by Scott Powell, 1925


Contributed by Frank Manning.


Pages 151-173

The constitution provided for a system of free schools, in which the township was made the unit.

Article X, Section Z of the constitution read:

The legislature shall provide, as soon as practicable, for the establishment of a thorough and efficient system of free schools. They shall provide for the support of such schools by appropriating thereto the interest of the invested school fund; the net proceeds of all forfeitures, confiscation and fines accruing to the state under the laws thereof; and by general taxation on persons and property, or otherwise. They shall also provide for raising in each township, by the authority of the people thereof, such proportion of the amount required for the support of free schools therein as shall be prescribed by general law.

Chapter 137 of the acts of the Legis lature passed on the tenth of December. 1863, read:

An Act providing for the establishment of free schools:

1. In conformity, with the provisions of the tenth article of the consti- tution, a system of free schools is hereby established according to the provisions of this act, in order to provide means of instruction for all of the youth of the state, in such fundamental branches of learning as are indispensible to the proper discharge of their social and civil duties; and for this purpose each and every organized township within the several counties of the state, or which may hereafter be organized within the same is hereby constituted a school district, to be confided to the care and management of a board of education as hereafter constituted; but the city of Wheeling, with parts of townships connected therewith, shall constitute but one school district.

Section two of the same act provides for the election by the voters at the regular annual township election, of three commissioners, of whom the one having the highest number of votes, shall hold his office for the term of three years, and, the one having the next highest number of votes shall hold his office for two years, and the one having the next highest number of votes shall hold his office one year, and annually thereafter at the time and place of holding township meetings and elections, and in conformity with the act regulating the same, one commissioner shall be elected who shall hold his office three years; Provided, that if at the first any two commissioners shall have as equal number of votes. The persons so elected shall determine by lot the duration of their respective terms of office.

Section 4 reads:

The commissioners so elected together with the clerk of the township, shall constitute the board of education of their township, and they and their successors in office shall be a body corporate in law under the name and style of THE BOARD OF EDUCATION of the township of ............. and as such may purchase, hold and seal or convey real and personal property for the use of education within their district.

Section 6:

The board of education of each school district shall, as soon as practicable after they are duly elected and qualified, and annually thereafter, within ten days after the fourth day of July, take or cause to be taken an enumeration of all the youth between the age. of six and twenty-one distinguishing between males and female.

Section 7:

The board of education shall take control and management of all the schools within their district in pursuance of which they shall be in charge with the following powers:

First-- They shall establish a sufficient number of free schools for the education and instruction of every individual resident within their district, between the aces every six and twenty-one years, who may apply for admission and instruction, either in person or by parents. guardian, or next friend.

Second--They shall cause suitable lots of ground to be purchased and suitable buildings to be erected, purchased or rented for school houses. and shall supply them with proper fuel and with such furniture and fixtures as are necessary to the comfort, health. good order and progress of the pupils. Third-They shall have the appointment of all the teachers of the public schools within the district, shall fix the amount of teachers' salaries and may dismiss them at any time for incompetency, cruelty, negligence or immorality.

Section 16:

It shall be the duty of all teachers employed in any public school of the state to inculcate the duty of piety, morality and respect for the law and government of their country; and all teachers. boards of education, and other school officers created by this act, are hereby charged with the duty of providing moral training for the youth of this state, which contribute to securing good behavior and virtuous conduct, and furnish the state with exemplary citizens.

The branches in which teachers were examined for certificates were orthography, reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar and geography. The certificates were valid for one year and the grades were from one to five.

The act required the boards of education to divide the township-districts into subdistricts, each containing not less than forty youths between the ages of six and twenty-one years, except that in the opinion of the board that it is necessary to reduce the number.

The act contemplated a school term of six months.

It provided for a central high school, It provided that the township levy for teachers' fund shall not exceed ten cents on each one hundred dollars of valuation, and for building fund it shall not exceed five cents on each one hundred dollars of valuation.

It provided for the assessment of one dollar upon each white male and each free colored male inhabitant over twenty-one years of age.

The school year commenced on the first day of September and closed on the last day of the following August.

The township treasurer was the treasurer of the board of education and teachers were paid by orders drawn by the clerk of the township, who was also clerk of the board of education upon the township treasurer signed by the clerk and president of the board.

The officials who, under this act, divided the township districts into sub- districts, bought land and had buildings erected for schools, were elected at the first annual township election ever held in the state on the twenty-eighth of April, 1864.

They were:

County Superintendent of Free Schools.

J. N. Pipes, J. M. Phillips and George Hubbs. School Commissioners.
W. H. Bassett, Clerk.

Wm. Riggs, Jesse Bonar and Wm. Varley, School Commissioners.
Wm. Dobbs, Clerk.

John Hornbrook, Geo. W. McKimmie and Thos. Ruckman, School Commissioners.
George Rine, Clerk.

