By Gary Rider
The story of the part that Marshall County played in the Civil War is one that shows patriotism and devotion to the country to which her people held allegiance. The contribution made by Marshall county in the war is not a small one. With less than 20,000 people in the county, she gave 1,689 men to fight in the Civil War.
One of the men who served in the Union army from Marshall county was Jonathan Hopkins Lockwood. He was the Lt. Colonel of the Seventh West Virginia Volunteer Infantry. This unit is often referred to as the "Bloody Seventh" and as part of the army of the Potomac is recognized for its bravery. This unit participated in a great number of the largest Civil War battles and a great percentage of its command was killed or wounded in action.(1)
Jonathan Lockwood was born in Dilles Botton, Ohio on February 19, 1808. He was one of thirteen children to the parents of David and Rebecca Lockwood.(2)
David was a veteran in his own right. He was a soldier and marine in the New York Continental Line, during the Revolutionary War. "He was taken prisoner and held by the British for 10 months before being released."(3)
In 1835, Jonathan Lockwood married Sallie Thompson, and the following year, they moved to Moundsville, Virginia (now West Virginia). "On becoming married" he built "a substantial frame home at Thirteenth and Lockwood with a walkway around the upper story from which he could watch the steamboats passing".(4)
In 1839, Jonathan's first wife died. They had two children before her death.
In 1844, Lockwood married a second time. This was to Jane Alexander, who survived her husband and lived until 1904. Jonathan and Jane were the parents of four children.(5)
Prior to the Civil War, Lockwood seems to have been a prosperous man and was engaged in various ventures. He was involved in the building of a three story brick building which was a hotel.(6) The census report in 1850, for Marshall County, shows he is a speculator and is worth twenty thousand dollars.(7)
Lockwood was also a man who had spent a great deal of time traveling the Ohio and Missippi Rivers. He traded farm produce by flatboat. Later he was involved with passenger boats. The style of home he built, with a widow's walk for viewing river traffic, shows his love of the river.(8)
"In 1853 the farmers and merchants of Marshall County met" with the intent to organize an agricultural society. Jonathan Lockwood was one of the twenty-eight men who helped organize this society.(9)
Lockwood's military career had begun prior to the Civil War. In 1832, he was a Major in the Ohio Militia.(10)
When the Civil War broke out in the United States Lockwood was fifty-three years old. In August of 1861, he was commissioned as a Major in the Seventh West Virginia Volunteer Infantry. Within one month he was promoted to Lt. Colonel.(11)
The regiment was formed during the months of July, August, September, and October of 1861 at Wheeling and Grafton, Virginia. The mustering in officially of Lt. Colonel Lockwood took place at Camp Keys, Romney, Virginia in September, 1861.(12)
The Seventh saw its first service in West Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley up to May, 1862. The first action of this unit was to take the Tucker County Seat in October, 1861.(13)
On October 24, 1861, the Seventh moved to Romney where it participated in engagements there. The regiment remained in Romney doing picket duty until January 2nd, of 1862.
The Seventh participated in the battle at Bloomery, Virginia, on February 13, 1862, and then took up guard duty on the railroads at Martinsburg. The following month the regiment was ordered to do provost duty at Winchester, Virginia. Jonathan Lockwood served as the Provost Marshall.(14)
Following duty at Winchester, the regiment then had many severe marches in the area and not being well supplied with shoes, the men suffered.(15)
July 2nd, 1862 saw the Seventh land by steamer at Harrison's Landing and assisted in covering the retreat of General McClellan from Lavern Hill. Then, on July 4th, the regiment was involved in a skirmish with Stonewall Jackson's Forces.
