In the month of June, 1782, there lived in the village of Clarksburg, a man named Charles Washburn, who, while chopping wood in his yard, was shot by a party of Indians lurking in the vicinity. One fellow more venturesome than the others, rushed up to the dying man, cleft his skull with an axe, and, quickly scalping the body, made his escape with the bloody trophy.

Three of the Washburn brothers had formerly been killed by the savages: Isaac, who was shot on Hacker's Creek in 1778, and James and Stephen, who were waylaid, while hunting for pine knots for making shoe wax, near their home on West Fork. Stephen was shot and scalped, and James was carried off to their town, where he was put to death by cruel torture.

Charles Washburn's widow, who before her marriage was Nancy Lowther, was afterward wedded to William Carder, who was living "near below" the mouth of Hacker's Creek (as my informant expressed it) when on the 25th of July, 1794, his place was raided by the Indians. Though the savages were repulsed, they burned the house and drove off the stock. This was the last depradation committed in that section.

The history of some of William Carder's descendants is, for the most part, the early history of Upper Sandy.

His father, says family tradition, was a rope maker by profession, while living in England. He and a friend and comrade named Hyre, crossed the ocean and located together on a large tract of land they held in partnership.

Carder had the most perfect confidence in his friend, and they were, it is said, "just like two twin brothers." But, alas for trust in "mortal man!" As is too often the case, this friend proved treacherous, and taking advantage of the perfect reliance the other place in him, swindled him out of nearly all that he possessed, and left him old, infirm and poor, to drift about the country and into a grave in the potter's field.

Carder was a deeply religious man, and withal, it appears, something of a prophet, for it is said he told Hyre that his ill gotten gains would not profit him much, for he and his family would be stricken with blindness. In a few years both Hyre and his sons and sons-in-law were stone blind.

William Carder had several children. Among them were:

John Wesley, who married Margaret Smith.


Elizabeth, who married Thomas Washburn.

Nancy, who married John Stutler.

William, whose last wife was Priscilla Butcher.

John Wesley Carder was born and reared in Harrison County. He married, and lived there until his older children were married and had homes of their own. He then, early in the winter of 1838 or 9, decided to follow his brother-in-law, Washburn, to the fertile valley of Big Sandy Creek in the new County of Jackson.

Washburn had preceded him by several years, and now Carder, Stutler, and a neighbor by the name of Cheuvront, packed their rude belongings and followed him to the new West, where land could be had at a nominal price and game was yet abundant. Stutler, it is said, came by the overland route, arriving sometime in January. Carder and Cheuvront took the long way by water, down the West Fork past Clarksburg, and down the Monongahela by way of Pittsburgh, and the Ohio River to Ravenswood, reaching their new home in April.

Carder was an expert blacksmith and gunsmith, a craft always in demand in a pioneer settlement. His patronage came from many miles in every direction. He and his boys were successful trappers, and famous as hunters, and prospered in their agricultural pursuits.

He bought a large boundary of land, and located on the present site of Liverpool. But, living at first in a squatter's cabin near the site of Mr. T. I. Hartley's residence. Later, he built a log house practically on the site of Hartley's house, perhaps a little nearer to the well.

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John Wesley Carder was a son of William Carder, and he married Margaret Smith, who lived on Two Lick Run in Harrison County. They came to Jackson county in 1838 or 9. Their children were:

William, married "Liz" Slusser of Harrison County.

George, married a Bailey in Harrison County.

Eliza, married William L. Smith, son of John V. Smith.

Ephraim Patton, married Jane Carney, daughter of Spence Carney.

John Smith Carder married Huldah Rowley on Sandy.

Geoffrey Carder married Julia Welch, sister of Lew Wolfe's wife.

Susan Carder married Thomas Hartley, and lived on the home farm.

Elizabeth Carder, married John V. Smith, as his third wife.

Anderson Carder, died about 1855.

Margaret Carder, died at Ripley before the war.

Bill Carder at one time lived on the Amos Mitchell place at the head of Poplar Fork of Little Creek, which he bought from Thomas Hartley, but failed to pay out on. His wife died in 1906, at the home of her daughter, on Little Creek. She lived alone several years, while an old woman, in a little old round log cabin on the head of Trace Fork. I passed the spot last autumn (1907). The cabin, which is of birch and poplar logs, and about 14 by 6 feet in its outside dimensions, is still standing, but the clapboards are torn off in places, and lie scattered over the roof and around the yard. The cobble stone chimney has fallen down. There has been a door in the front wall, reaching from the sill to the first rib, with an opening sawed out with the door logs for a half size 8 by 10 window. Now both are gone, leaving a gaping vacancy. The cabin and its occupant grew old together, but the hut lasted the longest by a few years. It is situated just below the mouth of a little brook, with trees, bushes and clambering vines all around.