J. W. Higgins, John S. McDonald and G. Richter, School Commissioners.
W. H. Henderson, Clerk.

N. Shepherd, J. W. Richmond and Jackson Travis, School Commissioners.
Peter Koltz, Clerk.

John Ritchey, A. R. Kimmins and Samuel Dague, School Commissioners.
J. W. Winters, Clerk.

Joseph Pedley, Dr. McCoy and Thomas Morgan, School Commissioners.
W. D. Campbell, Clerk.

Wm. Keyser, Wm. McCreary and Eli Salter, School Commissioners.
John K. Francis, Clerk.

Reuben Zink, Wm. White and George Edwards, School Commissioners.
G. S. McFadden, Clerk.

These school officers whose duty it was to divide the districts into subdis- tricts, select sites, purchase land, build or rent houses for school purposes, and provide, in part, for the support of schools in the districts. By autumn of 1866, they had the work so far completed that schools were opened in each subdistrict.

By the time they were completing their work a change, in the school law relieved the boards of education from a portion of their duties. They appointed three trustees in each sub district whose duty it was to employ teachers, fix salaries to be paid to them and to take care of the school property.

The election of a county superintendent of free schools and township officers at the annual township election, held on the fourth Thursday of April was changed to the fourth Thursday of October and was held at the same time and place and in connection with the annual state and county election,and the spring election ceased to be held.

The term of school was not six months as contemplated, but was about four months, depending upon the salary paid teachers in the districts.

The county superintendents of free schools of Marshall shall County from the first establishment of free schools until the adoption of a new constitution in the year 1872, were:

Wm. J. Alexander, elected on the fourth Thursday of April, 1864, served one term of two years.

John Lorain, elected the fourth Thursday of April, 1866, and re-elected on the fourth Thursday of October, 1867, served two terms of two years each.

John W. P. Reid was elected on the fourth Thursday of October, 1869, and served one term of two years.

Samuel R, Hanen was elected on the fourth Thursday of October, 1871. He served one year under each constitution, two years, a full term.

The constitution adopted in the year 1872, contained about the same constitutional provisions for free schools as the first, but the Legislature made some changes in the law.


An Act to amend and re-enact the school law of the state. Passed April 12, 1873.

Be it enacted by the Legislature of West Virginia:

1. That for the purpose of free schools, the several counties of the state shall be divided into school districts and subdistricts, until changed, as hereinafter provided, the townships and districts, as now arranged, shall constitute the districts and subdistricts respectively of the several counties.

2. Each county shall be under control of a county superintendent; each district shall be under the control of a board of education, and each subdistrict under the control of one trustee. The same person shall not be eligible to more than one of these offices at the same time. The board of education shall consist of a president and two commissioners.

An election for these officers shall be held at the school house in each subdistrict from nine o'clock in the morning until six p. m. of the second Friday of August, 1873, and every two years thereafter.

5. Each trustee, and commissioner of the board of education, elected as provided in section second of this chapter shall hold his office for the term of two years commencing the first day of September next after his election.

6. The board of education of the several districts shall hold their first meeting on the first Monday of September. At this meeting they shall determine the number of months the schools shall be held in the district, the number of teachers that may be employed in the several subdistricts and fix the salaries that shall be paid to teachers of the same grade in the several subdistricts, and the trustees of the several subdistricts shall in nowise transcend the salaries so fixed in any contract that they may make with teachers. A quorum of the board of education shall consist of a majority of the members thereof; and in the absence of the president, one of the members may act as such; but they shall do no official business except when assembled as a board, and by due notice to all the members.

The board of education elected a secretary who was not a member of the board.

The branches taught in the primary schools were orthography, reading, penmanship, English grammar, arithmetic, geography and history and such other branches as the board of education might direct.

Provisions were made for graded and high schools. A county board of examiners, consisting of the county superintendent of free schools and two assistant examiners, who were appointed in August of each year by a majority of the presidents of the boards of education or any three of them which constituted a quorum for such appointment. The board of examiners were required to hold two regular examinations each year and other examinations might he held if deemed expedient.

The examinations were public and a majority of the board of examiners must participate in it.

The certificates were only valid in the county in which they were issued and only valid in it for one year from date. Diplomas granted graduates from normal schools of the state Were accepted as a certificate of qualification and of the same grade as a number one grade of county certificate. Certificates granted by the boards of examiners of the several counties were of three grades, one, two and three. Salaries were fixed for teachers according to the grades of certificates.

The annual levy for teachers' funds was limited to fifty cents on each one hundred dollars of valuation, and for building fund, the levy should not exceed forty cents on each one hundred dollar, of valuation. The minimum term of school was four months.

The first public examination of teachers was held at the school-house in Moundsville on the nineteenth day of September, 1873, and the board of examiners were S. R. Hanen, County Superintendent of Free Schools, and W. M. Wirt and B. B. Newman, assistant examiners.

