From Wellsburg, Brooke County, West Virginia to Elmwood, Illinois
Written by Robert Dale Reed
Written by Robert Dale Reed
John Byers Reed was born to John Reed February 23rd 1831 in Wellsburg, Brooke County, (West) Virginia. He was one of seven children of John Reed and Margaret McMurray, the latter born in West Alexander, Washington County, Pennsylvania, the daughter of Samuel McMurray, a native of Ireland. They farmed land that was cleared by John B. Reedís grandfather, Charles Reed, a native of Scotland, and a prominent pioneer of Brooke County.
The seven children of John and Margaret were: James, b. 23 Feb 1820; Samuel, b. 1 Dec 1821 in Ohio County, (West) Virginia; Mary, b. abt 1823, wife of Joseph Gerry; Nancy, b. abt 1828, wife of Hiram Elliott; Margaret, b. abt 1829, wife of Thomas Hand; John B., b. 23 Feb 1831 in Brooke County, and Henry, b. abt 1836. (1)
John B. Reed farmed the land with his father, siblings, and grandfather until he was 15 when he left his home for a five-year apprenticeship as a saddle and harness maker, in Triadelphia, Ohio County, (West) Virginia.
When he was 19, he left the panhandle of West Virginia, working three years in Hancock County, Ohio, then a short while in Fort Wayne, Indiana, before working in a saddle and harness shop in Brimfield, Illinois in 1853.
His brother, Samuel Murray Reed, moved from West Virginia to Millbrook Township, Peoria County, Ill. with his wife, Jane Davis Reed, also in 1853. Samuel and his wife, Jane Davis, born in 1825, were married in January 1852 in Ohio County. They had a son, Willis E. Reed, born in 1853, and a daughter, Amanda Jane Reed, born in 1856. Many of them are buried in French Grove Cemetery Millbrook Township, Sec. 32. (2)
John met and married Mary Darby on the 21st of December 1854 in Peoria, Illinois; she was born in New York. Soon, a daughter was born but died in childbirth. Another followed but died early in her life. They moved to Elmwood in 1857 and had another daughter, Annie, born February 4th of the same year; she lived. One more daughter, Nettie, was born in 1859. By the census of 1860 the Reed family found John B. a harness maker at 28, Marry at 23, Annia, 3, and Nettie, 1.
1861 was a cruel year for the Reeds: Annie died on January 15 at the age of 3 years, 11 months and 11 days. Soon after, death struck again and took little Nettie. Depression filled the household and then war came. John B., as many young men of Elmwood, wanted in on the fight for many reasons. Some wanted the flash of war and to fight to save the Union. John B. wanted to join to get away from the sorrows of Elmwood, but only one company from Peoria had been accepted. A cloud of uneasiness and discontent formed over the Peoria volunteers, wanting to get into fight before it was over, to the point that many of them were willing to enlist in regiments forming in other States. Finding an opening in the American Zouave Regiment of Missouri forming at St. Louis, two Peoria companies decided to join it. Afterward it became to be known as the Eighth Missouri Volunteers.
On the 19th day of June, the Peoria Zouave Cadets, nearly a full company of young men, left for St. Louis expecting to join that regiment as a company, with Frank Peats as Captain. When they got to St. Louis, Frank Peats and the volunteers were given a less then warm reception and Frank Peats, declined the bid to become Captain. This had the effect of disorganizing the Company for a time, and in the mayhem and disgust half of the men went back to Illinois to join with other Illinois Regiments yet to be created. (3)
John B. Reed went back to Elmwood and he stayed one more month but the grief of the loss of his daughters proved too great and the diversion of war too strong. A group of 30 recruits calling themselves the Pekin Zouaves from Pekin, Illinois, left Peoria for St. Louis, to fill up the under-strength company on the 19th of June. John B. signed his enlistment papers September 1st of 1861 joining the Eighth Missouri Regiment Company H as a private.
John caught up with the Eighth Missouri Regiment in Cape Girardeau, Missouri, and moved with the Regiment September 7th to Paducah, Kentucky and stayed till February 1862. Then the 8th Missouri Zouaves moved past a snow covered battlefield and newly captured Fort Henry, Tennessee on February 5, 1862. The 8th Missouri aided in the capture of Fort Donelson, on the Union right to retake the hill from which the first brigade that had lost that morning Sunday February 16.
