Hardesty's
Pleasants County History


From Hardesty's Biographical Atlas, Volume V, 1882

Typed by Linda Fluharty.

By reference to the history of Wood county, contained in this volume, an account will be found of the divisions of that tract of country to which Pleasants county belongs, from the time it was known only as a part of the district of West Augusta until the formation of Wood county. In 1851, Pleasants county was formed from Wood, Tyler and Ritchie. Its Ohio river margin is about twenty-five miles in length, and it embraces rich and wide-spreading bottoms of the best of lands for agricultural purposes. The county is divided into two nearly equal parts by Middle Island creek, which contains along its border fertile bottoms and uplands. This creek enters the county from Tyler, and running nearly southwest, parallel with the Ohio, until it reaches the central part of the county, turns abruptly to the northwest and empties into the Ohio.

The principal crops of the county are wheat, corn, oats, and most varieties of grain and vegetables, tobacco, etc. Great attention is paid to the raising and improvement of stock. There are immense quantities of valuable timber throughout the interior of the county, although that along the Ohio river and Middle Island creek has been mostly cut. It is being extensively worked into lumber, staves, cross-ties, etc., which find a ready market. Throughout the county are immense tracts of coal sandstone, limestone and oil lands, which have only been partially developed, and there are also strong indications of iron. Ohio bottom lands are worth from $80 to $100 per acre; creek bottoms, $40 to $50; hill land, $15 to $20; timber land $10 to $20. Middle Island creek is navigable for flatboats, rafts, etc., during high water.

Upon ascending some of the hills in Pleasants county along the river or in the interior, the traveler is immediately impressed with the singular dryness and purity of the atmosphere, the chrystalline limpidity of the springs and streams, and the tonic-bracing effect of the air at all seasons of the year. The sensation first experienced here by the lowland dweller is one of singular freedom of spirit, of sudden relief from the cares of health and the fears of premature death. Miasma - the horror which haunts the dweller in low, flat sections, and conduces to fevers and ague - is unknown here.

Under the influence of a genial climate, many forms of semi-tropical vegetation are almost native to its soil, and the flora will equal, in variety and beauty, that of any other section. Among the hills, living springs flow from the crevices in the rocks, and rills, rivulets and larger streams are encountered in numerous glens and ravines. The scenery is wonderful in its variety of forest and lawn, lofty hill and river, rocky cliffs and green meadows, or growing fields of grain. The sturdiness of the forests, the hardy vigor of all vegetable life, and the munificence of all visible nature cannot fail to impress the traveler. There is nothing of poverty suggested and no intimation of sterility on the hill tops and slopes, and no rough rocks, piled heap upon heap, offend the eye as it sweeps the gracefully rounded knobs, which are generally covered with a rich, calcareous loam.

The undergrowth, which obstructs the view and increases the labor of clearing in the lower sections, is almost totally absent here, and does not even make its appearance after the clearing or girdling of the timber lets in the light of the sun. These lands in Pleasants county are unsurpassed by any in the country for grazing purposes, and seem specially adapted to the raising of sheep. Some attention is already being given to this subject but not as much as it deserves, and no doubt the time is not far distant when these facts will become more full known and appreciated, and enterprise thoroughly developed.

BACKWOODSMEN, RANGERS AND INDIANS.

When settlements were first made along the Ohio, nearly every man was a genuine Woodsman, and more or less an adept in hunting game and Indians. To new comers, unpracticed in the art they became teachers, and the necessities of the times soon developed the pupil into a master. The vigilance of the rangers employed as a safeguard to the pioneer settler, and the skill of the settler in the use of the rifle soon became known to the wily Indians, which deterred them from committing many a depredation that they longed to indulge in. Although revenge was sweet with them, and their cruel natures enjoyed the scenes of savage butchery which were frequently enacted, yet, unless unusually inspired by some recent act of the whites, or by the eloquence of some noted chief, they would seldom risk their lives deliberately, for the sole purpose of gratifying it. The hope of plunder was the main stimulus with them, hence they sought it where the most could be obtained with the least risk to themselves. Providentially for the white people, the plan of preparation for a general war - the collecting of the means of subsistence for a large body of men, and the proper provisions for those left at home - could not be carried out by them; they were therefore obliged to proceed in small parties which could generally be successfully resisted, and which seldom hung about a neighborhood for more than a week, while larger bodies could not keep together for want of food. Judge Barker estimates that, in the seven years previous to the war of 1791, the Indians killed and took prisoners fifteen hundred persons, and stole two thousand horses, besides property to the amount of $5O,000 in the Ohio valley. The declared object of the party which killed Captain Carpenter, on Carpenters run, and afterwards the family of Mr. Armstrong, below the mouth of the Little Kanawha, on the Ohio river, was plunder.

An account of the above atrocities, together with many other interesting incidents connected with the lives of early settlers in this vicinity, will be found in the accompanying history of Wood county, which contained in its territory a part of Pleasants county from 1799 until 1851, and previous to 1799, in common with Pleasants formed a part of Harrison county. The early history of the two counties is therefore identical, and many of the descendents of early settlers who are mentioned in that history are now living in this county.

INDIAN ATROCITIES ON MIDDLE ISLAND CREEK.

There were many exciting incidents occurred along Middle Island creek during the progress of the war that was waged with the Indians, and its waters ran through a section of country highly prized by the savages, when they occupied the territory; but a detailed recital of them cannot be given, as they never have been placed on record, and many of the traditions concerning them are too meagre and unreliable to warrant their publication as authentic history. In August, 1789, five Indians, on their way to the settlements on the waters of the Monongahela, met with two men of Middle Island creek, and killed them. Taking their horses, they continued on their route until they came to the house of William Johnson, took Mrs. Johnson and her children prisoners, plundered the house, killed part of the stock, and taking with them one Of Johnson's horses, returned towards the Ohio river. At the time the Indians had arrived at the house, Johnson had gone to a lick not far off, and, upon his return in the morning, seeing what had been done, and searching until he had found the trail of the savages and their prisoners, he ran to Clarksburg for assistance. A company of men repaired with him immediately to where he had discovered the trail, and, keeping it about a mile, found four of the children lying dead in the woods. The savages had tomakawked and scalped them, and, placing their heads close together, turned their bodies and feet straight out, so as to represent a cross. The fate of Mrs. Johnson is unknown.

POPULATION OF THE COUNTY - 1860 TO 1880.

The first census taken of the county, after its formation, was in 1860, when the population was 2,945; in 1870, it was 3,012; and 6,255 at the last census, 1880. The following exhibits the Population by Districts, 1870 to 1880, showing the increase.

Grant...1870,601; 1880, 673; increase, 72
Jefferson...1870, 407; 1880, 1,173; increase, 766
Lafayette...1870, 397; 1880, 836; increase, 439
McKim...1870, 449; 1880, 977; increase, 528
Union...1870, 338; 1880, 1,624; increase, 1,286
Washington...1870, 820; 1880, 972; increase, 152

ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY.

The first attempt to have the territory which now forms Pleasants set off and made a separate was in the winter of 1844-5. One of the most earnest advocates of the plan, and perhaps the prime mover in it, was Daniel Reynolds, who at that time resided, and still lives upon his farm on Middle Island, opposite St. Marys. This island is a tract composed of 296 acres of land, which extends for about three miles in length opposite the mouth of Middle Island creek, its lower end lying immediately opposite the southern line of the corporate limits of the town of St. Marys. Thomas Reynolds purchased 40 acres of the lower end of this island, and about the year 1806 built a cabin upon it, where he moved with his family at a time when his son, Daniel, was five years of age. After the death of his father, Daniel inherited the farm, and has ever since resided upon it. In the fall of 1882, at the age of 81, he justly prides himself upon the fact that, in cutting Ws crop of corn, he is enabled to keep up with the athletic young men whom he has employed to assist him.

Notwithstanding the earnest efforts that were made, the legislature of Virginia took no action in the matter, and it was not until the winter of 1850-51 that the establishment of the new county was accomplished. It was named in honor of Hon. James Pleasants, who was member of the House of Representatives in Congress, from Virginia, 1811 to 1819, and governor of the State in 1822.

The following extracts from the records will give a history of the organization of the county after its formation:

"Commonwealth of Virginia, Pleasants county, to-wit: Be it remembered that on Thursday, the 15th day of May, being the first Thursday after the second Monday in said month in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, Moses Williamson, John K. Prince, Abner Martin, Thomas Browse, Samuel Hammett, Abraham S. Gorrell, Isaac Williamson, Edmund Riggs, Alexander H. Creel, and John Stewart, gentlemen who have been appointed justices of the peace, in and for the county of Pleasants aforesaid, by a commission under the hand of the governor of this Commonwealth, with the seal of said Commonwealth thereto affixed, assembled themselves together at the house now the property of Alexander H. Creel, in the town of St. Marys, in the said county, and having taken oath of fidelity to the Commonwealth, the several oaths of office, the oath prescribed by the act to suppress duelling, and the oath to support the Constitution of the United States, as required by law, entered upon the duties of said office by taking their seats upon the court bench, and organizing themselves into a court of record for the said county, in the manner prescribed by law."