George Carder was a Methodist preacher in Harrison County.

Eliza Carder married William L. Smith, the only child of John V. Smith by his first marriage. Smith went to Illinois, where he enlisted in the Union Army, and died at Lexington, Kentucky.

Ephraim Patton, known to all as "Pat" Carder, was one of the most noted deer hunters and marksmen of Jackson County. He shot the first deer killed by any of the Carder family after they came to Sandy, at a Lick Spring below George Delaney's, which event gave to the stream the name of Buck Run.

The winter of 1855 was one of exceptional severity, and it is related by unimpeachable witnesses that Pat Carder had the carcasses of fifty five deer he had killed all piled at the same time on the porch at Thomas Hartley's, where J.W. Hartley now lives. No need of a refrigerator and no danger of loss while the weeks of continuous freezing weather lasted. The venison was taken to Pittsburg for sale.

Mr. Ephraim Carder, a nephew of Patton's, thus describes the process of making "jerked venison," an article much in demand among the early settlers on their long hunting expeditions, owing to its nourishing qualities and the convenience in carrying.

First a fire was kindled and a great pile of the thick, heavy bark of a dry oak was piled on, and left until reduced to a heap of glowing coals, which would retain their heat for a long time. Then venison hams were sliced into thin strips, which were strung on ramrods or smooth hickory sticks, and carefully dried over the coals. This jerk would keep indefinitely, was easy to carry, could be chewed on the march, and afforded much nutriment.

Mr. Carder once sold a two bushel sack of dried venison at Ravenswood for 12 cents per pound.

He also described the manner in which they used to carry salt on pack horses from Charleston over the rough forest paths to Harrison County. Naturally, when it was so precious an article and so difficult to obtain, there was little salt used. Mr. Carder told me he had heard this uncle, John Stutler, wish he could get "a piece of corn pone without any salt in it, it would be so good."

It is said that during the Civil War Patton Carder spent a good part of his time in guerilla warfare. He had a camp under a rock in the hollow above where Mr. Ferman Dawkins now lives (1906) on the head of Big Run, where, it is said, he would hide for weeks at a time when the Yankees had possession of Spencer and the neighboring country. He had a famous long range deer gun, with which, it is said, Boone was killed during the siege of Spencer, in the Court House cupola. The shooting (not by Carder, however) being done from the hill above the old mill - a distance of not less than 200 yards.

The rifle now is in the possession of W.D. Shafer, who lives on the old Carder place on the right fork of Buck Run. I have handled the weapon myself, and would imagine that it has been, as an old man once described it, a "honey darlin." It has a barrel, originally six feet long, but now cut off to five feet 8 inches, and is very heavy. The diameter of the muzzle is 1 1/8 inches, and the caliber, 7/16ths of an inch.

John Smith Carder (probably named for his uncle, who was drowned at Reedy in the Trim flood, July 16, 1874) lived after his marriage on the Adams farm on Trace Fork for a time, and then moved to land he had bought on Joe's Run.

"Jeff" Carder lived on the Arnold farm above Liverpool, where he was the first settler.

Ephraim (Uncle Eph) Carder was born in Harrison County in 1837. He was brought to Sandy by one of his uncles when two or three years old, and about two years after his grandfather and family had come. He was brought up by Smith Carder, living with him through the years of his early youth. Mr. Carder now lives on a small stream which enters Little Trace where his father-in-law, Gary McPherson, had died several years ago. This was about a mile from the mouth of Little Trace.

Uncle Eph is a good conversationalist, interesting to listen to, and entirely reliable in all his statements. I will here give a few reminiscences as related to me one day in the winter of 1905:

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Some time during the winter of 1845 or 6, Geoffrey and Anderson Carder concluded they would go out one morning to see if they could find a bear. There was a good tracking snow, and they hoped to start game among the oak and pignut trees of the neighboring hills. They climbed the point at the present site of Tibble's hotel, and followed the ridge south of where the railroad now is, for some distance, when one of them discovered a track in the snow, and called jovially, "Here's Josh Parsons' track," (A kind of club footed man who lived on Reedy). "now".