The capture of Fort Donelson produced elation throughout the North and silence in the Confederacy. The Fortís surrender was the Northís first major victory of the Civil War, opening the way into the heart Dixie and preventing the Confederates from moving into Kentucky while making Grant a hero to the Union. The Union losses at Fort Donelson were 500 killed, 2,108 wounded and 224 missing. Confederate losses were never estimated.
The Eighth Missouri, with John B., moved south along the Tennessee river crossing the state of Tennessee into the Spring of 1862 and the battle of Shiloh, April 6-7 1862 (5), one of the bloodiest battles of the war, even though no ground was gained, no strategic town was taken, no supply depot was sacked, but the Union victory did force the evacuation of Confederate troops from much of Tennessee and split the rebel forces along the lines formed by the Mississippi River. With the battle of Shiloh behind them the 8th Missouri followed with the siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29th. Then on May 17th, with Thomas on the right, drove back a strong rebel outpost at the Russell House and captured high ground along the headwaters of Phillips and Bridge creeks. These new positions, located within 4 miles of Corinth and only 2 miles outside Confederate entrenched fortifications secured the victory. By June 3 the 8th Missouri started a long winding march to Memphis via Lagrange, Holly Springs Miss. and Moscow Tenn.
The food, the battles, the heat, cold and marches, took its toll on every man. June 10th, unable to march any longer, John B. was admitted to Mississippi Hospital debilitated from chronic diarrhea. June 11th John received a Furlough to New House of Refuge Hospital in St. Louis with transportation on a Riverboat Steaming up the Mississippi, costing $3.24. There he was sent home to Elmwood to recuperate and report back to St. Louis Hospital on August 6th 1862.
While convalescing in Elmwood he found that a new cavalry unit was deploying in Peoria in need of an experienced Saddler. After reporting back to St. Louis John B. Reed enlisted in the 14th Illinois Cavalry as a Saddler, September 20th 1862, putting his marching days behind him. (6) On January 7th 1863, John was promoted to Saddler Sergeant at the time of mustering.
The Saddler Sergeant in a Cavalry, North or South, receives orders and instructions from the commander of the regiment. He is required to repair the horse-equipment of the field staff of the regiment. He instructs the company-saddlers how to do their work; and when they are assembled to work in one shop, he acts as foreman. He must keep a correct account of all the tools and material entrusted to his care, and at all times be able to account for them.
In February and March 1863, the Regiment received its horses and equipments, and was placed under thorough discipline and well drilled in tactics. March 28, it started for the front.(7)
April 17, the 14th Illinois arrived at Glasgow Tennessee, being headquarters there; the Regiment was almost constantly in the saddle scouting. They pursued the rebel raider John Morgan from July 4, until he was captured, the expedition covering 2,100 miles; they took part in many of the skirmishes and battles on this raid and were especially conspicuous at the battle of Buffington Island. During the night, Morgan and about 400 men escaped encirclement by following a narrow woods path. The rest of his force surrendered, after six days pursuit thereafter, it then ended with capture of Morgan himself.
On the march, a cavalry could cover some thirty-five miles in an eight-hour day under good conditions. However, some raids and expeditions pushed man and beast to the limits.
Because of the hard use and endless riding John was keep busy with the day-to-day repairs of both saddle and harness.
On the 14th of December, at Bean Station, the Cavalry alone had an engagement, with the enemy's entire Corps attacking and then losing 800 men. Here a Battery was manned by men of the Fourteenth did double service. The next day the fight was renewed and the enemy was again severely punished.
In many instances troopers fought dismounted, particularly in the later part of the war when remounts became scarce, and the mounted cavalry charge was looked upon as reckless. Some circumstances which called for dismounting were: to seize and hold ground until infantry arrived, to fill gaps in lines of battle, covering the retreat of infantry, fight dismounted where the ground was impractical for mounted cavalry, or as in the case at Bean Station man a field battery.