There was no change in the school law for your years. It was then changed back to three trustees for each sub-district, who were appointed by the boards of education at a regular meeting held on the first Monday of September, whose term of office was three years, after the first trustees were appointed, At a regular meeting of boards of education of the different districts, held on the first Monday of September in the year 1877, three trustees were appointed for each subdistrict ; one was for the lull term of three years, one for two years and one for one year; and each year thereafter a trustee was appointed to fill the vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of one of the three.

From that date there has been many changes in the school law. The commencing of the school year was soon changed from the first of September to the first of July, and the school election from August to May and the election for school officers and voting on the proposition to lay levy for school purposes was changed from May to the general election for state and county offices in November and since 1893, all the elections were held at the same tune and place and by the same election officers. It had been originally the purpose of keeping the elections separated to keep all school matters free from politics, but it was deemed expedient to hold all elections at the same time and reduce expenses as much as possible.

The first teachers' institute held in Marshall County was held at Cameron in the winter of 1871. The second session was held in Moundsville in the public school building in October, 1873. After that date they were held annually and became an important factor in education. Teachers held an additional week of institute in connection with the regular institute provided by the state commencing about the year 1892 and continued that work for a number of years, but in time it became like rum and tanzy as a summer drink in New England -- a lost art.

A system of grading schools and graduating therefrom was introduced into this county by Prof. A. L. Wade, of Monongalia County, at a session of county institute which he conducted in the winter of 1876, and it was a factor of education of real value and in following years a number of pupils graduated from the district schools.

At a session of county institute held in Moundsville, in the circuit court room in the county court-house, a committee of three, J. T. King, W. B. Mathews and E. C. Rowand, were appointed to prepare and report a system for grading district schools. They prepared one in which the grading was based upon the readers used in the schools and which differed very little from the system prepared by the State Superintendent of Free Schools for the grading of country and village schools a few years later. The institute adopted the one reported by the committee named above on the second day of August, 1888.

The writer of this work has carefully preserved the neat little folder containing the system as reported and has it at this time and keeps it as a souvenir of the enterprise of Marshall County teachers in early days.

There have been so many changes made in the school law that they are hard to follow, and in many instances it seems that school officers and teachers could scarcely keep up with the changes, They were so frequent that it was thought that nothing but the moon and weather changed more frequently.

The following were the superintendents of free schools in Marshall County from the establishing of free schools to this date, giving date of their election and term of office Wm. J. Alexander, elected in 1864; served one term of two years.

John Lorain, elected in 1866; served two terms of two years each.

John W. P. Reid, elected in 1869; served one term of two years.

Samuel H. Hanen, elected in 1871; served two terms of two years.

W. M. Wirt, elected in 1873; served two terms of two years each.

David Bonar, elected in 1879; served one term of two years.

John W. P. Reid, elected in 1881; served two terms of two years each.

W. M. Wirt, elected in 1885; served three terms of two years each.

J. M. Rine, elected in 1891 ; served one term of two years.

J. E. Sivert, elected in 1893; served one term of two years.

J. M. Wirt, elected in 1894; served one term of four years.

W. E. Mason, elected in 1898; served one term of four years.

James D. Parriott, elected in 1902; served one term of four years.

Albert S. Winter, elected in 1906; served one term of four years.

H. W. McDowell, elected in 1910; served two terms of four years.

H. E. Carmichael, elected in 1918; served one term of four years.

J. Sherman Welch, elected in 1922,

Those serving two or more terms were regularly reelected at a regular election.

Education facilities in Marshall County previous to the admission of West Virginia into the Union, were not to be compared with those of the present day, Education was not neglected as some may think, but was fostered under many difficulties.

The first school-houses were the ordinary log cabin of the day, with a great fireplace in one end, a puncheon floor, seats made by splitting small trees into two parts, hewing the flat sides smooth, at least the large splinters were hewn off, boring four holes, putting in legs, making a bench without a back. A puncheon hewn very smooth and set on pins in the wall, made a writing desk. The room was often lighted by cutting out sections of the logs and covering the openings with greased paper. The room was heated by an immense wood tire in the fireplace. There was an abundance of fuel. In many instances it was very convenient as the school-houses were usually built in the woods at the side of a road; and the young men and well grown boys were familiar with the use of the ax, and with the abundance of fuel, there was no danger of suffering from cold. The cracks between the logs were filled with chunks and mortar and a roaring fire in the great fireplace, made the room warm and cheerful when, filled with rosy- cheeked boys and girls. The house was well ventilated by the large chimney and there was not the least danger of the impure air of the schoolroom imp airing the health and taking the color from their youthful cheeks.

Later a hewed log house with a floor of sawed plank fitted together, a board ceiling, with seats made of boards with backs to them, a board on rests on the wall for a writing desk, a stove for wood or coal stood in the center of the room for heating it, took the place of the round log cabin with its primitive equipments.

