CHAPTER XXI.

Typed by Laurie Birks Dean.

Manufacturers, Industries and Banks.

The real source of Wheeling's prosperity has ever been her manufactures, which gave employment to a large number of skilled artisans and mechanics, as well as unskilled ones. The first mill erected in Wheeling was the mill known as the Top Mill, and this mill introduced the first machine here for making nails. The next mill in order of time was the Point Mill, located at the mouth of the creek on the spot now occupied by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad depot, and which was subsequently removed from there to Benwood. The next in order was the La Belle Mille, which was originated by skilled mechanics, who themselves became operators and employes in the establishment, thereby securing for it an almost unparalleled success and prosperity. The next in order was the Belmont. The Riverside Mill, the Benwood Mill and Ohio City Nail Mill are of comparatively late origin.

Annually there are manufactured in the whole United States about 4,00,000 kegs of nails, of which amount, including in Wheeling's output that of the immediate vicinity and Steubenville, there are manufactured in Wheeling not less than one-third and probably nearer on-half. The reputation of Wheeling nails in the market is superior to all of other manufacture and commands the highest prices and the readiest sales. Probably the number of persons employed in the nail mills, including those employed in the manufacture of iron in other mills of the city, will not fall short of 2,500. We have not the dates, neither would it be advisable on such an occasion as this, to give the statistics of each manufacturing trade and business which is carried on within the city at the present time and to trace the inception of the same from its origin and mark its development, but suffice it so say that her manufactures have not been nor are they now confined to iron and nails alone, but also include all the mechanic's arts, such as the manufacture of glass, wagons and carriages, and cigars. Our community equals if not excels others.

Iron and Steel.

The manufacture of iron and steel is one of the most important industries of Wheeling and vicinity. The 11 establishments, as shown by the census of 1900, gave employment to 4,467 wage earners, or 13.5 per cent of the wage earners employed in the state, and their products were valued at $16,514,212 or 22.3 per cent of the total value of the products of the state. In 1890 there were seven establishments, 2,013 wage earners, and products valued at $7,490,934. The increase in the value of products during the decade was $9,023,278 or 120.5 per cent. This is a greater absolute increase than is shown for any other industry. The products of the blast furnaces for 1900 were valued at $3,109,301, while the value of the products of the rolling mills and steel works, including tin and terne work, amounted to $13,394,911.

The first rolling mill west of the Alleghany Mountains of which there is any exact record was in operation near Morgantown, Virginia, as early as 1812. Cut nails were among the products of this pioneer mill, a manufacture which afterwards became so important that Wheeling, its chief center, was at one time known as the "Nail City." The industry has declined in recent years as a result of the greater demand for wire nails, which have never been very largely manufactured in West Virginia. The iron and steel industry of the state is confined to Wheeling and its vicinity. Its development in this city is due, in part, to the cheapness of fuel--natural gas being used in almost all rolling mills--and also to the proximity of the Pittsburg (Pennsylvania) district.

Glass.

Glass has been manufactured in Wheeling since 1821, when a glass factory was established in the city on what is now Chapline street, just north of Eleventh street, on the east side of Chapline street. In this year a window glass factory was erected, and it was in this city, in 1864, that the second great improvement in the manufacture of glass was made. The cost of manufacture was reduced by one-half by the discovery of a process which caused the substitution of lime glass for flint-glass in the finer products. Natural gas was used as fuel in glass works at Wheeling as early as 1879, and its cheapness, as well as the superior glass produced as a result of the absence of sulphur, caused it to be employed almost exclusively in the glass works of the state in the year 1900.

Leather.

According to the census of 1890 the value of leather manufactured in Ohio county was $104,150. But it was during the last decade that the industry became of special importance. The extensive oak and hemlock forest furnish the bark for tanning purposes and the rapid growth of the industry since 1890 must be attributed to the increased supply of this material made available by the great increase in lumbering. The largest production of leather in 1900 was in the eastern and northeastern parts of the state, a region from which a very large lumber product was also reported.