They started off in pursuit, following the tracks down into the run at the "Bear Lick", about a half mile up towards Reedy. Leaving the trail here, they went down home and got their father, a noted deer hunter, and the dogs.

They returned and followed the bear tracks over on Cabin Run. About four hundred rods above where Jeff Anderson's house now is, near some big rocks, Geoffrey, who was leading in the pursuit, was startled by seeing the bear rear up just ahead of him. Quickly recovering his presence of mind, he raised his gun, a short shotgun which had been adapted to ball shooting, and fired. The bullet at the short range passed through the animal's body. The bear ran down to the foot of the hill, where the dogs caught it, and the rest of the party, coming up, it was quickly dispatched. Uncle Eph distinctly remembers seeing them bring it in. This was the last bear killed in that part of the country.

The last wolves seen in this section was a nest of wolf pups Anderson Carder found in a hollow poplar in the cove above where J. W. Conner lived, on the head of left fork of Buck Run, in 1843.

The last deer Mr. Carder knew of being killed in the vicinity was a good sized buck which Smith Carder's boys chased with dogs, and killed on Joe's Run, about 1883. This was forty years after the wolves had disappeared. The state bounty paid for wolf scalps about 1840 resulted in the complete wiping out of those animals within a few years.

Uncle Eph was himself famous as a deer hunter, and killed two or three deer on Joe's Run as late as 1880.

I have myself seen the spot where Mr. William Hoffman shot and killed a deer on the head of the left fork of Buck Run. This was about 1870, I think, and the gun used was an old fashioned muzzle loading rifle. The distance must have been 100 yards or more.

When Mr. Carder's mother was living in the Jenkins' cabin at the forks of Buck Run, some dogs ran a deer down from the hill into a hole of water in the stream by the house. The animal was exhausted, and was so slow climbing the steep bank from the stream that the woman sallied forth and killed it with a poking stick.

Another woman, Mrs. Lucinda Bush, in 1871, killed a deer with a butcher knife, the hounds having chased the animal and caught it in front of her house on Left Reedy opposite Beech Grove.

Joe Davis and his brother, Abe, sons of Bill Davis, the squatter, were out hunting one day somewhere in the Big Run woods. They separated, one taking each side of the hill, thinking to run across deer somewhere. One of them shot a large buck from off the end of a point, but only wounded it, and the animal ran back around the spur, again passing close to him - but it looked so "ugly" that instead of shooting again, David hid behind a log until it had passed. A wounded deer, if turned at bay was quite a formidable antagonist.

Mr. Carder remembers killing two wild turkeys but the birds were scarce and wary. The dogs would tree them, but they would stretch their necks downward to watch, and if they saw the hunter point a gun toward them, would fly before he had time to take aim and pull the trigger.

It is said that a wild turkey was hard to kill unless shot in the head or neck, as the feathers of the body would turn a rifle ball if the shot were the least bit glancing.

Uncle Eph related another hunting yarn, which I think it might be well to insert here. "Grandpap" Carder was out hunting one day among the hills near Liverpool, when it commenced raining, and increased, until he was forced to take shelter which he did, on the lower side of a large tree which was bent like a sled crook" about ten feet from the ground.

The old man placed his back against the truck of the tree and by standing straight could keep tolerably dry. He soon, however, became aware of a buzzing, humming noise, and investigation disclosed that a large colony of bees had built their comb in the crook of the tree over his head. Afterward, he raided the unique hive, securing a half bushel of comb honey.

When Ephraim Carder was a boy he lived with his uncle, Smith Carder, who lived for a time at the Roy cabin, which stood by a spring below the mouth of Cabin Run, and afterwards was a tenant on Dr. Adams place on Trace Fork.

Uncle Eph's first experience in an educational line was under the guidance of a man named Schlagle, who taught in an old cabin at the narrows below the mouth of Fallen Timber. Carder was small, and the path was through a swampy bottom, so he did not go much. His next teacher was George Winkler, a "Dutchman" who talked very broken English. He kept school in a little cabin which had been built for a school house near the John Anderson house about a half mile up Fallen Timber. This was about 1848. The school house was of the traditional type, round logs, rib roof, dirt floor, and fireplace in the end. There were about sixteen or eighteen pupils, and the tuition fee was $2.50 per scholar for a term of three months. The branches taught were "readin', spellin' (Webster's Elementary Speller) and slates." Winkler, the teacher, boarded at Carder's at Liverpool, and held night sessions in the black smith shop, candles being used for illumination. Children came from as far as Turkey Fork.