On July 30, 1864, in an encounter called "The Battle of Dunlap Hill," also known as "The Stoneman Raid," Major General George Stoneman saw the potential for strengthening Union forces by freeing men in two Central Georgia prison camps. He planned to take the city of Macon and free the Union officers held at Camp Oglethorpe. Stoneman, with a well-armed cavalry corps, of one been the 14th Ill. cavalry could then free the officers imprisoned at Camp Oglethorpe in Macon and the many enlisted men at Andersonville, about 45 miles further South.(8)
Upon reaching Macon, Stoneman occupied the Dunlap House, set up temporary entrenchments in the yard, and began to shell the city. Stoneman didn't know that the city had advance warning of his arrival. Johnston, brought together 2,500 boys, older men and convalescing soldiers for Macon's defense.
On this raid the First Battalion 14th Illinois cavalry was detached, leaving the command, July 29, to make a flanking movement to destroy the chance to be reinforced from the east and south by rail. In 60 hours, night and day, it marched 160 miles, destroying 4 depots, 500 passenger and freight cars, 40 engines, many miles of railroad track, public buildings, and heavy military stores, many bridges, including the great Oconee Bridge. Several times it marched near large bodies of the enemy, at one time passing between the rebel picket and Milledgeville, not over half a mile from the city, in which was a large rebel force. It rejoined the Regiment August 1, in time to share in the great disaster of the 3rd. After this raid the scattered fragments joined the line of battle in front of Atlanta, having the honor to enter the city with our advance forces.
George Stoneman having failed in his goal to free 30,000 Federal prisoners being held in Macon and retreated back to join Sherman when his cavalry force ran into three cavalry brigades under Confederate Gen. Joe Wheeler. The Confederates prevailed in the Battle of Sunshine Church, forcing Stoneman to surrender. George Stoneman found himself imprisoned at Camp Oglethorpe and his men were sent to Andersonville, the very prisons he sought to liberate.(9)
Colonel Capron, of the 14th Illinois cavalry, receives permission to cut his way out on hearing of Stonemans capture. This he did, taking his command with him, with success. August 3, at 1 o'clock in the morning, Colonel Capron supposing he was beyond the reach of the enemy ordered a halt. But a treacherous guide betrayed him and the men were attacked about daylight. Being without sleep for seven days and nights many men could not be aroused and every man was for him-self at this point. In this condition many were killed or captured. Rebel soldiers, guerrillas, citizens and bloodhounds hunted those who were not captured for days and weeks. The men that were able to escape came in singly and in squads for weeks after. One party traveled over 400 miles before reaching Union lines.
The only lasting effect of "The Stoneman Raid" on Macon occurred when a Union cannonball, aimed at Confederate Treasurer William Butler Johnston's home, struck the home of Judge Asa Holt. Today the Cannonball House and the Johnston-Hay House attract visitors from all over the world. Had the Stoneman Raid succeeded the names of all connected with this raid would have been as well known as the participants of the Alamo. Due to its failure it is all but forgotten out side of Macon.
September 15, the remainder of the 14th Illinois Regiment returned to Kentucky, where it was remounted and re-equipped. After escaping capture from the "Stoneman Raid" John Reed was on Furlough from Lexington on the October 10th to be back at Nashville on the 20th of November.
When he got to Nashville his 14th Regiment was battling Hood Forces in Spring Hill, November 29, 1864.(10) When John rejoined the 14th he retraced his tracks with his unit back to Franklin November 30 with Hood in pursuit, then again retracing his tracks back to Nashville December 15-16. John witnessed the last gasp of hope for Dixie in that battle of Nashville with Hood's forces lacking the materials, troops and supplies lines to sustain a protracted fight agent an overwhelming force, in the dead of winter, he must brake off the battle. (11)
The battle of Nashville, including the pursuit to the Tennessee River, capture and destruction of Hood's great army on Dec. 17th-28th, practically closed the fighting and other aggressive work of the 14th Regiment with the Brigade, it was afterwards stationed at Pulaski, Tenn.
While in Pulaski performing the ordinary camp and guard duties the sorrow of Elmwood reappeared when John heard of the death of his wife, Mary Darby Reed, Feb 12, 1865. I am not sure what happen with John at this time. I do not know if he went back home or if it was to late for him to do so, because of the snow and cold of February. There are no records one way or the other, all I can tell you is, what does not kill you only makes you stronger.