Potteries.

The first lot of vitrified china made west of the Alleghanies was at the factory of Homer Laughlin, in East Liverpool, Ohio, and suffered nothing in comparison with the best French, German, or other vitrified china. The first step in the art in what is technically potting is to get a list of bodies used in it, and the second is to classify them, as for instance, bodies, glazes and colors. Then here are found the bodies known as earthenware, china, porcelain and terra cotta, including all the varieties of white and colored, glazed dreg or vitrous. The manufacture of pottery has been practiced from the earliest times, though the specimens of workmanship and taste were not of the choicest. The Egyptians, of all the ancient nations perhaps,excelled in the art, and Pompey's soldiers we are told carried form Pontus to Rome, B. C. 64. The progress made in the last sixty years has been wonderful and especially in our own country.

At this day there are potteries in England working on the same lines they did when they first started more than a century ago. The methods of making slip by hand, the same turning lathe worked with the foot, the same process of drying, the same throwing wheel turned by hand, in fact everything the same as when they first commenced. The great improvement in machinery and skill of our workmen is placing this industry, not only in competition with foreign manufactures of a similar kind, but have already, generally speaking, excelled them.

The excellency of American earthenware is nowhere more forcibly shown than in the potteries of east Liverpool and in Wheeling. The facilities available for the prosecution of this industry are admirable and results develop the fact that their wares are enabled to compete successfully in prices and quality with any like industry wherever located.

Cigars and Tobacco.

One of the most important of the manufacturing interests of the city of Wheeling is the manufacture of what is known to the trade of a cigar called the "stogie," which has attained such a degree of popularity as to make itself known from the Ohio Valley to the distant shores of Bering's straits. Manufactured tobacco for chewing and pipe smoking is an increasing industry, of which millions of pounds are produced annually.

A Comparative Summary of Wheeling Industries, &c.

During the past decade there has been a considerable increase in the manufactures of Wheeling as we gather from the census of 1900. In that year the whole number of industrial establishments in the city was 406. As compared with the census of 1890 there appears to have been a small decrease. Notwithstanding this decrease of 29 per cent, there was an increase in the average number of wage earners from 6,107 to 7,219, or 18.2 per cent, and in the value of products from $13,022,589 to $16,747,544, or 28.6 per cent. The increase was much smaller than in the state as a whole.

The capital invested in these industrial establishments in 1900, as compared with the census of 1890, was much greater. In 1900 the amount invested was $13,224,577. In 1890 it was $8,494,630, or an increase in favor of 1900 of 55.7 per cent.

The average number of wage earners in 1900 was 7,219, as opposed to 6,107 in 1890, the total wages of whom in 1900 amounted to $3,096,730, as opposed to $2,471,162 in 1890.

Miscellaneous expenses in 1900 amounted to $1,954,205; in 1890 to $1,205,931.

The cost of materials used in 1900 was $9,076,978; in 1890, $7,381,940.

The number of establishments, number of wage earners and value of products reported for this city in the year 1900 constituted, respectively, 9.2, 21.8 and 22.6 per cent of the totals for the entire state.

The Wholesale Trade.

The wholesale trade of the city is constantly expanding, keeping pace with the increase in wealth and population of the surrounding country. Not only are the merchants of Wheeling known in every portion of West Virginia, but they are known and have extended their trade into Southwestern Pennsylvania, Western Maryland, Eastern Ohio and Kentucky.

In hardware, agricultural implements, boots and shoes, hats, dry goods, notions, confectionery, drugs, queensware, glassware and groceries the volume of business in large, and no competition has succeeded in preventing its growth and increase.