Anderson Carder taught a term of school at a cabin near the site of the Oak Grove school house, which, Mr. Carder said, was the "only school that ever done him much good."

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John Stutler, who came before Carder, settled in the woods at what is now known as Warfield Run, building his camp at the mouth of the first little hollow which comes in on the left. When he came in 1839 (says Chris Stutler, Carder makes the date a year earlier) there was but one permanent improvement on the creek above the Knotts' cabin, mentioned elsewhere, that of old Tommy Washburn at the mouth of the run where the late Seldon Hutchinson lived.

Stutler and his wife, the Washburns, Carders and others of the old pioneers, are buried in the old graveyard on the point between Rush Run and Fallen Timber.

For an account of the Stutler family, see the History of Reedy Valley.

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Washburn came out some years earlier than Carder and Stutler. He died at home at the mouth of the Washburn Run, and the family scattered - mostly going to Ohio.

He had sons, Isaac, Elias and William, and two daughters, Clarissa, who married Joe Murphy, and Sally, who married Joe Davis, and lived on Copper Fork.

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There was a colony of squatters who came from Sheppard's Fork of Reedy and located in the woods on the head of the right fork of Sandy, several years before Carder came to the place.

There were three families: John Hartley's, William Roy's and John V. Smith.

John Hartley was an Englishman. He married Mollie Roy, a sister of the old man Roy. He was living on Sheppard's Fork at an early day in that settlement.

After coming to Sandy, he first built at the mouth of Rush Run and later at the site of A. L. Carmichael's house at the mouth of Cabin Run. Of John Hartley's children, I find:

Thomas Hartley, married Mollie Carr. He lived around Liverpool for awhile, and later went to Syracuse, Ohio. Peter Hartley, who lived on the head of Sandy, was their son.

Abby Hartley, late in life married Levi Snyder. She lived at the mouth of Cabin Run.

Lucinda Hartley, married Lige Redmond (Records at the Wood County Court House say "Elijah" Redmond.)

Another Harley who figured in the history of Upper Sandy Valley, Thomas Hartley, a grandson of John Hartley, who had been raised by J. W. Calder, and married his daughter, Susan Carder.

After his marriage Thomas Hartley went to Blue Creek, where he lived a few years; then returning, he bought all the land on Little Trace Fork above the Geoffrey Carder line, which was at the lower end of what is now George Kuhl's orchard. Afterward, he bought the Mitchell farm on the hill. There was left a long wedge shaped tract between Hartley and the "Harrison Line," afterward purchased by Bruce Parsons.

The Mitchell tract he bought of Michael C. Rader. Subsequently he sold it first to Bill Carder and then to Strader Cook, neither of whom paid for it. Finally, about 1860, Marshall Mitchell bought and paid for the land.

When Hartley first came to his new home, sometime in the late Forties, there was "not a stick amiss," on the whole boundary. He built his cabin in the dark shade of the forest trees, and both he and his wife sat to work with a hearty good will and soon had quite an opening made.

After the death of his father in law, they got the home place. Meanwhile Anderson Carder had bought a piece of land acquired by George Smith at a court sale, which included all that part of T. I. Hartley's farm below the Oak Grove school house, as well as the whole of the Davis farm. This, Hartley also bought - thus owning all the land on the stream except the Geoffrey Carder tract.

Hartley built the Ravenswood and Spencer pike in 1851 and 2, while his wife spun yarn, and, with the children, worked the farm and maintained the family. She made rails, and fenced five or six acres of ground, including a large part of what is now Mr. Kuhl's farmstead, and the children dug "mints of 'seng,' as one of them expressed it. Thus she kept the family while the father earned money to but the Anderson Carder land.

But flying time brings changes to us all, and though they lived to see their family grow up and scatter like birdlings from the nest, it was but a few brief years until they were both slumbering under the oak trees which encircle the quiet Liverpool graveyard.

Susan Carder Hartley was born in 1823, died in 1880.

Thomas Hartley was born about 1824, died about 1893.

It is said that Thomas Hartley built and set up on the run east of Soap Hill near Ravenswood the first portable saw mill ever brought to Jackson County, and the first mill run by steam.

Strader Hartley owned the Batten farm at Duncan. Married Catherine Hall. He "deadened the bottom" on his farm, built a house, and moved on it. He was in the Confederate Army.