Teachers then were not generally so well educated as they are at the present day, although there were many fine scholars among the pioneer teachers and much good work was done by them.

It was not a hardship for the well grown boys and girls to go two, three, and even four males to school. They were full of life and vigor and in many instances no small effort was required to restrain or control their youthful mischievous inclinations. But few branches were taunt in these schools. Spelling was carefully studied and good spelling was a popular accomplishment. There were many good penmen among the pioneer pupils and they all wrote with a quill pen. Three months was the usual term of winter school. That, with one or two months for small children who could not wade through the deep snow and stand the it winter storms. were the amount of schools in prosperous settlements.

Some of the counties of Virginia, which are now counties of West Virginia, adopted a system of free school in and for the county, much the same as the present school system. The General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Virginia passed an act providing for a system of free schools in counties by submitting to the legal voters a proposition to adopt the system; and in case two-thirds of the votes cast at an election at which the proposition was submitted, were in favor of the adoption, then the same became effective and officers were elected or appointed much the same as at the present day to carry the system into effect.

Ohio County adopted the system and had free schools in it many years before this county had them.

There were many citizens of Marshall County who went ardent advocates of the adoption of the system and establishing free schools in the county and made it a matter of interest to office-seekers to keep on the safe side of such voters, as there was really a majority in favor of free schools, but the majority was too small to adopt a system. On one occasion a man who had filled an office for many years and was always, anxious that his calling on convention days and election on election days be sure, was interrogated as to his views on the matter of adopting the system of free schools as provided by acts of the General Assembly of the state. He knew that it was not a good policy for him -to oppose it and was uncertain as to his safety if he was too strong in favor of it, and replied: I am in favor of a consistency in the practical utilities of purposes and a strict adherance to the law."

Educational work in early clays was not entirely destitute of social features. Spelling schools or spellings, were very common and free for all who wished to participate in them, and spelling matches, in which two or more schools entered into a contest. were very common. There was much interest taken in these contests not only by the young but by the older people, and such gatherings were really social gatherings as much as they were educational gatherings. Literary societies were another feature of educational value. Pupils of the schools were expected to perform certain work in these societies, and they did their part of the work; the main feature, the debate, was left to the older members of the society, many of whom took great interest in the work.

Considerable reading was of necessity done in order to gather facts in support of the sides of the question for debate as well as thought and study in connecting the facts to be presented in the debate. and generally those who took much interest in the work became careful readers and gathered much valuable information. Singing schools were another feature of real interest and improvement in the days gone by many years ago.

It is sometimes said that educational interest today is not equal to the opportunities nor are the opportunities improved at the present time to a greater degree that they werehalf a century or more ago. Whether this is the case or not it is perfectly safe to say that there is ample room yet for improvement and for an increase of interest in the education of the youth of this fair land of ours. It is certain that some of the purposes of public education have been overlooked or abandoned of late and the public has been deprived of their benefits. A real educational revival, nationwide in extent, would be of great value to America.


A surrey of schools in Marshall County in 1923 showed that many changes had been made in schools and school work in the past fifty years.

The county board of examiners that formerly had charge of the work of examining teachers as to their qualifications, for teaching, issuing certificates valid only in the county in which issued, and controlling the standard of education in the county, had passed out of existence and the work now in the hands of state authorities, to set the standard of qualifications of teachers, to have examin- ations held in each county by county hoards of examiners. who do not participate in the work further than to see that it is conducted as directed by proper author- ities, and return the manuscript to state officials for grading Certificates are now issued by state authorities and valid in the schools of the state for the grade of work designated by the certificates.

Duties of county superintendents have been enlarged; also his authority has been increased. He is now required to perform duties formerly performed by secretaries of boards of education of districts, which make him financial secretary of the county, and all orders issued by boards of education must be countersigned by him to make them valid.

The school authorities of the state have been greatly enlarged and the number of officials increased, as much work formerly done in counties is now done by state officials.

Besides state superintendent of schools. there is a supervisor of high schools with one assistant; a supervisor of rural schools with two assistants. and a st ate board of education of which the state superintendent of schools is ex-officio president.

High schools have been established in towns and cities and in some rural dis- tricts, especially where consolidated schools have been established. District superintendents are employed in some rural districts, whose duties are similar to the duties of superintendents of city-schools. Many educators in the past quarter of a century have advocated triple supervision, but boards of education have been very slow in adopting it as a general feature of school work.

The number of pupils in rural districts have decreased in the past half century apparently in greater proportions than the decrease in population.

Many schools that formerly had enrolled annually a large number of pupils have so few today that the schools are too small to be interesting. This decrease in the number of pupils in subdistrict schools necessitated a consolidation of several of the former subdistrict schools into one school of modern type.