Their first action was the election of Rodney Hickman as clerk of the county court for seven years from date, who immediately took the oath required by law. Greenberry B. Riggs was appointed crier to the court. Thomas Browse (late surveyor of Tyler county), was elected to be recommended to the executive for appointment as surveyor of Pleasants county. John K. Prince was elected commissioner of the revenue. The county was divided into two constable districts, the upper part of the county No. 1, and the lower No. 2. The court recommended three persons to the executive, one of them to be appointed sheriff, viz: 1st, Moses Williamson; 2d, John K. Prince; 3d, Abner Martin."

"William I. Boreman, John W. Homer, Joseph Spencer, John J. Jackson, jr., Arthur I. Boreman, William L. Jackson, James M. Jackson, Benjamin W. Jackson, Leonard S. Hall, Joseph C. Moore, and Jacob B. Blair, gentlemen who have been licensed to practice law in the superior and inferior courts of this Commonwealth, on their several motions have leave to practice in this court."

"Ordered, that the time for holding courts hereafter, in this county, be on the first Thursday after the second Monday in each month, and that the crier of this court summon the justices of this county to attend here, on the first day of the next term for the purpose of selecting a site on which to erect the public buildings of this county, and for other purposes. Alexander H. Creel, John Stewart, and John Logan, are appointed commissioners on behalf of this court for the purpose of selecting a suitable nlace for holding the courts hereafter for this county, and for keeping the papers and records of this court."

"Ordered, that the roads in this county be established, and that the several precincts and parts thereof remain as heretofore, together with several overseers thereof, until otherwise ordered."

Edward W. Johnson and Ambrose Smith were appointed constables in district No. 2. Joseph Gorrell, Thomas Rymer, and Jesse C. Beeson, constables for district No. 1.

The first deed placed on record in the new county was dated May 12, 1851; and conveyed the right, title and interest of Hiram Curtis is 6,000 acres of land on the waters of French creek, to John W. Stout, Isaac Cecil, James Stepleton, Hiram J. Curtis, Granville Stout, and Samuel Barkwell.

William L. Jackson was elected prosecuting attorney in behalf of the Commonwealth, in this court, and took the several oaths required by law. John W. Widderfield was appointed deputy clerk of the court.

May 16th, 1851, the court proceeded to lay off the county into four districts for the overseers of the poor, and appointed commissioners to lay it off into school districts, "and so arrange the same as to equalize as near as may be, all the districts, having regard to the population and territory of, and number of indigent children in each district, and report to the court."

"Henry C. Creel is appointed crier of the court in the room of Greenberry B. Riggs, and it is ordered that he summon the justices of this county to attend here on the first day of the next term to take into consideration the expediency of levying upon lands and other property, according to the 4th section of the revised code."

"Ordered that an election be held on the first Saturday in June next in each poor district of this county, for an overseer of the poor for each district."

Commissioners were appointed to draft a plan and specifications for the public buildings of this county, and advertise the same that proposals will be received for the building of the same until the second day of June court next.

John Widderfield and William Rymer were recommended to the executive, one of them to be appointed coroner of the county. "Ordered that the Wood county jail be and the same is hereby adopted to be used as the jail until the public buildings are erected. Henry C. Creel is appointed collector of the county."

June 12, 1851 - David C. Rollston, Thomas Rymer, Edward C. Johnson and Jesse C. Beeson are appointed constables for district No. 2, and Jacob Shields and Joseph Gorrell for district No. 1.

Thomas Browse produced the governor's commission as county surveyor for a term of seven years, and he took the oaths and gave the security required by law. John W. Widderfield produced his commission from the governor as coroner, and took the oaths, and gave security according to law, and Henry C. Creel was appointed his deputy.

"Ordered that the several poor districts of the county be, and the same are hereby constituted districts for the school commissioners, and Henry Flesher is appointed commissioner for district No. 1; William Hams, No. 2.; Phineas P. Finney, No. 3; Robert T. Parker, No. 4."

"Ordered that the several papers containing subscriptions for the purpose of aiding in the erection of the public buildings of the county, delivered to the court by Edmund Riggs, on yesterday, be spread of record." Following this are lists of names and amounts subscribed. The first list is headed by the name of Alexander H. Creel, with $600, "and the public square for the court house and jail." The three lists aggregate $2,250, and the following is recorded: "There being a deficiency in the subscription lists of $450 to make the gross sum of $3,000 for the public buildings of the new county intended to be formed out of parts of Tyler, Wood and Ritchie counties, with the seat of justice on the farm of Alexander Creel, near the foot of Middle Island, of the Ohio river. Now, we, the undersigned, agree and bind ourselves to procure a subscription for the said amount of $450 from good and responsible persons. For the true performance of which we bind ourselves and heirs, firmly by these presents." April 25th, 1848. (Signed) Alexander H. Creel, Jos. Taylor, James Patterson, W. V. Gill, Joseph Bills, Daniel Reynolds.

The bid of George Tharp and John Stewart, to erect the court house, clerk's office and jail for $5,300, to be completed on or before December 15, 1852, was accepted and contract made.

July 15th, 1851 - Moses Williamson presented his commission under the hand of John B. Floyd, governor of the commonwealth, as sheriff of Pleasants county, and took the necessary oaths and filed his bond according to law. Christian Engle is appointed his deputy. Abner Martin is appointed school commissioner in district No. 1, in place of Henry Flesher, and James Buckman in district No. 2, in place of Phineas P. Finney.

The commissioners appointed to select a site upon which the public buildings are to be erected, reported the selection of such location upon the farm of Alexander H. Creel, near the town of St. Marys, and that they had laid out the lot, describing its boundaries. This report was inspected and adopted by the court.

It was ordered that a levy be made of $2, to be assessed upon each male titheable in the county over the age of sixteen years, and that taxes be levied upon lands and other property according to the fourth section of chapter fifty-three of the Code of Virginia.

LIST OF FIRST COUNTY OFFICERS - 1851.

The following is a list of the first officers of Pleasants county: Rodney Hickman, clerk of the circuit and county court; Thomas Browse, county surveyor; John K. Prince, commissioner of the revenue; Moses Williamson, sheriff; William L. Jackson, prosecuting attorney; Alexander H. Creel, county superintendent of schools; J. W. Widderfield, coroner; Joseph Gorrell, Thomas Rymer and Jesse C. Beeson, constables district No. 1; Edward W. Johnson and Ambrose Smith, constables district No. 2.

LEGISLATIVE, JUDICIAL, COUNTY AND DISTRICT OFFICERS - 1882.

J. N. Camden, United States senator; Benjamin Wilson, member of Congress (Eustace Gibson, member elect). J. M. Jackson, judge of circuit court; George Kelsall, State senator (elect); Oliver Gorrell, member of house of delegates; J. L. Knight, clerk of circuit and county court; W. E. Bier, sheriff; W. Hammett, assessor; F. M. Triplett, surveyor; W. W. Hall, prosecuting attorney; A. W. Gorrell, county superintendent of free schools; L. B. Maxwell, J. R. Seckman, James Ruckman, county court comniissioners; W. E. Reed, coroner; D. W. Reynolds, commissioner of accounts. Washington district - Martin Riggs, justice of the peace; John Watson, constable. McKim district - J. F. Barron, justice of the peace; Dennis Lucas, constable. Union district - L. N. Coffield, justice of the peace; J. N. Esky, constable. Lafayette district - Albert Martin, justice of the peace; W. H. Flesher, constable. Jefferson district - William Outward, justice of the peace; A. S. McConnahay, constable. Grant district - William Kester, justice of the peace.

LIST OF COUNTY OFFICERS - 1851 TO 1882.

Sheriffs - 1851, Moses Williamson; 1852, William Dills; 1854, H. L. Pickens; 1858, Nathan Morgan - resigned June 11, 1861, and appointed crier; Robert T. Parker, elected July 29, 1861, and refused to serve; Robert McKeag appointed crier, and Leonard C. Shingleton, collector; Zachariah Cain, elected September 27, 1861, and refused to serve; December 10, 1861, "there being no person acting as sheriff, deputy sheriff, or coroner, in this county, it is ordered that Jacob Nine be appointed crier of this court, to perform all the duties pertaining to the office of sheriff in this county, except such duties as relate to the collection of taxes, levies, militia fines and officers' fees;" and January 15, 1862, James Patterson was appointed collector, to collect the levies, militia fines, and officer's fees; James N. Hamlin, elected December 27, 1861, and qualified February 12, 1862; 1863, Thomas Gorrell; 1866, John Kester; 1871, W. E. Bier; 1876, R. T. Parker elected, who failed to qualify; George S. Hammett, appointed to fill the vacancy, February S, 1877, who held the office until December 28, 1878, when he resigned; William E. Bier elected to fill unexpired term, but declared by the county court ineligible, and Oliver Gorrell appointed to fill the vacancy; the court of appeals decided in favor of W. E. Bier, who took the position in 1879; re-elected in 1880 and still continues in office.

