harpers, it is said, were wealthy and once owned the White Sulphur Springs resort.

John Harper died in 1852, aged fifty years.

James P. Harper died January 15th, 1865, aged sixty one years. The other brother was William.

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HOOD AND MCGREW FAMILIES

Del K. Hood was born in 1838. In 1858, he married Rebecca McGrew, daughter of John McGrew of Jefferson County Ohio, and took charge of mill for Jacob Ong in 1859. About 1864 he came into possession of the mill.

John McGrew came from Jefferson County, Ohio, to Jackson County in 1847. He purchased the Ripley Mill from Jacob Sayre, in 1853.

He later disposed of this mill and moved to Kentucky, where he continued his milling operations until his death, at the age of eighty seven years. His children were:

Lemuel McGrew, who lived at Sandyville.

John Plummer McGrew.

A. W. McGrew.

Rebecca McGrew, married Del. K. Hood.

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MAGUIRE FAMILY

Another family worthy of mention, which was conspicuous in the history of Ripley, at a later period is that of Maguire. Three Maguire brothers, Robert, Edward and William came from Steubenville, Ohio.

Robert Maguire, who was killed at Ripley, and Samuel Maguire, who built the splendid residence beyond the Sycamore bridge, were sons of Edward.

William Maguire did not remain in Jackson County, but went south later.

A sister of the Maguire brothers married a Connoly and lived a mile out of the Sycamore road.

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