In a few subdistricts there has been an increase in the number of pupils and two-room school houses have been erected and two teachers employed; also a number of school houses of two rooms have been erected, or a second room, added, and two teachers employed with fewer pupils than were' formerly taught by one teacher in the same school.

From the beginning of free schools in 1866 to 1873, trustees employed teachers and fixed salaries paid them, and during that period salaries were from thirty-five to forty dollars per month without regard for grade of certificate. Teachers were often scarce and without experience and it was a great work to develop a corps of teachers to fill the schools.

Beginning with the school year of 1873, boards of education fixed salaries of teachers according to grades of certificates and teachers' salaries for that year, for number one certificates ranged at from forty to forty-eight dollars per month and for taking care of school-houses, fifty cents per week was allowed, which added to the salaries as compared to former allowances somewhat increased salaries.

The next year, 1874, cutting of teachers' salaries commenced and continued till one or two districts in Marshall County reduced salaries for number one certificates to twenty-nine dollars per month.

For several years boards of education met in September and appointed trustees and fixed salaries for teachers and did so much cutting that a country newsletter stating that "cutting teachers' salaries and cutting corn was the order of the day" would have been a very correct statement.

This may sound ridiculous, but an examination of records, if school records can be found, would show that in days of business depressions, hard times, no cuts were made in salaries of public officers or functionaries in the county except teachers.

Only twenty-five years ago in some districts teachers with number one certificates were only paid thirty dollars per month and it was not till two or three years later that boards of education began to increase salaries and then it was only a very small increase.

Today (1923) boards of education are compelled to pay teachers with number one elementary certificates eight-five dollars per month and those having ten years or more experience, an increase of twenty dollars per month, making the salary one hundred five dollars per month.

Fifty years ago the minimum school term was four months; a few districts had five months. A few years later Union District increased the term to seven months and later to ten months. After a number of years it reduced the term of school to nine months and it remains at that and will never be less. Other districts increased the school term at times till now there are eight or nine months of school in every district in Marshall County.

It required years of hard work to secure better conditions and better treatment with better salaries. It is safe to say that the demand for labor in other fields of employment was the most potent factor in bringing about the change of conditions and increase of salaries.

Many teachers spent the best days of their lives in the work and after they exhausted their strength in attempting to make the schools what they should be, quit the work in disgust, neglected by the people for whom they had labored to benefit. Such was the life of the pioneer teachers.


There has been considerable activity the past few years in consolidating rural schools in Marshall County and there are several consolidated schools in the county as a result.

Union District consolidated seven subdistricts into one consolidated school at Sherrard and the board of education built an eight-room school-house for the school. Four rooms are for the grade school and four for the high school.

Webster District consolidated five subdistricts into one consolidated school at Pleasant Valley and erected a schoolhouse of three rooms for the school.

Liberty District consolidated two subdistricts into one and erected a two-room school-house at Woodruff for the school.

Washington District this year (1923) consolidated five subdistricts into one and erected a four-room school-house at Limestone for the school.

Meade District this year consolidated two subdistricts into one and erected a modern school-house of two rooms at Nauvoo for the school.


Not Consolidated.

On Boggs Run in Union District is a three-room schoolhouse erected to accommodate the number of pupils in the subdistrict. Thirty years ago there was a two-room house for the school and the increase of pupils since required an additional room.

Cameron District has two houses of two rooms each, one at Glen Easton and one at Loudensville.

Clay District has two houses of two rooms each. One at Rosbys' Rock and one at the "Union" school on Robert's Ridge.

Franklin District has two houses of two rooms at Cresaps and Woco, mining villages, in all, six houses of two rooms each and one three-room house of this class.


Cameron District has eight: Clay District, five; Franklin District, sixteen; Liberty- District, fifteen-, Meade District, ten; Sand Hill District, twelve; Union District, one; Washington District, two, and Webster District has ten, making in all, seventy-nine school-houses with one room each, six with two rooms each and one school-house of three rooms.

Many improvements have been made in rural schools and school-houses in the past fifty years. New, modern schoolhouses have replaced those first built. They have comforts and conveniences not thought of half a century ago. Better locations have been selected, with suitable playground; sanitary furniture provided; libraries purchased; many subdistricts consolidated; medical inspection of pupils introduced; fresh water convenient; means provided to maintain and improve health; arrangements for hot lunches; school term lengthened; salaries increased; annual examinations for graduation from elementary schools. This year eighty-one graduated. Teachers' salaries the past year averaged eight hundred dollars.



MOUNDSVILLE, fifty years ago, had one school building for the white pupils with five class rooms and one recitation room.

There was a school for colored children but it was conducted in a building used by colored people for a church.

BENWOOD had a two-room school building, and CAMERON the same.

McMECHEN and GLENDALE were rural subdistrict schools with a one-room school-house of the usual type of that date at each place.