Clerks of the Circuit and County Courts - 1851, Rodney Hickman; 1858, H. L. Pickens; January 1, 1863, Rodney Hickman (clerk of circuit court); 1873, J. L. Knight (clerk of circuit and county courts), the present incumbent.

(Under the Constitution of the State of Virginia, in 1863, the office of recorder was constituted, and a board of supervisors established, which assumed the duties of the county court and its clerk, excepting in the trial of causes in law, which were given to the jurisdiction of the circuit court. This continued until 1873, when the county court and the office of its clerk, were re-established, and the board of supervisors and office of recorder were abolished, under the new Constitution, which then went into effect.)

Recorders - I. H. Henderson, January, 1863, to January, 1865; Josiah Powell, January, 1865, to January, 1869; J. L. Knight, January, 1869, to January, 1873, when the office was abolished.

Prosecuting Attorney - 1851, William L. Jackson; 1852, John E. Jackson; December, 18S2, Jacob B. Jackson, vice John E. Jackson, deceased; October, 1861, John A. Hutchinson, jr.; 1869, J. B. Jackson; 1871, W. W. Hall, still in office.

Commissioner of Revenue - 1851, John K. Prince; October, 1851, Henry Flesher; 1852, Hugh L. Pickens; 1857, John Watson; 1861, John W. Stout; 1862, John Kester; 1864, John M. Birkhimer; 1867, Thornton M. Janes; 1871, John Kester; 1873, William Kester; 1877, John R. Shingleton; 1881, W. E. Hammett, present incumbent.

County Surveyors - 1851, Thomas Browse; 1852, P. P. Feeney; 1858, Thomas Browse; January, 1863, T. D. Gorrell; 1867, F. M. Triplett; 1869, Thomas Browse; 1871, J. M. Gallahan; 1881, F. M. Triplett, the present incumbent.

County Superintendent of Schools - 185 1, C. W. Core; 185 2, Alexander H. Creel; 1855, Granville Keller; 1856, A. H. Creel; 1864, C. J. Wood; 1865, M. Williamson; 1867, A. Delong; 1868, William N. Jones; 1872, R. S. Towsey; 1873, A. W. Gorrell; 1875, C. C. Davis; 1879, 1. F. Wayman; 1881, A. W. Gorrell, present incumbent.

PETROLEUM.

From J. H. Diss Debar's Hand Book of West Virginia, the following facts are obtained: When the heat and the smoke of the memorable oil excitement of 1864 and 1865 subsided, the few surviving profitable developments were found to range nearly in a straight line, within, a stnp of country from one to two miles wide, extending from the Little Kanawha river, at Burning Spring run, north, 10 degrees east, through the counties of Wirt, Ritchie, Wood, and entirely through Pleasants, and crossing Hughes river a few miles above its forks, the Baltimore & Ohio railroad at Petroleum station, the Northwest turnpike at Sand Hill, and the Ohio river near the mouth of French creek, two miles below St. Marys, Pleasants county, and embracing the localities afterward famous, under the names of Oil Rock, Standing Stone, California, Laurel Fork, Oil Spring Run, Gales Fork, White Oak, Horseneck, and Rawsons Run. Although millions have been invested in oil lands and boring operations all over the State, not a single paying well has been struck outside of this belt.

After 1865 oil developments in West Virginia rapidly assumed a more legitimate character and extensive proportions, in the hands of skillful and enterprising parties, many of whom had acquired experience in the oil regions of Pennsylvania. The region first developed extended from Burning Spring run to California, near the forks of Hughes river, and from Rawsons Run and Horseneck to the Ohio river, the main center of operations remaining on the Rathbone tract and vicinity, where the most famous wells, such as the Karnes and Camden, Rathbone, Eternal Center, Shattuck, Waite and Otterson, were successively struck. Some of these, bored to a depth of 400 to 600 feet, flowed for many weeks from 250 to 500 barrels per day, then subsided to 100, then to 50, until reduced to 5 or 6 barrels under the pump. Afterward exhausted wells were deepened to 1,000 or 1,200 feet with highly satisfactory results. All of this oil found a ready cash market, for purposes of refining and exportation, at Parkersburg.

The heavy oil of this section is exclusively used, in its crude state, as a lubricator on railroad and other machinery, and simply purified from water and other extraneous matter by settling in a tank; and freed from grit by a process of heating or steaming, not injurious to the lubricating qualities of the oil. The recent low prices of petroleum have caused the partial suspension of operations in its production.

THE TOWN OF ST. MARYS.

St. Marys, the county seat of Pleasants county, is a town of about 500 inhabitants, occupying a fine location upon the Ohio river, about twenty-seven miles above Parkersburg, and a mile below the mouth of Little Island creek. Alexander H. Creel came here in 1834, from Eastern Virginia, and owned the land on which the town is now located. In 1837, he sold the tract to Hugh L. Pickens, and located on the Ohio river, a little over one mile below St. Marys, where he established the village of Vancluse. He succeeded in having a road built ten miles in length to connect with the State road to Clarksburg, and exhibited great enterprise in his endeavors fro the good of that section. He owned a number of slaves, and one of them, through spite, treacherously set fire to his house, and it was consumed. He rebuilt again, but soon sold out, and returning in 1847, he repurchased the tract he sold to H. L. Pickens. The dwelling at Vaucluse, with houses that had been erected there by other parties, were all carried away by the great flood of 1852, and never rebuilt.

In 1849, he had the town of St. Marys surveyed and platted by Thomas Browse, surveyor, and when the county was organized, in 1851, he had the plat recorded in county deed book No. 1, page 510. The streets are laid out sixty feet wide, the alleys twenty feet, and the lots 80 by 160 feet. By reference to the extracts from the county records, published herein, it will be seen that to aid in raising the $3,000 required to secure the permanent county seat of justice at St. Marys, he subscribed $600, and also donated the ground to the county, on which the court house and jail were afterwards built. This site occupies an elevated position, in the rear of the town, 160 feet square, crossing and extending upon each side of Georges street, which, upon the plat, divides, after reaching this square, and runs entirely around it. The court house is a substantial brick building, and, from its commanding position, can be seen many miles up and down the Ohio river. The jail occupies the basement of the building.

John Logan erected the first buildings in the town, among which was the Exchange Hotel. It was not until 1851. A road was built to connect with the northwestern turnpike, and for a number of year., the town remained the main business point and the source supply for a large extent of territory eastward as far as Clarksburg. The advent of the branch of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, from Grafton to Parkersburg, cut off the greater portion of this trade. The town has since enjoyed a fine local business, mainly in the handling of lumber, staves, ties, tan-bark, and other timber products.

The present city officers are as follows: J. B. Townsend, mayor; P. J. Duff, sergeant; R. Towzey, recorder; B. F. Pickens, street commissioner; J. N. Imlay, Green Haddock, George W. Riggs, B. F. Pickens, G. Ruttencutter, council.

NEWSPAPERS OF PLEASANTS COUNTY.

The Watchward, the first paper in the county, was established at St. Marys, October 10, 1877, by Rev. F. M. Yates, editor, and R. L Pemberton, publisher. In May, 1878, the name of the paper was changed to The Methodist Protestant, by which it was known for a period of six weeks, when the original name was resumed. In November, 1878, the press and all the appurtenances of the office were purchased by M. P. Prettyman, and J. S. Hall became editor, changing the name to the Observer. Mr. Hall continued as editor until January 1, 1879, when he retired and Mr. Prettyman assumed the duties of editor as well as publisher, until January 1, 1882, at which time he sold to J. S. Hall, who changed the name of the paper to The Oracle, with M. P. Prettyman as publisher.

The Oracle is published every Thursday at the office in St. Marys, is independent in politics (which it discusses freely) and is devoted mainly to local matters, and the interests of the town and county. It exhibits every sign of prosperity, and the proprietors expect to double the paper in size on January 1, 1883.

CHURCH SOCIETIES OF ST. MARYS.

The Methodist Episcopal Church (South) was organized in this vicinity at an early date. The church building now occupied by them was erected in 1851, on Georges street. It is a one-story frame building, twenty-eight by thirty-five feet. No services were held during the war, nor for several years afterward, and the society was nearly broken up. For the past six years, however, regular services have been held once a month, although the society is small. Rev. A. S. Bowles is the present pastor.

The Methodist Protestant Church society was formed in 1843, by Rev. Williams, who preached here for about two years, in what was called the union school house, and services were also held by him in private houses. A one-story frame church building, thirty by fifty feet, was erected by them in 1855, which they still continue to occupy. The present membership numbers fifty-five, and services are held every two weeks; Rev. J. M. Conoway, pastor.