By August 29, they were at Centreville, Virginia covering Pope's retreat at Chain Bridge.(16)
The "Bloody Seventh" saw little respite from march and battle, as by September 17, 1862, they arrived at Antietam. They were formed in battle line and were engaged in routing the southern troops from the sunken road.(17)
The Seventh took tremendous casualities at Antietam with 129 men wounded. The gallantry of the men and officers was shown in that the flag, with its bearers, fell to the ground three times, but was raised again and again.(18)
Colonel Snider and Lt. Colonel Lockwood had their horses shot from under them. Lockwood reported that a volley from the rebel sharpshooters put 3 bullets through his horse and 1 through his canteen, spilling his applejack.(19)
The regiment was engaged in several marches after Antietam. Finally, in November, it spent time at Falmouth, Virginia doing picket duty on the Rappahannoch River. The regiment stayed there until December 12. On December 12th, 1862 the regiment fought at Fredericksburg. Lt. Colonel Lockwood says the following in his report:
By order of Colonel Snider, I took command of the right wing... As soon as we had crossed the canal, and our battle line being formed, we moved up briskly under a most terrible enfilading fire. Colonel Snider having been wounded, I assumed command and brought my regiment in good order on the line of skirmishers, when, being in easy range of heavy forces of the enemy, concealed under good cover, my men suffered severly... our orders were to hold the ground at all hazards, which we did for a long time, when our cartridges being exhausted, we stood for some time with fixed bayonets to dispute any charge or assault on our position."(20)
The Seventh returned to Falmouth on the 15th of December, where it remained until April 28, 1863. Then the regiment pushed to Chancellorsville and participated in that engagement on May 3rd.(21)
At Chancellorsville, the Seventh was constantly in battle line, in Carroll's Brigade. On May 3rd, at 8 a.m., the brigade was ordered forward into a wood and forced the enemy to retreat or surrender. The Seventh regiment occupied the enemy's first line of works and came under heavy enemy fire itself and was forced to return to the cover of the woods until Carroll ordered it to withdraw from the field. On the 4th of May Colonel Snider had to leave the field, and command of the regiment went to Lt. Colonel Lockwood for the remainder of the battle.(22) The Seventh returned to Falmouth and remained there until June 14, 1863.
On July 1st, 1863, the Seventh arrived at Gettysburg to participate in that engagement. On the 2nd and 3rd of July they were actively engaged in battle, occupying a position near Cemetery Hill.(23)
On July 2nd, in the evening, Confederate forces made a vigorous attack upon the Federal troops and penetrated the Union lines. Hancock sent Carroll's Brigade in to assist holding the position. Here the Seventh West Virginia fought the Seventh Virginia Rebel Infantry. After a fierce struggle, in which many hand to hand encounters took place, the Confederates were driven back with considerable loss to both sides.(24)
It is reported that the Colonel of the Seventh Virginia Rebel Infantry was captured here and a Lt. Lockwood, a nephew of Lt. Colonel Lockwood.(25)
Lt. Colonel Lockwood was in command of the Seventh during the Gettysburg engagement. He had his horse shot out from under him. Lockwood also was wounded in action here. He was hit by grapeshot which struck his saber scabbard. This drove part of the scabbard into his abdomen, causing a hernia of the left side.(26)
Being greatly reduced in numbers by this time, the Seventh regiment on September 5, 1863, was consolidated into four companies.(27)
On October 12, 1863, the Seventh participated in the engagement at Bristoe Station. Then, in almost continuous march went into battle again at Locust Grove on October 27th. Here they advanced as skirmishers and dislodged a larger force of the enemy. Hand to hand combat ensued with a complete rout of the enemy.(28)
The unit saw action again, when on February 6th and 7th, they fought at Morton's Ford, on the Rapidan. Lt. Colonel Lockwood was commanding his troops here. One description of the action says:
The pontoon bridge detailed to accompany two corps to Morton's Ford had become stuck in the Virginia mud. Carroll's men had to wade through the icy river. So deep was the water that the men had to hold their cartridge boxes above their heads to keep their ammunition dry. Some of the shorter men were unable to keep their footing and had to swim across. Adding to everyone's misery was a cold drizzle. More than anything else in later years, the veterans of Morton's Ford remembered that frigid crossing of the Rapidan.