The same schools at this date (1923) are quite different. Moundsville has a high school building and three grade school buildings and a frame school building for the colored school. The teaching force consists of a district superintendent of schools, a principal of the high school, three grade school principals, fifteen high school teachers, fifty-three grade teachers for the white schools and one teacher for the colored school, making the entire teaching force for the year seventy-four.

Benwood has one high school building, two buildings for grade schools, with a teaching force of thirty-three, consisting of a superintendent of Union District, a high school principal, two principals of grade schools, thirteen high school teachers and sixteen grade teachers.

McMechen has a grade school building with a teaching force of a principal and seventeen teachers, making the entire force consist of eighteen.

Cameron has one high school building and one grade school building with a teaching force consisting of a superintendent of Cameron District, ex-officio principal of the high school, seven high school teachers and sixteen grade teachers, making the entire corps of teachers twenty-three in number.

Glendale has two school buildings: one a brick building of six rooms, a frame building of one room and one room in the basement of the brick building, at present used for a class room. The teaching force consists of a principal, who teaches, and seven teachers. It, like McMechen, is only an elementary school.

Fifty years ago the urban teaching force consisted of only ten for schools for whites and one for the colored children, eleven in all. This year they number one hundred and fifty-six; quite an increase.

Fifty years ago there were no high schools, nothing but graded schools with an academic course of study. No social features nor amusements connected with schools. Hard study was a prominent feature of the work and results were in proportion to the labor expended.

Today (1923) high schools have taken the place of the graded schools with extended courses of study. Commercial course with stenography and typewriting; domestic science; manual training; social gatherings under the auspices of school authorities; music on the curriculum of studies; football, baseball and basket ball, part of the school work, with an instructor or "coach" provided by boards of education, have been added to school work within the past quarter of a century, and are now prominent features of school work.

A survey of schools in this county fifty rears hence will disclose great changes and teachers will remark of the schools of today. "They were away behind us," as the teachers of today say of the schools and teachers of fifty years ago.

                              ANNUAL ENUMERATION.
                               Age from 6 to 20.


                                       Males   Females  Total,
Cameron District .....................  518      519     1037
Clay District ........................  168      146      314
Franklin District ....................  315      281      586
Liberty District .....................  247      219      466
Meade District .......................  227      178      405
Sand Hill District ...................  169      136      305
Union District ....................... 1403     1429     2832
Washington District ..................  272      273      545
Webster District .....................  184      167      351
Moundsville Independent District ..... 1454     1429     2883
                                       ____     ____     ____ 

       Total, white ...................4957     4777     9734 


Liberty District .....................    1                 1
Union District .......................    3        1        4
Moundsville Independent District .....   17       18       35
                                        ___      ___      ___

       Total, colored ................   21       19       40 

Total white and colored in county.....................   9774 
Number of pupils enrolled ............................	 7198 
Average daily attendance .............................   6122 
Graduated from elementary schools.....................	   81
Graduated from high schools ..........................     94 



                                          Estimate     Levy
Cameron District--
   Building and maintenance funds ........ $11,067    $7,254
   Teachers funds ........................  39,799    38,108 
Clay District--
   Building and maintenance funds.........  12,715     8,688
   Teachers' funds .......................   9,655     7,924 
Franklin District--
   Building and maintenance funds.........  11,946    11,108
   Teachers' funds .......................  17,923    17,133 
Liberty District--
   Building and maintenance funds.........   5,704     5,674
   Teachers funds ........................  18,488    16,506 
Meade District--
   Building and maintenance funds ........  10,020     7,514
   Teachers' funds .......................  10,981     9,701 
Sand Hill District--
   Building and maintenance funds ........   3,870     2,939
   Teachers' funds .......................   8,953     7,820 
Union District--
   Building and maintenance funds ........  85,845    68,870
   Teachers' funds .......................  99,535    94,579 
Washington District--
   Building and maintenance funds ........  37,472    20,108
   Teachers' funds .......................  17,954    14,739
Webster District--
   Building and maintenance funds.........  10,472     6,929
   Teachers' funds .......................  11,798    10,233 
Moundsville Independent District--
   Building and maintenance funds ........  55,199    46,774
   Teachers' funds .......................  98,551    87,702
                                          _________  ________
Total for building and maintenance ...... $244,310  $186,854
Total for teachers' funds................  333,637   304,445 
Paid elementary teachers last year ................ $214,688
Paid high school teachers last year ...............   79,389 
Total expended for schools, same...................  496,059 


                           Teachers (1923)
                            URBAN SCHOOLS
Number of teachers employed in high schools............  35 
Number of teachers employed in grade schools........... 120 
Number of teachers employed in colored school..........   1 
Number of teachers employed in urban schools........... 156 

                            RURAL SCHOOLS
Number of high school teachers employed................   4 
Number of grade school teachers employed............... 104 
Total number of teachers employed ..................... 108 
Number of graduates from normal schools teaching this
     year..............................................  93 
Number of graduates from normal schools teaching 
     (1873) ...........................................   4 

NOTE.--The distribution of teachers was made upon the understanding
of the consolidation of subdistricts into a consolidated school at
Limestone. Not having a school-house for this year, schools will be
held in four of the five subdistricts ; one house was burned,
leaving only four houses in the five subdistricts consolidated,
making for this year one more teacher in rural schools than given 
above--one hundred nine. 