PLEASANTS ENCAMPMENT, I. 0. 0. F., NO. 27.

This encampment was organized by R. S. Welsh, who was deputized, by a special dispensation, Deputy Grand Patriarch, assisted by James Steele, S. Lowther, W. E. Shelby, P. Gano, W. W. Clark, J. E. Polelas, H. Pugh and William Jones, of Hope Encampment No. 26, on March 21, 1876, and a charter was granted by B. J. Campbell, Grand Patriarch, October 26 following. The original membership numbered twelve, and the following were the charter members: George Kelsall, J. L. Knight, J. B. Watson. A. Ruttencutter, G. Ruttencutter, J. M. Imlay, S. A. Gallaher, A. H. Cole, Thomas Huntsman, John Schauwecker, J. M. Strobel, G. W. Riggs, C. C. Davis. First officers: Geo. Kelsall, C. P.; Green Ruttencutter, H. P.; J. L. Knight, S. W.; J. B. Watson, J. W.; C. C. Davis, Scribe; S. A. Gallaher, Treasurer. Present officers: John Schauwecker, C. P.; James Strobel, S. W.; A. H. Cole, S. P.; J. M. Imlay, J. W.; George Kelsall, Scribe; A. Ruttencutter, Treasurer. The present membership numbers nine.

ST. MARYS LODGE, I. 0. 0. F., NO. 22.

St. Marys Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., No. 129, was first organized May 7, 1855, by E. A. Shelton (Past Grand), who was specially commissioned by the Grand Lodge of Virginia. A charter was granted April 14, 1856 by William H. Cook, M. W. G. M., and the following were the charter members: William L. Jackson, H. S. Jones, 1. D. Myers, J. J. Parr, C. W. Core. First officers: H. S. Jones, N. G.; I. D. Myers, V. G.; George Kelsall, Secretary; H . H. Rymer, Treasurer. December 5, 1865, they were reorganized by J. M. Bickel, M. W. G. M. of the State of West Virginia, and the number of the lodge was changed to twenty-two. Present officers: J. L. Knight, N. G.; John Schauwecker, V. G.; J. M. Imlay, Treasurer; John A. Patterson, Secretary. Their present membership numbers twenty-six, and they meet each Wednesday night, at their hall on Georges street.

ST. MARYS LODGE, NO. 41, A. F. AND A. M.

A dispensation was granted by the Grand Master of the State, for the Organization of this lodge, May 24, 1869, and the charter was granted November 10, 1869, when the following officers were elected: J. W. W. Bolton, W. M.; William H. Steere, S. W.; Robert Patterson, J. W. Their first report to the Grand Lodge, in 1870, indicated a membership of thirty-one. The following is a list of Worthy Masters who have presided over the lodge, in the order named, from its organization until 1882: J. W. W. Bolton, R. Patterson, J. L. Knight, W. E. Reed, James M. Gallaher, W. W. Hall, L. K. Knight. The following is a list of present officers: W. W. Hall, W. M.; Martin Riggs, S. W.; J. L. Knight, J. W.; G. W. Riggs, Treasurer; J. M. Gallaher, Secretary; J. W. Strobel, Tyler. The membership now numbers but fifteen, as many have withdrawn to join the Ellenborough lodge. They meet the Monday evening on or preceding the full moon of each month, at their hall on Georges street.

WASHINGTON DISTRICT.

The principal streams are Middle Island creek, which runs westward through the district and empties into the Ohio, and French creek, which forms the boundary between this district and Grant and Jefferson on the south. The Ohio river also extends along its entire western boundary. The district is rather hilly, and the soil is very productive, especially along the river and creek bottoms; mostly clay, with some sandy soil. The timber at one time was very abundant, and the varieties were mostly white and black oak, white ash, walnut, beech and hickory.

The first settler in the district was Isaac Larue, who located and built a cabin at the mouth of Middle Island creek, in the year 1790, on the farm now owned by A. Cole. The first white child born in this vicinity was Hannah, a daughter of Isaac and Hannah (Hughes) Larue. Jacob Larue also came in 1790, and Basil Riggs in 1795.

In the year 1810, Basil Riggs built a grist mill, which run by water, on Riggs run, near Grape Island postoffice. it was capable of grinding from twenty-five to fifty bushels per day, and for a long time enjoyed the custom trade of the settlers throughout a large extent of country. About the same time Jacob Larue erected a saw mill on Broad run, about two miles from the river. An upright saw was used, which was capable of sawing 1,500 to 2,000 feet of lumber per day, when the quantity of water was sufficient to furnish motive power.

EARLY SCHOOLS AND SCHOOL HOUSES COMPARED WITH THE PRESENT.

It is unnecessary to specially describe the school houses first built for the accommodation of the pupils who, at an early day, sought to obtain the limited education that was obtainable in this section at that time. A general description will do for all, as they were nearly all alike. The house was generally built in the woods, of round logs; in size, 16 by 18 or 20 feet, with a puncheon floor, and walls chunked and daubed with clay. A fire place entirely occupied one end of the building, and for lot a space was left unfilled between the logs, on three sides of the building, at a proper height, covered over with paper greased with hog's lard, to make it semi-transparent; glass was too much of a luxury to be well afforded. Seats were made by splitting logs of the desired length, cut from small trees, smoothing the inner side, with legs inserted in the under or round side.

The writing desks were made by boring holes in the logs, under the paper windows, inserting long pins therein, upon which boards were laid and fastened. The fuel was of great, green lop, chopped in the surrounding forest by the larger scholars, and rolled into the house in the evening ready for morning. The fire was always large and cheerful - the pleasantest feature of the school room.

A male teacher was generally employed; and one of the pupils, who has been there, has the following fond recollections of him: The teacher's equipage was a gad about six feet long, a big rule, and a dunce block - these for the scholars; a pint bottle of whisky in the coat pocket - this for the teacher. These combined, made a lively school. It is doubtful if the rising generation fully appreciate the advantages they now have in the good, commodious school houses, comfortably furnished, and well-trained teachers, over their fathers and grandfathers, who had to travel through sleet and snow, sometimes three and four miles, to receive the first rudiments of an education.

The first school in this district was taught by a lady (Miss Nancy Dailey), and her ten or twelve pupils, in after years, had fond recollections of their school life while under her tuition; more moral suasion and less gad than was customary in the schools in charge of the pedagogue who was usually employed. Miss Dailey taught in the year 1808, in a little log school building, 12 by 16 feet in size, described as above, which was located near the mouth of Middle Island creek.

There are now four school houses in the district. The one located in the town of St. Marys is a fme two-story frame building, erected at a cost of $2,200. It is a graded school, with an upper and lower room, each being comfortably furnished with all the modern appliances, including the latest improved seats. Each room has a seating capacity for fifty scholars. The school building erected on Greens run is a fine, one-story frame, capable of seating fifty or sixty scholars. The other school buildings in the district are to the last described.

The first postoffice in the district was located at Grape Island, which still continues. There is one now located named Delongs; also the office at St. Marys, kept by George Kelsall, postmaster.

GRANT DISTRICT.

This is the extreme western district of the county. The Ohio river runs along its entire northwest boundary, and Bull creek separates it from Wood county on the south. The other principal streams are: Cow creek, which enters from Jefferson, and running west across the entire district, empties into the Ohio river; French creek, which forms the northeast boundary between Grant and Washington, and running nearly north, empties into the Ohio river. Calf creek is a small stream which runs westward, through the south part of the county, and empties into the Ohio river; McElroy creek runs westward, through the north part of the district, and empties into the Ohio river.

Along the river, the soil is a sandy loam and very fertile, and in the interior it is hilly, and the soil is clay. It has been well timbered with white and black oak, poplar, ash, hickory, and pine, walnut, wild cherry, and other varieties in small quantities. In the back part of the district are some oil wells, and this is considered good oil territory.

Among the early settlers of this district was Alexander Henderson, who settled at the mouth of Cow creek in 1795. He was soon followed by William and Hugh West, David Rossen, Spencer Sharp (1804), and Solomon Harness (1810). George Haskins Lowe came and made an early survey of a part of the district. There was a school taught at a very early day by a man named McMillen, in a log cabin at the mouth of Cow creek. The school room was furnished in the style which prevailed in that day, with slab benches and oiled paper windows, and the scholars numbered from twelve to fifteen.

Reese Wolf, a Methodist minister, preached the gospel here occasionally, at a very early day. He was one of those earnest Christian men who seemed to be born for the necessities of this section of country at that time, and labored faithfully for the good of the souls of men. His circuit was a large one, and there are many living who can testify to the good he accomplished.