The entire jobbing trade, embracing its different branches, is in the hands of men of ample capital and first rate credit, able to buy low and sell at reasonable prices. Their reputation for fair dealing and honesty (and this may be said of all engaged in the different branches) is above reproach or suspicion and none enjoy the confidence of Eastern merchants to a greater degree than do the business men of Wheeling, among whom there are fewer failures, in proportion to their number, than among a like number in any other community in the country. But it has not been our intention to enter into a detailed description of the different branches of trade carried on in this city and county, but only in a general way to give an idea in a limited space of some of the most prominent industries (nor yet all of them), so that the reader may form some slight opinion at least of the advantages of this section from a business point of view, and the facilities it enjoys as a manufacturing centre.

Sheep Raising.

The farmers and sheep raisers in Ohio county find that the value and productiveness of their lands are enhanced by the raising of sheep for the reason that the soil is not exhausted by the growth of crops, which require annual plowing, as is the case in the grain crop. Hence the rains do not wash and waste the soil, and thereby destroy its recuperative powers.

The favorite and general breed of sheep in this county is the Spanish Merino. There are a few of the Saxony.

For a time this industry was greatly on the decline and many disposed of their flocks at nominal prices, but for the last few years under a more favorable tariff it has received a fresh impetus.

Commercial Bank.

The first title of this bank was the "Savings Bank of Wheeling." This bank was organized by an Act of General Assembly, passed March 14, 1849. The first board of directors, who were elected May 5, 1851, were the following: Thomas H. List, Samuel Gill, Jacob Hornbrook, Alexander Hadden, George Hardman, F. W. Bassett and W. F. Peterson. Thomas H. List was elected the first president on May 5, 1851; he served in that capacity for twenty-seven years. The second president of the Savings Bank of Wheeling was J. L. Stifel, Esq., who was elected January 14, 1878; he continued in this office for two years and until the election of his successor, Charles H. Booth, who was elected on January 16, 1880. Mr. Booth continued as president of this bank for nearly five years.

William M. List, the present president, was elected to this office on September 4, 1884, and for the past seventeen years has ably conducted the bank on a most successful career.

After the bank was first organized, in 1851, it was located at the corner of Main and Biddle ) now Twenty-first) streets, where it remained until January, 1856, when it removed to a building on the west side of Main street on property situated in the rear of the Sprigg House, and owned by the late Peter Yarnell. The bank removed to its present quarters on Main street, below Thirteenth street, some time in the year 1859 or 1860.

From May 5, 1851, to October 4, 1851, this bank was known as the "Savings Bank of Wheeling," at which time it was organized under the National Bank system under the title of the "National Savings Bank of Wheeling." The bank continued under this system until January 14, 1869, when it was organized under the state system, still retaining the name of the "National Savings Bank of Wheeling."

On May 1, 1873, to comply with a law passed about that time by Congress, the name of the bank was changed to the "Commercial Bank," which name it now bears.

The first secretary of the bank was William Rankin, of Mount Pleasant, Ohio, who held that position form May 10, 1851, until his death, August, 1855. His successor, George S. Thompson, was elected September 21, 1855, and occupied the position of secretary of the bank until his resignation November 28, 1856. S. P. Hildreth was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. Thompson on December 10, 1856, and held the position until his removal to California, September 1, 1887, when S. F. Crawford, Esq., was elected to the office. Mr. Crawford resigned on September 21, 1889, and was succeeded by S. P. Hildreth, who held the office until his death in February, 1890. F. C. Hildreth was elected on January 1, 1891, and resigned in January, 1893. The present secretary is M. Jeffers, who was elected to the position left vacant by the resignation of Mr. Hildreth on January 11, 1893.

              The National Bank of West Virginia at Wheeling.