                     TEACHERS OF MARSHALL COUNTY
                            RURAL SCHOOLS

                           CAMERON DISTRICT
	         Z. R. Knotts, Superintendent District

Nellie Smith         J. W. Santee         Wm.Carmichael
Dorothy Harris       Elsie Hubbs          Jean Stewart
Blain Hubbs          Irene Best           Okey Stewart
Marjorie Fish        Luella Davis         W. D. Fitzsimmons

                            CLAY DISTRICT

M. D. Logsdon        Carrie C. Campbell   J. M. Rine
Neva Smith           Earl Henderson       Virginia Bonar
C. J. Wilson         Blanch Gump          W. B. Wayt 

                         FRANKLIN DISTRICT

Goldie Smith         Berlin O. Smith      M. B. Strawn
Floris Iva Gatts     Orville Baumberger   F. W. Berisford
L. G. Wilson         Twila Friedly        Thomas McHenry
Gilmore Rine         Joseph Wade          Ruth McConnell
Edna M. Walters      Leah Gorby           Forest Flouhouse
Helena Friedly       Sadie Wiley          Beulah Kelley 
          Leona Gillispie       Bessie Wayne  

                        LIBERTY DISTRICT

Gail Crow            T. D. Emery          Lureta Mackey 
Vera Lough           Alice Chaddock       Ray Burch
Archie Yeater        Flo Teagarden        Beulah Emery
Clarence E. Mason    Leah Wood            Virginia Powers
Ruth Todd            Sam. J. Anderson     Ethel Hupp 

                        MEADE DISTRICT

Irene Thompson       Susan Barnum         Geneva B. Young
Thos. B. Bonar       Hattie Bonar Terrill Ada Ruth Cummins
C. S. Lancaster      Carrie Games         G. F. Mason 
                     Hildred Mason

                     SAND HILL DISTRICT

Foster Rine          Earl Francis         Virginia Loy
Ethyl Junkins        S. R. Lydick         Mary Burke
Flora Richmond       Mabel Orum           William Hazlett 
                     Ruth Hipsley

                       UNION DISTRICT

            M. P. Boyles, Superintendent District
Earl C. Blake        Nellie Sonderman     Helen Leeds 
                  Mrs. Bertha Von Philip

                    WASHINGTON DISTRICT
Carl Crow            S. A. More           Tony Jefferson
Beulah Kanner        Adda Baker           Pearl Chambers
Margaret Moorehouse  Ora Dowler	          R. W. Kennedy
Opal Deitz           Helen Morningstar    Helen Baker
Marietta Stewart     Leona Holbrook       Alma Riggs

                     WEBSTER DISTRICT
C. B. Allman         D. Violet Weekley    Ella S. Brown
A. E. Blake          Marie Bungard        Lorena Rinderer
Donald Schultz       Lloyd Bush           Pauline M. Mills
Ethel Hubbs          Wilma Reed           Arthur Crow 


                        HIGH SCHOOL 
E. Stutzman          Ruth Flota           C. C. Head 
                     Elvada Marshall

                        GRADE SCHOOL
Georgia Hubbs        Virginia Talbott     Mary Caldwell 
                     Hilda Briemson

                       URBAN SCHOOLS 

                      Graded and High
                   Earl Drummond, Principal
W. W. Swinehart      Chris Sanders       Louis Reidel
J. W. Welch          Helen Graffe        Mabelle Patton
Esther McMillen     Winifred Cruikshank Lydia Shreffier 

                        GRADE SCHOOL
                E. L. Beck, Physical Director
           Mrs. Florence Stromberg, Music Director 
               Virginia Hunter, Art Supervisor 
                    Jessie Hare, Nurse
                    Anna Neilson, Nurse
C. L. Stricklin      Thelma Smith        Anna Bowman
Mildred Carroll      Minnie Gatho        Mrs. Carrie Hughes
Harry Sonderman      Margaret Bell       Margaret Lukens
Mary Rodgers         Florence McClanahan E. K. Merinar
Mary Houseman        Elizabeth Schad     Norma Howard
Jessie Belle Rider   Gertrude Jones      Mildred Cusack


                         HIGH SCHOOL
                Florence Anna Wright, Principal 

Edwin Haught         W. Clyde Hertzog    Dessie Cox
Dixie N. Byington    C. S. Gustafson     Eva G. Barnard 