There are no incorporated villages in the district, but there are a great many enterprising men who are transacting a large amount of business. At the mouth of Cow creek they have a postoffice named Willow Island, a store, two churches, and a school house. The postmaster is William T. Sharp, and the store is kept by Hamet & Morris, who keep a general stock and deal largely in lumber, staves and tan-bark. There is also a grist mill located here, of which F. M. Irwin is proprietor, which does a fine business in custom grinding. It is the only wheat mill in the district; but a mill, run expressly for grinding corn and coarser grain, is located about three miles up the creek. There is a store also located about one mile east of Willow Island, on the road from Cow creek leading to Cornwallis, kept by Sheets, Henderson & Co. They keep a general stock of goods, and deal in grain, produce, tan-bark , hoop-poles, staves, cross-ties, lumber, etc.

The Rose Hill Sanitarium is situated on the road between Bull creek and St. Marys, on a part of Frank Triplett's farm. It occupies an elevated position, and presents an imposing appearance. It is a commodious frame building, and extending entirely around it is a verandah, from which a fine view of the surrounding country for miles is obtained. The air here is fresh and pure, and it is one of the most delightful spots imaginable for invalids. A mineral water is obtained here which is in use at this establishment, and is of valuable medicinal qualities. It is considered as good, if not better, than any in the State for the cure of chronic diseases.

A petition has been made, and a postoffice will probably soon be established, to be called McElroy, and located at the mouth of the run of that name, on the Ohio river.

JEFFERSON DISTRICT.

This is the extreme southern district of the county, being bounded on the south and southeast side by wood and Ritchie counties. The principal streams are Bull creek, which forms the boundary line with Wood county, and Cow creek, twelve miles in length, which rises in the eastern part, and runs west into Grant district, and French creek, which forms the boundary with Washington and McKim districts, on the north, and running west, between Grant and Washington, empties into the Ohio. Many small runs exist throughout the district, which are tributary to these streams. Henry Camp run takes a northerly course, in the north corner of the district, and empties into French creek.

This district contains considerable oil territory, large quantities of sandrock, and some limestone and coal. It has been a well-timbered district, and still continues far better than the average throughout the State. Large quantities of oak, ash and poplar abound. The soil is good, but the hills are generally steep, and better for grazing purposes than for cultivation. It is not as well cleared as other districts in the county, from the fact that the land is largely owned by non-residents, who do not interest themselves particularly in improvements. The farms and buildings of the resident owners, however, exhibit a spirit of thrift and enterprise in the proprietors.

The first settler in the district was a man named Schultz, who came and erected a cabin at an early date, at what was known as Schultz range. John Cornell and Benjamin Williams were also among the early settlers.

The first election was held at James Ruckman's, at Sled fork, when this belonged to a magisterial district of Old Virginia, at which seventy-five votes were cast.

The first grist mill was built by G. R. Avery, on Schultz run. It was used for cracking corn, was small, and the grinding was very slow and unsatisfactory. The first saw mill was a portable one, located at the mouth of Limestone run, and owned by a company.

A school was taught in 1860, by George Smith, in an old log building which was located at Rock Point, on Henry Camp run. When this district was districted, August 6, 1865, under the new school law, the number of scholars enrolled was 124 males and 124 females; total, 248. There are now seven good school houses in the district, each with comfortable appointments, and the enrollment of scholars is: Males, 239; females, 177; total, 416.

The only postoffice in the district is named Schultz, located at Hamet's store, on Cow creek, ten miles south of St. Marys.

Religious services were held in 1851 at Rutman's, on Henry Camp run, by Rev. Guthrie. A society was formed of which the following were among the first members: James Rutman, Nancy Rutman, William Howard, Mr. Farley and John and Jane Thornly. A second society was soon after formed, on Cow creek, one-half mile below James Rutman's. There are no church buildings in the district, but relwous services are generally held in the school houses. The organized religious societies are as follows: Methodist Episcopal, Rev. D. Cross, pastor; Baptist, Rev. Moore; Methodist Protestant and Methodist Episcopal (South). A Sabbath school was organized in 1855, by John Cornell, P. P. Finney, and James Rutman. There are a number of Sabbath schools now established in the district, in which much interest is taken, and which are attended by over 500 scholars.

McKIM DISTRICT.

The principal streams of this district are Middle Island creek, which forms the northern boundary between this district and Union; McKim creek, which enters from Lafayette district on the west, runs north of west, through the north part of the district, and empties into Middle Island near Sylvan Mill, and French creek, which runs westward, through the southern part. Broad run is a small tributary of Middle Island, in the northwest part of the district; also Crooked run, in the north; and Rock run is a small tributary of McKim creek, and forms part of the eastern boundary of the district with Lafayette. There are also numerous other small runs which are tributaries of these streams.

Among the first settlers of the district were Isaac Riggs, who came in 1834, Ralph Wilson (1835), William Hart (1840), Elias L. Stout (1840), Job Locke, John Coen and Jacob Barnar. The first settlement was made on McKim creek, about 1834. The first white child born in the district was E. R. Riggs, a son of Isaac and Nancy Riggs, and the first marriage on record is that of John and Rachel (Wilson) Locke, in 1840. The first election was held at the Lamp school house.

The first grist mill in the district was built by James Hart, in 1853. It was a one-story frame building, sixteen by twenty feet, located on McKim creek, one and one-half miles from its mouth. The first saw mill was built in 1832, by Issac Riggs, a two-story frame building, twenty by fifty feet. It was, some time afterward, destroyed by fire, and re-built by Mr. Riggs. It was subsequently torn down and re-built by Charles Seckman, and in 1875, it was washed away by a flood.

In 1840, a school was taught on McKim creek , by Miss Mary Ann Keaton, in a small frame building, sixteen by twenty feet, located where William Hart now lives. It was furnished with the scant conveniences common in those old-time school houses. There are now six fine frame school buildings conveniently furnished, located in different parts of the district; the schools are well attended, and the people give evidence of great interest in the subject of education.

The first postoffice established was that of Union Mills, located on McKim creek, one and one-half miles from its mouth. The postoffices now in the district are Union Mills, J. R. Singleton, postmaster, and De Long postoffice, Newton Kemp, postmaster.

In 1835 the first religious services that were held in the district were conducted at the house of Isaac Riggs, at which time a sermon was delivered. In 1838, the Methodist Episcopal Church society was organized, at the house of Ralph Wilson, on McKim creek; Rev. Philip Green, pastor. Among the first members were the following: Ralph and Mary Wilson, Thomas and Elizabeth Locke, Job and Mary Locke, William and Elizabeth Hart, and Charles and Rachel Wilson.

The Baptist Church Society was organized in 1850, and Rev. W. C. Barret became its first pastor. Among the first members were the following: Mr. and Mrs. Charles Seckman, Mr. and Mrs. John Cohen, 0. P. and Elizabeth Shingleton, Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Shingleton, John and Sarah Lamp, Mrs. Margaret Wilson, Mrs. Martha Stout, Nancy Riggs, Christina McCardle, George S. Smith, Levi Gregg and William Medley.

The Christian Church was organized January 12, 1880; Rev. Samuel Albright, pastor. The first members were as follows: Salathiel and Catherine Hart, Eugenus and Hester A. Newborough, Marion and Martha A. Hart, and William and Matilda Hart.

The Methodist Protestant Church (called Nine Mile Church) was organized in 1870; Rev. Francis, pastor. The first members were as follows: Job Locke, Thomas Locke, John Poynter and wife, Maria Stanley and William C. Locke. The society occupies a log church building, twenty-six by thirty feet in dimensions, with a seating capacity of two hundred. Their present pastor is Rev. J. M. Conoway.

The Baptist Church Society, located on McKim creek, four miles above its mouth, have a membership of one hundred and eighty, and their present pastor is Rev. William L. Oliver. They occupy a fine frame church building, thirty-six by forty feet in dimensions, that has a seating capacity of four hundred.

LAFAYETTE DISTRICT.

This district occupies the southeastern portion of the county, and is bounded on the north by Union district, east by Tyler county, south by Ritchie county, and west by McKim district. Its surface is broken and hilly, and the soil is mostly white and red clay, the land being well adapted to stock-raising. The kinds of timber are various, but mostly white pine. The principal streams are McKim run, which enters the eastern part of the district from Tyler county, and runs west, through the central part, into McKim district; Sugar creek, which enters from Tyler county, and, running west, forms the northern boundary line with Union district; there is also Rock run (which forms the southern portion of the boundary line with McKim district, to the west, and running north, empties into McKim creek), Crooked run, and many other small streams, tributaries of those mentioned.

The first settlement made in the district was Pine Grove, on McKim creek. The following are the names of some of the earliest settlers: James and John Hanlon, David Tice, William Hanes, Moses Williamson (1836), George Crimes, Thomas Crimes, Robert Woods, Nathan Morgan (1838), Alexander Campbell (1841), A. S. Gorrell (1842) and Aaron DeLong (1823).