July 31, 1865 the 14th Regiment is mustered out at Nashville. John went home to Elmwood.(12)
Without considering the duty done by detachments, the main column of the Fourteenth, during its term of service, marched over 10,000 miles. Regiment lost during service 2 Officers and 23 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 190 Enlisted men by disease. Total 215.
John picked up his life and started his own harness shop in Elmwood at the corner of Magnolia and Main, across from what is now a hardware store. The building allowed him to live upstairs from the shop.(13)
On November 8th 1866, John married Kezia Harlow, born in Sheffield England in 1842. She, with her mother and stepfather (surname Eggleston) sailed to America in 1844. They married in the neighboring county, Knox, and quickly started a new family. (14)
1868, Henry H. Reed, the first son, was born in Elmwood.
1869, John F. Reed, the second son, was born in Elmwood. Our family has lost touch with these first two sons and what happened to their families at this time.
1873, Charles E. Reed, the third son, my grandfather, was born in Elmwood. (15) When I was a boy of five in the late 50ís I would find great fun in sitting out on the front steps of our house, overlooking the Avenue and blowing a coronet I had found, loudly at cars driving by to startle them. The people would do a double take to see so much noise coming from such a small boy. I would later find out this horn was Charles E. Reedís and he would have played it in Elmwood with the town band under the gazebo on Sunday evenings, when he was a boy.
Charles E. Reed married Ethel Persinger on August 8th 1902 in Galveston, Cass County, Indiana. She was born to Harrison Eli Persinger (May 6th 1849-May 8th 1926) and Charlotte Louise Nana (1852-Nov. 25th 1942). (16)
Harry Eli Persinger, son of Eli and Sophia Bleim Persinger, was born in Logan County, Ohio.
Charles E. Reed and Ethel Reed moved to 595 Carroll St. W. St. Paul, Minnesota by 1902 and had two sons, John and Harry, the latter being my father.
But with the new life comes loss in the death of the old man Johnís father, John Sr., in 1882, Sand Hill, Marshall County, West Virginia. He was a farmer by occupation, and a worthy and respected citizen of Ohio County, West Virginia, in which most of his eighty-five years was spent. He is buried at Stone Church Cemetery, Wheeling, Ohio County, West Virginia.
John, circa 1900, in front of his harness shop in Elmwood on the corner of Main and Magnolia.
In Illinois, John B. Reed was active with civic lodges of both Brimfield and Elmwood. Arcaneus Lodge, No. 102, I. O. O. F., was first instituted at Brimfield, Peoria County, Ills., April 9, 1852, with District Deputy G. M. Linneli in the chair. The charter, turned over books and regalia to Grand Lodge Nov. 19, 1863. Re-organized under the same charter in Elmwood, through the influence of Mr. J. B. Reed, a former member of the Brimfield Lodge, July 7, 1873. The first officers were Thos. W. Keene, N. G., W. S. Ritchie, V. G., J. B. Reed, Sec. and Samuel Alluvelt, Treas. (17)
The Soldiers' Union Association was organized in Elmwood, April 25, 1876, this association and its members met yearly to decorate the fallen soldiers' graves. John B. Reed having been a charter member. (18)
John died in 1913 and his grave is in the Elmwood Township Cemetery. He leaves his wife and three sons and a lot of good stories; I wish I had heard them. (19)
8th Missouri Volunteer Infantry Veterans
Back Row, left to right: James Dundas; ?; ?; ?; Hiram Kightlinger; Orange Danniels
Front Row, left to right: Phil Smith, Peoria, IL; ?, Mr. Bates, Pekin, IL; John B. Reed?
These men were apparently all from the Peoria area; the photographer was T. N. Phillips, "View Artist", from Farmington, Illinois.
A special thanks to Greg Maier for breaking through the wall of time, and digging to get to the genealogy records of Johnís father and grandfather. Also to Karen Hammer for all her work on the Peoria County website. And to Linda Fluharty for her contributions to the Wheeling Area Genealogical Society website. My aunt Glady Reed who started me on this quest in 1979 with the gift of all the Reed family photos. Also my Mother Elsie Edna Bajari Reed and Sister Vanessa Reed Cowen for all the support.
Sincerely -- Robert Dale Reed, son Harry Frances Reed, son of Charles E. Reed, son of John Byers Reed, son of John Reed, son of Charles Reed.