                      GRADE SCHOOL

Dorothy Giles        Sylvia Smith        Dora Hicks
W. H. Foreman        Gladys Summer       Gertrude Keller
Mary Grace Linton    Olive Landfried     Thelma King
Olive Ryner          Lola Matthews       Ethel Corder
Gail Anderson        Blanche Rice        Lucy Rex
Doris Hinerman       Vida Moose

                   McMECHEN GRADE SCHOOL
                   J. T. King, Principal
Ella Campbell        Amy Woody           Florence Houck
Martha Bode          Mildred Varner      Mary Jenkins
Margaret Miller      Virginia Leach      Mary Morris
Mary Conner          Mildred Woodburn    Veda McCarthy
Irene Rude           Beatrice Gatewood   Carrie Zimmerman
Vera Kiedaisch       Margaret Kerrar 


                         HIGH SCHOOL
            John C. Shreve, Superintendent District 

                  D. L. Haught, Principal

             Paul R. Ruble, Physical Director

         James A. Harvey, Superintendent Manual Art 

              Annalie Moore, Domestic Science

Harold Rogers       R. G. Stewart        Lawrence Scott
Lillian Smith       Hallie Bonar         Ellen Mattson
Margaret Sigafoose  Dorothy Ketcham      Virginia Patterson 
Luke B. Ross

                        GRADE SCHOOL

             Sarah Porter, Principal First Ward 

           Alice Sanford, Principal Third Street
          Retta Founds, Principal Central Building 

               Mary Nesbitt, Music Director

               Ida Eachus, Art Supervisor

Anna Ewing        Nora Young              Erma Crow
Opal Cherry       Clara Schroder          Gail Francis
Alice Ewing       Opal Anguish            Ruth Noller
Nanon Hendershot  Nellie Lancaster        Emmie Nesbitt
Edda Martin       Esther Hahn             Edna Harpold
Helen Rogers      Virginia Rafferty       Ruth Hennen
Ethel Travis      Leah Hubbs              Olive Lohr Fisher
Laura St. Clair   Flora Downey            Olive Blair
Charles L. Blake  Cora McConnell          Alma Martin
Ella Freed        Mary McCombs            Glades Hunter
Alma Glasgow      Catherine Young         Anna Edwards
Margaret Gordon   W. P. Fish              Margaret Kuhn
Anna Dowler       Gladys Gorby            India Evans
Ntildred Hankins  Virginia Bottome        William Burley
Nella Meek        Edith Ewing             Martha Gregory
Ocie Dowler       Nellie McDaniel         Evelyn Roberts
Mary Sheets       Gertrude Layfield       Wenona Edwards 

                     COLORED SCHOOL

Mamie Wade West   Mabel Campbell


                  Professor F. H. Crago
               Principal Moundsville School
Malcolm Lowery     W. M. Wirt            Mattie Patterson
Samuel Resseger    J. W. Sherrick        W. E. Mason
George Rine        Micajah Rine          Jacob Wichterson
Lizzie Riggs       Mary E. Ruth          W. D. Irwin
J. M. Higgins      Belle Gates           J. F. Quick
Mary E. Hedges     Sidney Hedge          Andrew Hammond
Henrietta M. McKee George Byrnes	 T. J. Pugh
J. M. Adair        Rachel Groves         William McGary
Emma Davis         W. J. Doman           Jacob Perkins
Ella Davis         J. W. Kelley          Cora Myers
W. W. Farrar       A. B. Barnett         Leila Alexander
J. W. Elmsley      R. A. Fisher          W. L. Luke
J. F. Wayman       Ella Harris           Luther Rice
Marie Hoffman      E. M. C. Tracy        I. H. Taylor
W. P. Weekly       Phillip Riley         F. S. Carroll
D. F. Williams     Thomas Riley          William Fowner
Ed. T. Riggs       William McGinty       A. H. McGlenn
Patrick Lavelle    Ezekial Bonar         A. E. Massey
George Parkinson   Phoebe Sinclair       Emma Best
J. A. Blackford    John Booth            A. J. Duff
P. R. Danley       Erastus Hammond       Maggie McGaw
O. W. Crawford     D. S. Hammond         F. V. Yoho
Isaac Lutes        M. F. Cox             Belle M. Steele
R. W. S Simpson    N. W. Yeater          W. C. Wallace
B. H. Clark        Phoebe J. Gorby       Mary Peck
J. F. Parsons      R. H. Holliday        David Bonar
J. W. Yeater       Ruth Whitney          Mary L. Biggs
F. J. Keller       Ida Wallace           B. B. Newman
John Robinson      Clara Parkinson       W. S. Powell
Mollie Carman (1)  Thomas M. Pedley      F. M. Fisher
(1) Later Mrs. F. H. Crago.              Lyda  C. Murdy