The first grist mill was erected in 1840, by David Perdue, on McKim creek, near Pine Grove. It was a little cabin, built of pine poles, and contained one run of stones. The machinery was constructed of wood, in rather a rude style. It was run by a tub water wheel, and when everything was in good working order, it was capable of grinding twelve bushels of wheat per day. The first saw mill was built by Abram Lamp, located at the mouth of Walnut run.

A school, composed of eighteen scholars, was taught at Pine Grove in 1830, by J. Melhone. This was the first attempt made at establishing institutions of learning in the district. The school house was located on the place now owned by Dr. Maxwell. Nice frame school buildings are now located in every part of the district, and every child has an opportunity of obtaining a good education. These privileges seem to be duly appreciated, for the schools are well attended.

The first postoffice established in the district was near Pine Grove, and named Hebron, with Samuel S. Maxwell as postmaster. This is still the only office, and T. D. Gorrell is the present postmaster.

The first religious services were held in a log house near Pine Grove, and the sermon was delivered by Rev. James G. West. The Christian Church Society was organized in 1847, near Pine Grove, where the present church building now stands. Rev. Daniel Sweeney was the first minister, and the following were among the first members: Samuel S. Maxwell and wife, Smiley Maxwell and wife, Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Gorrell and Susanah Lamp. The society now occupies a frame church building, thirty by forty feet in dimensions, which has a seating capacity of two hundred. Rev. G. F. Strickling is the present minister.

The Methodist Episcopal Society, in the village of Hebron, occupies a frame church building, twenty-six by forty feet in size, with a seating capacity of two hundred. The present membership of the society numbers fifty, and Rev. Nichols is pastor.

The church building of the Methodist Protestant Society at Hebron, is a frame, thirty by forty feet. Their present membership numbers thirty, and Rev. J. M. Conoway is pastor.

Thomas D. Gorrell taught a Sabbath school in 1836, attended by about fifty scholars.

The little village of Hebron was laid out in 1853, by Thomas D. Gorrell. It is located on McKim creek, near the Tyler and Pleasants county line. The population is about fifty, and the village contains two stores, one harness shop, two blacksmith shops, one wagon shop, one school house and two churches - the Methodist Episcopal and Methodist Protestant, heretofore described. The village is the mail center for rive different points, the mail being carried three times per week to Middlebourne, twice to St. Marys, three times to Ellenborough, three times to Sistersville and once to Centerville.

UNION DISTRICT.

This, the north district, is the largest in the county. The Ohio river extends along its entire northwestern margin, and on the, north and east it is bounded by Tyler county. The surface is mountainous and well timbered, there being over sixty different specimens of timber to be found, and the soil is generally good. The principal streams are Middle Island creek, which enters the district from Tyler county, and running southwest, then west, into Washington, forms the boundary line with McKim; Thomas ran takes a westward course and empties into the Ohio; Sugar creek enters from Tyler county, and running west, empties into Middle Island, forming the boundary line with Lafayette. Numerous other small runs throughout the district are tributaries of the Ohio river and Middle Island creek.

The first settlement was made on Middle Island creek, and among the first settlers were Joseph Fort, Thomas Gorrell, John Adams, John J. Williamson (1822), Christopher Wagoner (came to this county from Pennsylvania in 1820), William Smith, John Gorrell, and Henry Flesher (1827). The first cabin was erected by Joseph Fort, in 1818, and the first white child born in the district was Elizabeth, a daughter of Joseph and Hannah Fort.

The first grist mill built was called the Sylvan Mills, and erected by John and Reuben McCoy. The first saw mill was built on Sugar creek, by Christopher Wagoner, in 1828.

In 1819 the first school was taught, in a little log cabin, 15 by 18 feet in size, which stood near the head of Beech run, and the number of scholars was from fifteen to twenty. There are now ten well-furnished school houses, mostly frame, about 20 by 28 feet in size, distributed throughout the district. Point Lookout school house, No. 2, is a frame building 20 by 30 feet in size. The school has an enrollment of thrity-five pupils, and John Findly is teacher. The average attendance of scholars in these schools is from twenty to thirty.

The first postoffice established was Grape Island, three miles above St. Marys. There are now four postoffices in the district, viz: Grape Island, Raven Rock, Sugar Valley and Twiggs.

The first religious services held in the district was in 1828, when a sermon was delivered in a log cabin belonging to Henry Flesher, located on Beech run. In 1829 the first religious society (the Methodist Epsicopal) was organized, and Rev. Pardon Cook was the first pastor. Among its first members were Henry Flesher, Abner Martin James Allen. William Johnson Elizabeth and Hannah Gorrell, Eli Wells and James Patterson. Rev. Pardon Cook (the twelfth and youngest child of Captain Joseph Cook, who settled in this vicinity in 1797) was born in Lower Belpre, Ohio, August 27, 1796. He inherited the western half of his father's homestead, which is now included in the corporate limits of Parkersburg. In 1825 he was licensed as a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in 1827 was received into the Pittsburg annual conference, when he became an itinerant minister, and traveled some forty years, until age and infirmity caused him to withdraw from active labor, and he made his home at Marietta, Ohio. He is known and remembered by all of the older residents of this section of the country as an earnest and faithful worker in the church.

The Baptist Church Society was organized on Gorrell run in 1857, with Rev. James Woods, pastor. The first members were Samuel B. and Sallie Seckman, C. Haines, Thomas and Ann Bonar, Mrs. Haines, Malen Haines, Mr. and Mrs. S. Speece, Mrs. Cronse, Thomas Johnson and wife and M. R. Cronse.

The Methodist Episcopal Church, at Raven Rock, was organized in February, 1881, by Rev. J. Engle. The first members were Mr. and Mrs. L. M. Coffield, Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Vance, Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Gardner, M. S. Vance and A. Kigans. The present membership numbers forty. The church building is a frame, twenty-four by thirty-six feet in size, with seats for two hundred. It was erected by R. H. Browse, for the benefit of all denominations. It is now used by the Methodist, United Brethren and Episcopal Societies.

The Point Lookout United Brethren Church was organized in 1875, by Rev. M. D. M. Aultice, its first minister. The present pastor is Rev. G. A. Davis, and the membership numbers eighty. Tle church is built of logs, is twenty-one by thirty-one feet in size, and will seat two hundred.

The Bethesda Chapel, Methodist Episcopal Church, was organized in 1850, by Rev. Philip Green, who was the first minister. The original members were Jacob Haines, N. V. Gill, G. B. Riggs, J. F. Taylor and their several wives, B. W. Riggs and Phebe Taylor. The Bethesda Chapel was dedicated August 25, 1881, Rev. Thomas Clark officiating. It is a neat frame building, nicely furnished, and is situated on the main road from St. Marys to Sisterville, near the head of Middle Island creek. The location is a beautiful one, overlooking the Ohio river and surrounding county for miles.

The Mount Nebo Christian Church was erected in 1881, on Barnhart Ridge, two miles from Raven Rock. It is a neat frame building, twenty by thirty-eight feet in size; Samuel Albright, pastor. When first organized, the society had a membership of nineteen, which has since been increased to forty-two. The original members were as follows: Mr. and Mrs. Barnhart, Henry Bugal, Mrs. Mary Bugal, Lloyd Barnhart and wife, James N. Hanlon and David M. Barnhart.

The first Sabbath School was taught in 1832, by Abner Martin. There are now seven flourishing Sabbath Schools established, viz: Point Lookout, Albert Arn, superintendent; Beach Run Chapel, A. P. Allen, superintendent; Bethesda, Clay Point, Oak Wood, Walnut Hill and Raven Rock.

Raven Rock (the only village in Union district) was laid out in 1877, by R. H. Browse and A. S. Vanoe, and the latter built the first residence the same year. It is located upon the Ohio river, and derives its name from the immense rock on the hill above it, where the ravens for years reared their young. The village contains two stores, one blacksmith shop, one wagon shop, and one steam saw and planing mill. Also, one church, heretofore mentioned, and a school house and postoffice.

PERSONAL HISTORY DEPARTMENT OF PLEASANTS COUNTY.
UNION DISTRICT.

J. W. ALVIS - son of John W. and Eliza (Emberson) Alvis, was born in Lewis county, West Virginia, December 8, 1844, and became a resident in Pleasants county in 1856. The wife whom he chose was Amanda, daughter of Ralph and Rachel (Wagoner) Gorrell, and she was born in Pleasants county, on the 3d day of August, 1845. Their marriage took place ten years after the date of his settlement here, on the lst of August, 1866, and they have four children: Elda, born October 23, 1868; Ralph, April 8, 1872; Brady C., December 16, 1875; Granville C., December 28, 1876. J. W. Alvis has the following war record for services in the Infantry, and fought at the battles of Fort Republic, Bull Run, Antietam, South Mountain, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Chancellorsville, and the Wilderness. He was wounded and taken prisoner, and sent to Andersonville, where he was eleven months a prisoner. He received an honorable discharge at the expiration of his term of service. He is now serving in his district as road commissioner, appointed January 1, 1882. His farm, to the carrying on of which he gives his attention, is situated on Sugar Run, between four and five miles from Raven Rock, Union district, Pleasants county, and he receives his mail at Long Reach, Tyler county, West Virginia.