	This bank was organized as a national bank in 1865.  It is the 
successor of the Northwestern Bank of Virginia, which was the first 
bank organized in Wheeling, whose president was Col. Archibald Woods 
when it was first organized.  The following is a report of its 
condition at the close of business December 10, 1901:

Total amount of its resources....                      $767,918.49

			Liabilities.
Capital stock paid in.....................  $200,000.00
Surplus fund..............................    40,000.00
Undivided profits less expenses
     and taxes paid.......................    16,167.45
National bank notes outstanding...........    50,000.00
Due to other national banks...............     6,502.19
Due to state banks and bankers............    37,270.77
Dividends unpaid..........................       300.00
Individual deposits subject to
     check................................   371,314.43
Demand certificates of deposit............     4,271.62
Time certificates of deposit..............    41,632.06
                                                        $767,918.49

                    The German Bank of Wheeling.

	This bank first began business in April 1, 1870, with the 
following officers:  Henry Schumulbach, president; C. W. Franzheim, 
vice-president; directors, Frederick Schenk, J. L. Straekheim, A. D. 
Seamon, L. J. Bayha.  The first cashier, from 1870 to 1878, was Oscar 
Gemmer.
	The business conducted on the corner of Twelfth and Market 
streets, a four-story building, 66 feet front on Market and extends to 
the alley.  The building is of stone, the second floor is occupied by 
the Grand Opera House, the third and fourth floors are occupied by the 
National Telephone Company.
	The German Bank of Wheeling started in business with a capital of 
$50,000, and now has $80,000 capital stock with a surplus of over 
$220,000.  All who are interested in this institution are Wheeling 
people.  It carries on a general banking business with success.

p. 322

	The following is the report of its condition December 10, 1901:

The total amount of its resources is..........        $1,912,999.50

			Liabilities.
Capital stock paid in.......................$80,000.00
Surplus fund................................223,802.09
Undivided profits........................... 10,118.83
Due to banks................................ 10,960.21
Deposits, viz:
     Subject to check.......................554,461.35
     Time certificates....................1,033,657.02
                                                        $1,912,999.50

                   The National Exchange Bank of Wheeling.

	The following is a report of the condition of this bank at the 
close of business December 10, 1901:

Total amount of resources..................            $2,871,304.61 

			         Liabilities.
Capital stock paid in.......................$200,000.00
Surplus fund................................ 100,000.00
Undivided profits less expenses
     and taxes paid.........................  14,264.98
National bank notes outstanding............. 197,350.00
Due to other national banks................. 313,808.28
Due to state banks and bankers.............. 307,021.99
Dividends unpaid............................      14.00
Individual deposits, subject to check......1,320,615.52
Time certificates of deposit................ 283,430.70
Demand certificates of deposit..............   1,708.30
Certified checks............................   1,090.78
United States deposits...................... 132,000.00
                                                        $2,871,304.61

                          Bank of the Ohio Valley.

	This bank first began business in the year 1875, and the 
following is the report of its condition at the close of business, 
December 10, 1901:

Total amount of its resources..............           $1,153,178.77

			Liabilities.
Capital stock paid in......................$175,000.00
Surplus fund...............................  40,000.00
Dividends unpaid...........................     632.10
Undivided profits..........................  10,559.49
Deposits, viz:
     Subject to check...................... 411,713.79
     Demand certificates...................     647.34
     Time certificates..................... 237,284.55
                                                       $1,153,178.77

                          The City Bank of Wheeling.

	This bank first began business in the month of July, 1886, and 
the following report shows its condition at the close of business 
December 10, 1901:

Its resources amount to a total of........               $1,651,117.64

			Liabilities.
Capital stock paid in.....................    $150,000.00
Surplus fund..............................      40,000.00
Undivided profits.........................      52,439.99
Due to banks..............................     143,574.44
Deposits subject to check.      $682,038.19
Time certificates............... 583,065.02  1,265,103.21
                                                          $1,651,117.64

                 Dollar Savings Bank.