Clarissa Sheppard said there was a John Carr or Karr living on the creek opposite where Hite Sheppard lived, when she was small. Hite Sheppard, however, has no recollection, he says, of any such name.

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William Roy built at the spring below the mouth of Cabin Run, near where a little rivulet crosses the road, and not far from the present site of Ed. Nuzum's house. His wife (the Rev. M.B. Edmondson thinks) was a full sister of Reuben Full of Right Reedy.

Rev. Edmondson said that there was a John Roy living across from the mouth of Buffalo on Reedy above Palestine, who "looked enough like Reuben Full, Jr., to be his brother."

From different sources, more or less reliable, I gleaned the following:

William Roy married a Full. Their children were:

William, married on Somerville Fork.


John, moved to Leatherwood, Kanawha County.

Sudnor, married a Conrad, and then Jim Smith, as his second wife.

James and Betsy were other children.

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For the history of John V. Smith's father, see History of Reedy Valley. John V. Smith's first wife was a Hardman. They only had one child, William L., who married Eliza Carder, and went west. He died in the Union Army.

Smith's second wife was Annie Hartley. She died on Big Run, where E.L. Waybright now lives, in 1845. Afterwards, Smith married Betsy Carder, Ephraim Carder's mother. The most of the family went west after the war. The Smith children were:

S. Foley Smith, married a Magee. Went to Arkansas.

James E. Smith, married a Winkler, and went to Arkansas.

Owen Brown Smith, married Margaret Mills in Meigs County, Ohio.

John H. Smith went to California "to dig gold."

Margaret Smith, married a brother of Chris Stutler. He died in the Confederate Army.

Mary Jane Smith, married Simon Stutler, a cousin to Chris.

Sarah E. Smith, married George Ables, and lived at Syracuse, Ohio.

Harriet H. Smith, married Jabez Spring, and lives in Ohio.

Henry Smith lived on Elk Fork of Mill Creek.

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Henry Vannoy was a son of John Vannoy, and lived on the point above the mouth of Warfield Run. He was a Justice of the Peace, and at the time of his death a few years ago, he weighed 425 pounds.

William Duncan, who lived here some years ago, was probably a connection of the Warfields, who came from Noble County, Ohio, after the war.

The run opposite the village of Duncan was known as Trap Run, and the larger stream coming in on the same side, above, was called Coon Run. Both were uncleared until a comparatively recent date.

John M. McCartle's saw mill boiler exploded on the head of the right fork of Coon Run, about the fall of1890, but no one was killed.

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As previously stated, Thomas Washburn made the first improvement on the Hutchinson farm. After his death the land was sold for taxes, and bought by Nathan Hutchinson.

David O. Hutchinson, who married Warren Reed's daughter and lived on the New Era farm in 1854, and the father of the late John A. Hutchinson, the brilliant Parkersburg attorney and politician, were Nathan's brothers.

Nathan's sons, Seldon and Albert Hutchinson, "batched"on the land about the beginning of the war. It is said Sel Hutchinson first came out when he was fifteen years old, or about 1855 or 6.

Seldon married a daughter of M.A. Seaman of Reedy, and lived on the Washburn farm. Albert lived on the first place below, and a younger brother, Kenner, bought the Ingram farm at Meadowdale.

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Later owners of the land where Stutler first located were Messrs. Harper, Coe and Warfield.

Harper was the father of Samuel and John Harper. Levi Coe was probably connected with the family of that name on Lower Reedy. He died, and is buried at Liverpool. He came to Duncan after the war and lived on the farm at the turn of the road below Warfield Run. Danger Camp or Defeat Camp was the pioneer name of the steam, so given because of a hunter's camp, which was destroyed here by Indians before the country was settled.

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The first settler of whom I have any account at the mouth of Fallen Timber and Rush Run after Hartley and his daughter, was Elijah Baker. He was born in 1815, and died February 12, 1896, aged eighty years. He was a son of John Baker, who lived below the mouth of Conrad's Run, on Reedy. He married Nancy Wolfe, a daughter of James Wolfe, who settled at the mouth of Elk Fork, on Mill Creek, soon after she was born.

Nancy Baker was born in 1815, and died June 30, 1902, at the age of eighty seven years.

Baker settled here many years ago. He kept a country store at the mouth of Rush Run several years, and was the first Postmaster at Leroy. When I first knew the country, he lived on the hill above the road, where Mike Tatterson now resides. He was a strong Union man, and had a child killed about the beginning of the war.