THEODORE J. BAILEY - is the owner of a splendid farm in Union district, near Grape Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia, where he has 140 acres of land in productive condition. He was born in this county, March 11, 1840, and is a son of Jonathan D. and Maria (Hill) Bailey, highly esteemed residents of Pleasants county. In this county he married Eliza A., daughter of Ralph and Rachel (Wagoner) Gorrell, and they have one darling daughter, Oella V., born January 30, 1872, whose presence gladdens their home. In 1870 Mr. Bailey was appointed postmaster, and ably filled that responsible position two years. In 1880 he was elected justice of the peace, but resigned the next year. He receives his mail at Grape Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

CARROLUS J. BARNHART - the son of Henry and Phebia (Jones) Barnhart, was born in Washington county, Ohio, November 15, 1828, and is now a farmer resident in Union district, having settled in Pleasants county, West Virginia, 1870. He married in 1849, December 29, the lady of his choice being Jane, daughter of Henry and Mary (Baily) Wells, born in this county, September 14, 1828. The children of this marriage are as follows: Henry H., born November 20, 1850, deceased; Mary J. (Bugle), December 15, 185 1; Lloyd A., October 15, 1853; David M., March 1, 1856; Phebia E., May 7, 1859; Reuben A., August 16, 1861; Martha A., July 29, 1863, deceased; Catherine V., May 7, 186S; Nathan M., February 5, 1869; Edmund D., October 3, 1873. Samuel and Christopher Wells, brothers of Mrs. Barnhart, were soldiers in our last war. Mr. Barnhart's farm lies on the dividing ridge two miles from Raven Rock. He has 156 acres of land. His postoffice addresses Raven Rock, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

SAMUEL CARSE - is a native of Ireland, born June 27, 1820, a son ot John and Jane (Furguson) Carse. In early manhood, Samuel Carse came seeking his home and fortune in the New World, and in 1848, March 24, he settled down in Pleasants county, West Virginia, and is now one of the most prosperous and respected citizens of Union district. He has been twice married, his first wife, to whom he was wedded September 23, 185I, was the mother of his three sons, John W., Charles W., and Jefferson. She was Jane Johnson, born September 13, 1825, a daughter of William and Margaret Johnson, and her demise was on the 2d of February, 1861. In Tyler county, this State, on New Year's Day, 1862, Samuel Carse and Frances Morgan were joined in matrimonial bands. She is a daughter of Zachwell and Rachel Morgan, and was born February 19, 1814. Mr. Carse has served his district as one of its supervisors for two years. He owns and cultivates a fine farm of 170 acres, on Middle Island, five miles from the Ohio river; he is also owner of an excellent farm in Tyler county, on the waters of Sugar creek. His postoffice address is Long Reach, Tyler county, West Virginia.

JAMES CRAIG - is a native of Greene county, Pennsylvania, born August 16, 1816. He has been twice married, his present wife, Edith, daughter of John and Abigail (Childers) Gatrell, being the mother of his two sons, Panadore P. and James J., the former born August 1, 1867, and living at home, and, the latter, born October 5, 1876, died. January 16, 1878. Mrs. Craig was born in Harrison county, this State, December 11, 1837, and her marriage with James Craig was consummated March 12, 1862. He was the son of John and Mary (Hickenbottom) Craig. His father, born in 1769, died April 18, 1848. His mother, born in Fayette county, Pennsylvania, in 1785, died in 1871. James Craig's first marriage was with Eliza, daughter of Thomas Carpenter, born in 1829, and their two children were: Satanes, born September 24, 1853, lives in Tyler County, this state, and Franklin J., born July 2, 1856, died January 16, 1870. This marriage took place in 1844, and was ended by death in 1857. Mr. Craig was appointed postmaster in 1861, and served three years. He commenced farming in 1861, on Cow creek, but soon moved to St. Marys, where he was engaged in mercantile pursuits five years, then he turned his attention again to farming, in Tyler county, and 1878 settled on his present farm, 50 acres, on the waters of Middle Island creek. His postoffice addres is Twiggs, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

MICHAEL R. CROUSE. He is the son of George and Elizabeth (Rosberry) Crouse, was born in Greene county, Pennsylvania, February 11, 1813, and in 1841 cast his future fortunes in with the people of Pleasants county, West Virginia. Dennis and Matilda (McClelland) Forest, residents of Belmont county, Ohio, were the parents of Marie Forest, born in August, 1833, who became the wife of Michael R. Crouse, and the mother of his children, born as follows: Abram M., April 25, 1835, deceased; Elizabeth J. (Wagoner), born in 1841, lives in this county; Sarah A. (McCulloch), born October 1, 1844, lives at home; Charles L., April 2, 1855, lives in Pike county, Missouri. The oldest son was in the Union army in the war of 1861, in the 14th West Virginia Volunteers, and was taken prisoner at the battle of Cloyd Mountain, and sent to the Anderson where he died. M. R. Crouse's father was born in Pennsylvania, in 1771, and died in Belmont county, Ohio, at the age of 107. His mother died at the good old age of 85. Mr. Crouse has served in his district four years as justice of the peace, to which position he was elected in 1862; from 1868 to 1872 as constable; and six years surveyor of roads. He is now engaged in farming in Union district, his farm lying along Middle Island creek. He receives his mail at Sugar Valley postoffice, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

THOMAS C. DAVIS - a farmer and carpenter doing a good business in Union district, settled in this county in 1865. He was born in Noble county, Ohio, December 25, 1843, and was a son of Isaac and Eliza (Williamson) Davis. His mother died in Ohio, and his father's death was in West Virginia, at the age of 98. Thomas C. Davis was twice married, his first wife, Jane (Gorrell) Davis, being the mother of two children: Louisa, born March 14, 1870; and John B., born December 3, 1874. She was born in Pleasants county, November 16, 1857, and died August 10, 1875. The present Mrs. Davis was a daughter of John and Catherine (Farnsworth) Paden, respected residents in the adjoining county of Tyler. Anna Paden was born in Jefferson county, Ohio, in 1841, on the 28th day of December, and her marriage with Mr. Davis was consummated at St. Marys, this county, April 10, 1876. She contracted a former marriage with William A. Galloway, and one daughter, Emma, was born of that marriage, October 2, 1872, whose home is with her mother. Mr. Davis was in the ranks of the Ohio Volunteers, in the 77th Regiment, during the war of 1861. He took part in the engagements at Corinth, Pittsburg Landing, and Marks Mills, Arkansas, where he was taken prison to Camp Fort, Texas; he was afterwards exchanged at the mouth of Red river. He has served in his district as district clerk, elected in 1866; in 1872 was elected justice of the peace for one term. He receives his mail at Twiggs, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOHN N. ESKEY - and Jennie H. McEldowney were united in marriage at New Martinsville, West Virginia, October 26, 1871, and three children bless their union: Olia F., born August 22, 1874; Flora E., April 11, 1877; Francis A., September 12, 1879. John N. Eskey was born in Ohio county, this State, October 6, 1848, and is a son of William P. and Mary A. (Cookes), Eskey, residents now in Tyler county. His wife was a daughter of Andrew McEldowney, deceased, and Mary A. (Haverly) McEldowney, whose home is in Wetzel county, this State. She was born in that county, January 7, l854. One of her brothers, Robert McEldowney, was a soldier of the war of 1861. Mr. Eskey is a No. 1 mechanic, making a specialty of shoeing horses, repairing machinery and doing general blacksmithing, also boiler repairing. He also deals in hardware, selling at bottom prices. His place of business and postoffice address is Raven Rock, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

H. G. FELLER - son of George and Mary Feller, was born in Wheeling, Ohio county, West Virginia, March 5, 1859. He is engaged in steamboating and is the owner of the steamer George Strecker, running between Raven Rock and Parkersburg, making daily trips. She is a very neat and substantial boat and has a very nice trade. H. G. Feller is clerk, and every one knows him on the river as a clever and accommodating clerk, landing for passengers almost any place that he is signaled. His postoffice address is Grape Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