The ford itself was protected from direct fire by the contour of the land. Carroll's men thus crossed and took up position without the loss of a single man."(29)
At the engagement of Morton's Ford, Lt. Colonel Lockwood is again wounded, this time severely. He is struck by a piece of shell in his right shoulder.(31)
After this engagement the regiment went on veteran furlough in Wheeling, West Virginia. By March, 1864, the unit returned to the army of the Potomac and was actively engaged in the campaign against Richmond.(32)
On May 12, 1864, at Spotsylvania, the regiment was engaged again with the enemy and suffered heavy losses. Lockwood was wounded while leading his men over the second line of enemy breastwork.(33)
This wound was serious. He had been hit by a musket ball to the right side of his head. His side, arm, and hand opposite the wound were partially paralyzed. He had also injured his back from a fall from his horse.(34)
The Seventh continued in action until the wars end. At Ream's Station, it especially distinguished itself, armed with Henry sixteen shot rifles.
The unit always occupied the advance and was constantly in the skirmish line. Lt. Colonel Lockwood was in command from the time of the units formation until its final muster out.(35)
The Seventh had 14% of its enrollment killed. The total killed and wounded was 522.(36)
In September of 1898 a monument of the field of Gettysburg was dedicated to the Seventh West Virginia Infantry.
Following the Civil War, Jonathan Lockwood returned to Marshall County to live with his family. Due to his war injuries and the resulting disabilities, in September of 1869 he filed for a veteran's pension.(37)
In 1870, it was the opinion of the examining physician that Lockwood was partially disabled by his wounds and should receive a pension. These injuries would probably cause him permanent disability. He was pronounced unable to do manual labor and probably would be unable to provide for his family's subsistence.(38)
The wounds that Lockwood received during the war left him with a hernia, a right shoulder that was depressed and shrunken, and a scar on his head.(39) These wounds caused him great suffering.
His daughter reports that he suffered from a cough which he returned home with after the war. This cough bothered him very much, and caused him great trouble in keeping his hernia under control. The use of a truss had continually failed to keep the hernia in place. The coughing spells would cause the hernia to protrude and then Lockwood was in great pain and would have to put the protrusion back in place.(40)
In all reports of those who knew Lockwood until his death, he was reported to be quite muscular, active, and sprightly for his age.(41)
Jonathan Lockwood continued to be successful in the community after the Civil War. He is listed as one of the men who organized and signed the charter for the G.A.R. Chapter in Moundsville. It was one of the older posts, as its number was 21.(42)
By 1880 Lockwood was doing well financially. In the census he is reported as being in general business and worth $12,570. This shows his business ventures must have been successful, as his veteran's pension was only $30.00 a month.
Lockwood died on March 28, 1892, at the age of 84. It was stated by the attending physician that he died of "heart failure". But family members report that he died from a strangulated hernia.
The daughter, Mary Lockwood, states that "he was seized with a violent attack of coughing", causing the hernial tumor to protrude. This caused him great pain and suffering. She says that "Every effort was made to reduce it, but with no avail". Jonathan Lockwood died shortly after.(43)
It is reported by those in 1898 who were appealing Jane Lockwood's right to a widow's pension, that her husband was an "unusally young looking man and vigorous for one his age".(44)
It is also believed that his death due to heart failure was an erroneous statement due to the fact that he came from a remarkably long-lived family. Thus the Pension Board finally agreed that his death was due to wounds suffered during the war. In a letter to Mrs. Lockwood they reversed an earlier decision and allowed her a widow's pension.(45)
On April 1st, 1892 the Moundsville Echo reports the following:
Thus, Jonathan Lockwood should be recognized as one of the truly patriotic heroes of the Civil War, from Marshall County, who led his unit in many of the greatest battles of that national conflict.
(1) - Wheeling Intelligencer, September, 1898. Article is titled "The Brave Dead".