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Another family who lived in this section before the war, though not pioneers, were the Snyders, Levi, Ben and Henry, who came from Preston County.

Levi Snyder came to Jackson County and lived on Mill Creek. Later he married Abby Hartley, and the family moved to the neighborhood of Ripley. His son, Burris Snyder, was in Company "F" - 4th W. Va. Cavalry, and two nephews, Nimrod and Elias Snyder, sons of Henry Snyder, were in the "11th W.Va. Infantry".

Ben Snyder, another brother of Levi, built a cabin on the high point on the left of Little Creek, just below the Widow Logan's place.

There was a Snyder (some say Ben, others, Tom) lived in the Jenkins cabin at the forks of Buck Run during or after the war.

Tom Snyder lived on Wolf Pen or Patterson Run at onetime, where he made a two-man hand mill which was of great benefit to the neighborhood. It is possible that he lived on the Warren place.

The Snyders lived in various places in the neighborhood of Liverpool for several years. There is another family of the same name in the vicinity of Mill Creek and Sandy, who I think are not related.

Sometime about 1850, Joseph Smith, afterward a prominent lawyer of Jackson County and Judge of the Circuit Court, bought 2,000 acres of land, including the Burroughs farm, all the lower part of Buck Run, the Warren and Patterson farms, also most of the land on the pike above Liverpool. He moved on the land which he contemplated turning into a tobacco plantation. He hired a great boundary cleared, and planted it in tobacco, building several large log tobacco barns - but either the project was not a success or he lacked what the Germans call "ausdauer"to push it to successful results. Perhaps the coming of the clouds of war caused him to leave the place. In any case, the undertaking fell through with.

In 1868, Mr. James Tibble, who had come to Jackson County from Athens County, Ohio, in 1864, after a short stay at Ravenswood and Ripley, bought a part of the land and moved on it. He lived in the house at the mouth of Buck Run until his death in March, 1901, in his eighty first year.

The land at the mouth of Little Trace was bought by Anderson Carder from George W. Smith. Later he sold it to Thomas Hartley, as before mentioned. There was an extensive sugar camp in the bottom at the forks of the creek, and thousands of pounds of sugar have been made there. Later a smaller camp was opened in the bottom in front of the Dave Hill house below the Arnold line.

There was an old house on the land, said to be haunted. Mr. John Hartley told me that once he was passing the house, which was then vacant, at night, and as he came in sight a light was shining through the cracks between the logs, as though there were a fire or other light inside - but when he came close, all was dark and silent.

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The McPherson family, who live on the head of Little Trace, are descendants of James McPherson, who came from Loudoun County, Virginia. They were of Scotch descent. (For more of the McPherson family, see Mill Creek Valley.)

Gary McPherson married Keziah Davis. He lived on the right fork of Big Run during the war, and died at a little cabin down in the hollow from where Eph Carder now lives. He came to Big Run from Gilmer County, in1855. Stephen McPherson on the head of Brushy Fork of Sandy was his brother.

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The Butchers are descendants of one Thomas Butcher who came from Claysville in Wood County. "Prissy" Carder was the second wife of Thomas Butcher's father.

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The head of Sandy was not settled until a few years before the war, when Robert Hopkins, who had married a daughter of John Stalnaker, who lived just across the divide on the Right Fork of Reedy, built where William Burdett now lives. For the Hopkins family, see History of Reedy Valley.

One of the most beautiful spots on the head of Sandy was the deer lick on Buck Run, from whence came its name through the killing of a large buck at the place by Patton Carder about sixty five years before I first saw it in 1905.

The lick is on top of the first bank on the left side of the stream, about forty rods below where George Delaney now lives. I first saw it in the spring, when Nature had just spread a fresh carpet of green and coloring over the face of the earth.

The water came out under a mossy rock, and slipped away over the flat and down the bank to the stream, passing between two large beech trees, which stood like sentinels over the "lick". A lynn tree had been broken down, the log extending from the bank above down over the rocks and into the lick below. As if to make amends for the loss, a thick cluster of sprouts grown to twenty feet in height had sprung up around the stump.

A service tree, full of berries, hung over the spring, into which an occasional robin darted with worried hoots because of me, gathering the fruit for its early fledglings. The rocks above were white with stone crop, and the moist ground was covered with water cress. Spring beauties and violets were everywhere and the bees were humming busily in a clump of willows where catkins were yellow with pollen.

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