	This bank first began business April 11, 1887, and its condition 
at the close of business December 10, 1901, was as follows:

Total amount of its resources.............                $1,159,099.23

			Liabilities.
Capital stock paid in...........$100,000.00
Surplus fund....................  50,000.00
Dividends unpaid................     248.00
Undivided profits...............   9,045.64
Deposits, viz:
     Subject to check...........$254,180.85
     Time certificates.......... 172,396.91
     Savings deposits........... 570,209.71  997,287.47
Certified checks..........................       127.52
Cashier's checks..........................     2,590.60
                                                           $1,159,099.23

                  The People's Bank, Wheeling.

	The following is a report of the condition of the bank at the 
close of business on the 10th day of December, 1901:

Total amount of its resources..............            $622,170.26

			Liabilities.
Capital stock paid in......................$100,000.00
Surplus fund...............................  46,000.00
Dividends unpaid...........................      40.00
Undivided profits..........................   8,111.60
Deposits, viz:
     Subject to check.......$279,623.85
     Demand certificates       2,160.00
     Time certificates......  186,234.81   $468,018.66
                                                       $622,170.26

                South Side Bank of Wheeling.

	This bank was organized October 1, 1890, by R. M. Gilleland, R. 
F. Behrens, F. Joseph Speidel, George Bowers, C. Kalbitzer, Charles 
Rotry, G. H. Medick, Charles A. Bowers, John Mafeld, James Hydinger, 
William P. Myers, Charles Horstmann, B. Horkheimer, John H. Piper, 
William Wolington, Louis Asmus, Charles Kettler, John M. Sweeney, 
William Hearne, M. Loftus, F. Beckendorf, L. Fulton, William Rohing, E. 
F. Kurner, W. W. McConnell, Charles V. Seabold, F. J. Hearne, C. F. 
Ulrich.
	The building is a three-story brick on the corner of Jacob and 
Thirty-eighth streets.  It is a savings bank and does a general banking 
business, in which it has been very successful.  C. A. Bowers is 
cashier.
	Following is the report of the condition of this bank at the 
close of business December 10, 1901:

Resources...................................  $451,515.18

			Liabilities.
Capital stock paid in..............$25,000.00
Surplus fund....................... 18,000.00
Undivided profits..................  7,268.60
Deposits, viz:
     Subject to check...............71,480.80
     Demand certificates............ 2,014.25
     Time certificates.............240,771.44
     Savings deposits.............. 86,977.03
     Cashier's checks..............      3.06
                                               $451,515.18

          Wheeling Title & Trust Company.

	This bank first began business September 10, 1891, and the 
following is the report of its condition December 10, 1901:

Total amount of its resources............       $721,424.88

			Liabilities.
Capital stock paid in..............$100,000.00
Surplus fund.......................   2,000.00
Undivided profits..................  15,871.75
Deposits, viz:
     Subject to check...............314,633.20
     Demand certificates............    500.00
     Time certificates..............175,484.42
     Savings deposits...............112,885.51
     Certified checks...............     50.00
                                                 $721,424.88

The Centre Wheeling Savings Bank.

	This bank first began business May 21, 1901, and the following is 
the report of its condition December 10, 1901:

The total amount of its resources......           $65,681.21

			Liabilities.
Capital stock paid in...............$25,000.00
Undivided profits...................  1,358.84
Deposits, viz:
     Subject to check............... 22,059.39
     Demand certificates............  3,670.00
     Savings deposits............... 13,592.98
                                                   $65,681.21

                   The Quarter Savings Bank.

	The Quarter Savings Bank was incorporated July 1, 1901, by F. H. 
Frazier, R. H. McKee, J. C. Divine, J. W. Speidel, F. J. Ball.  There 
were at first 11 directors, but the bank has only 10 directors at 
present, which are as follows:  F. H. Frazier, F. J. Ball, W. C. 
Eberts, J. C. Speidel, J. C. Divine, R. H. McKee, E. E. Baldwin, W. N. 
Hamilton, S. D. Hughes.
	The Quarter Savings Bank does a general banking business and is 
what its name implies, -- a savings bank.  The business has proved so 
far a success.


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