(2) - Jessie Fowler, Voices (San Francisco, 1933), p. 94. Birth date is given as 1806, but all other sources available stay with 1808 birth date.
(3) - History of Belmont and Jefferson Counties. p. 390. David's wife applied for a widow's pension for a Revolutionary War soldier, after his death. A letter from Jonathan says his father served in the war of 1812.
(4) - Moundsville Echo, May 21, 1987.
(5) - Mount Rose Cemetery, Moundsville, WV
(6) - Moundsville Echo, May 21, 1987.
(7) - U.S. Census Report for 1850, Marshall County Public Library.
(8) - Document from Sallie Purdy Parks, granddaughter of J. H. Lockwood. She says that Lockwood established a flour mill which gave him a product to trade. He supposedly made many runs to New Orleans by flatboat. Also, he was involved in the building and running of passenger boats on the Ohio and Missippi Rivers.
(9) - J. H. Newton, History of the Panhandle, West Virginia (1879), p. 382.
(10) - Letter by Jonathan Lockwood to Congress. Pension File, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
(11) - Theodore F. Lang, Loyal West Virginia (Baltimore, 1895), p. 261.
(12) - Military service Record, Microfilm, Shepherd's College, Seventh West Virginia Infantry.
(13) - Wheeling Intelligencer, Sept., 1898.
(14) - Francis Pierpont, Annual Report of the Adjutant General for 1864 (Wheeling, 1865), pp. 226-227.
(15) - Ibid., p. 227.
(16) - Ibid., p. 227.
(17) - Ibid., p. 227.
(18) - Wheeling Intelligencer, Sept., 1898.
(19) - Pension Request, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
(20) - Lang, Loyal West Virginia, pp. 265-266.
(21) - Pierpoint, Report of Adjutant General, p. 228.
(22) - Lang, Loyal West Virginia, pp. 226-267. Family history reports that the brother of Jonathan Lockwood, William, was killed at Chancellorsville. That was the seventh engagement in which William had participated.
(23) - Pierpont, Report of Adjutant General, p. 228.
(24) - Wheeling Intelligencer, Sept., 1898.
(25) - Pierpont, Report of Adjutant General, p. 228.
(26) - Application for Pension. A document by a surgeon. National Archives, Washington, D. C.
(27) - Pierpont, Report of adjutant General, p. 228.
(28) - Ibid., p. 228.
(29) - Bruce Trinque, America's Civil War, Article entitled "Rebels Across the River", Sept., 1994. p. 42.
(30) - Lant, Loyal West Virginia, p. 267.
(31) - Application for Pension of J. H. Lockwood, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
(32) - Pierpont, Report of Adjutant General, p. 229.
(33) - Ibid., p. 229.
(34) - Military Service Record, microfilm, Shepherd's College, Seventh West Virginia Infantry.
(35) - Wheeling Intelligencer, Sept., 1898. Lockwood was officially discharged from the army on December 6, 1864, according to the pension documents filed. But all sources viewed refer to Lockwood being in command until the end of the regiment's service.
(36) - Lang, Loyal West Virginia, p. 268.
(37) - Pension File for J. H. Lockwood, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
(38) - Ibid. p. 229.
(39) - Edward C. Grisell, Affidavit in Pension File, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
(40) - Mary Lockwood, Letter to Secretary of Interior. Pension File, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
(41) - Edward C. Grisell, Affidavit in Pension File.
(42) - Moundsville Echo, June 1880.
(43) - Letter of Mary Lockwood to Secretary of Interior. Pension File, National Archives.
(44) - Doctor Bruce. Affidavit to Pension Appeal Board. Pension File, National Archives.
(45) - Letter to Commissioner of Pensions. Sept. 28, 1898. Pension File, National Archives.
(46) - Moundsville Echo, April 1, 1892.
(1) - Wheeling Intelligencer, September, 1898. Article is titled "The Brave Dead".
Presented by Linda Cunningham Fluharty