THOMAS GORRELL - deceased - was a son of Thomas and Sarah (Stuart) Gorrell, and was born in Tyler county, West Virginia, December 9, 1821, and died on the home farm in Union district, Pleasants county, November 23, 1879. Catherine Wells became his wife in Tyler county, April 17, 1845, and in the same year they settled in this county, and here their seven children were born as follows: Mary E., January 24, 1853, died August 14, 1863; Eliza E. Williamson), September 14, 1855, lives in this county; Casabianca, April 6, 1857, died June 15, 1859; Nancy J., October 3, 1858, died August 16, 1863; Arville, September 20, 1860, died August 23, 1863; Hannah Vosthia, November 20, 1863, and James G., February 22, 1866, live at home. Mr. Gorrell was sheriff in Pleasants county during the troubled days of our civil conflict, and bravely and effciently fulfilled the conditions of his responsible position. Mrs. Gorrell was born in Tyler county, this State, July 31, 1826, and was a daughter of Eli and Hannah (Gorrell) Wells. Her father was born December 8, 1799; her mother died in 1853, aged 47. Mrs. Gorrell lives on the home farm, near the mouth of Sugar creek, Union district, and may be addressed at Sugar Valley postoffice, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

OLIVER GORRELL - a farmer and stock-raiser in Union district, Pleasants county, West Virginia, was born in the adjoining county of Tyler, September 25, 1839, and in that county was married April 14, 1861. Mary A. Morgan, who at that date, became his wife, was also born in Tyler county, the date of her birth, November 7, 1845. Nine children bless this union, born as follows: Orlando L., February 7, 1865, died September 27, 1876; Clement V., July 19, 1866; Cordelia B., May 16, 1868; Estella E., March 30, 1870; Gibson M. May 18, 1872; Emma J., July 18, 1874; Martha M., August 27, 1876. Oliver, July 28, 1878; Nelly, January 12, 1881. Mrs. Gorrell was a daughter of Benjamin S. and Eliza A. (Kyle) Morgan; the latter died in 1880, at the age of 68, and the former now lives in Shiloh, Tyler county. The father of Oliver Gorrell was Elias Gorrell, son of Ralph Gorrell, a pioneer settler in Tyler county. Elias Gorrell, born and reared in this vicinity, here closed a busy and useful career in 1881, dying at the age of 73. The mother of Oliver Gorrell, Berthiah (Galloway) Gorrell, died in 1867, aged 55. The subject of this sketch was appointed sheriff in 1877, and served two years; served one term as district supervisor and has been twice elected president of the board of education. In October, 1882, he was elected delegate to the Legislature of West Virginia. He is the owner of about 1,100 acres of land, mainly lying along Big run, this district, and is largely engaged in sheep-raising. He is also interested in the lumber business, shipping staves, tan-bark, and in fact, all kinds of lumber, very extensively. His postoffice address is Sugar Valley, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

LEANDER HANES - a well-known farmer residing in Union district, Pleasants county, West Virginia, was born April 15, 1848. Mahlon and Hannah Hanes are his parents. He was united in marriage with Emma E. Morgan on the 27th of November, 1875. She was born June 28, 1853, and was the daughter of Benjamin S. and Eliza (Kyle) Morgan. Her mother died in 1880, at the age of 68. Mr. Hanes was appointed constable by the county court of Pleasants county in the year 1878. He has also served one term as secretary of the board of education. His postoffice address is Sugar Valley, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

THEODORE W. HANES - born in Tyler county, West Virginia, April 13, 1841, was in that county united in marriage with Elsie Lemley, on the 14th of June, 1866. Six children, all living at home, were born of this union: Mahlon D., June 26, 1867; Millie M., September 14, 1868; Emma S., February 14, 1871; Okey J., June 30, 187S; Theodore S., November 27, 1877; Vestie V., April 13, 1882. Mrs. Hanes was born in Monroe county, Ohio, October S, 1846, a daughter of David and Sarah (Moore) Lemley. Mr. Hanes was the son of Mahlon and Hannah Hanes. Theodore W. Hanes was a soldier in the Federal service during the war between the States. He enlisted in 1861, in Company K., 7th Regiment West Virginia Volunteer Infantry, and served through the war. He participated in the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg, and several severe skirmishes; was honorably discharged January 11, 1865. He is a prosperous farmer in Union district: and has received at the hands of his neighbors the responsible position of president of the board of education, as well as served as justice of the peace. His Postoffice address is Long Reach, Tyler county, West Virginia.

JAMES H. KEMP - son of Nathan and Elizabeth (Shockey) Kemp, was born in Washington county, Ohio, October 17, 1848. He became a resident in Pleasants county, West Virginia, in 1877, and is now settled in Union district, and engaged as a lumberman, cutting and hauling lumber. He was married in the State and county of his birth, and his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of John and Prudence (Furrs) Paynter, is a native of England, born in 1847. From their union six children have been born, all now living at home: Prudence Isabell (Fetty), November 11, 1864; Richard H., February 28, 1866; Mary E., September 18, 1869; John P., May 2, 1871; Charles W., October 30, 1878; Eleanora, May 16, 1881. The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Kemp took place on the 6th of March, 1864. Mr. Kemp's father and his brother were soldiers in the Federal army during our last war. His father served thirteen months, and was discharged on account of disability; and his brother died in Florida, after two years' service, of fever. His mother's father, John Shockey, was a soldier of 1776, entering service when but twelve years old, and doing the duty of a man and a hero till the war was ended by American Independence. He died in Washington county, Ohio, at the advanced age of 109 years and nine months. James H. Kemp receives his mail at Raven Rock, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

IRVIN PORTER MAXWELL - and Rachel T. Gorrell were united in matrimonial bands in Tyler county, January 18, 1877. Two children bless this union, born as follows: Maud O., December 18, 1877; Maggie J., January 8, 1881. Mr. Maxwell is a son of Smiley and Lydia A. (Robinson) Maxwell. He was born November 10, 1855, and his wife Rachel is a daughter of George C. and Margaret P. (Galloway) Gorrell. She was born in Tyler county, this State, July 12, 1856. Irvin P. Maxwell was appointed school trustee, for one year, and at the expiration of this term was appointed for three years longer. He had a half brother engaged in the war between the States, who was killed in the engagement at Bull Run. Mr. Maxwell is a farmer, tilling his own farm of 148 1/2 acres near Sugar creek. His postoffice address is Twiggs, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

WILLIAM B. McFARLAND - son of Robert and Jane McFarland, was born in Ohio county, West Virginia, May 15, 1822, and settled in Pleasants county in his twentieth year. In the same year, December 8, 1842, he was married in Monroe county, Ohio, to Mary, daughter of David and Mary (Hicks) Wright, who was born in Monroe county in 1824, May 20. The genealogical record of their children is as follows: Susan J. (Barker), was born January 17, 1844, and died in June, 1875; James A., born April 9, 1846, died in October, 1854; Norena A., born June 7, 1848, died in 1862; Isabella K. (Williamson), born May 29, 1850, resides in Pleasants county; Jeremiah M., born March 13, 1853, died in 1854; Rebecca E. (Williamson), born July 2, 1854, lives in this county; William M., born February 15, 1857, died in April, 1858; Mary E., born December 11, 1863, and Emma L., born July 21, 1864, live at home. The parents of William McFarland emigrated to America from Ireland in 1812; his wife's ancestors were English. Mr. McFarland moved to his present farm in 1848, when country round about was all woods, and the nearest neighbor two miles away. His land, now in prosperous condition, is situated on Middle Island, two and one-half miles from the river; his postoffice address is Sugar Valley, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

THOMAS MOTT - was born in Sullivan county, New York, January 31, 1833, and married in Monroe county, Ohio, February 5, 1857. His choice was Mary Platt, born in Monroe county in 1837, March 1. In 1875 they settled in Pleasants county, and their family of nine children all live in this county. These children were born as follows: John W., November 23,1857; Mary A. (Ashley), September 5, 1859; Ernst W., September 5, 1861; Rosetta (Seebers), Clarinda. Olive V., Ida, Charles and Minnie. Thomas Mott was a son of Jacob and Mary A. (Beach) Mott; the former died at the age of 56. John Piatt, deceased, and Elizabeth (Keesy) Piatt, living in Washington county, Ohio, are the parents of Mrs. Mott. The grandfather of Mr. Mott, John Mott, was a soldier in the 1812 war, and after its close settled in New York. He is descended on his mother's side from heroes of the war for Independence. Thomas Mott has served as overseer of roads, elected in 1878. He owns a farm of 115 acres in Union district, which is excellent wheat producing land, said, indeed, to be the best in the county. His postoffice address is Raven Rock, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JASPER M. MYERS - was, in his twentieth year, on the 1lth of December, 1856, united for the rest of his life's journey with Susanna Williams, and in 1877 they came with their family of six children to make their home in Pleasants county. Their marriage occurred in Marshall county, this State, and in that county he was born in August 1, 1836. His wife was also born in that county, January 1, 1837. Their children are : William I., born March 25, 1858; Emma J. (McFadden), April 30, 1860; Mary E., November 3, 1862; John F., November 17, 1864; Kezia H., August 5, 1867; Lousia, August 11, 1869. The oldest son lives on a part of the home farm, and the oldest daughter is married and making her home in the county; the other children live at home. Jasper M. Myers was a son of Ephriam D. and Kezia (Smith) Myers; the former was born in 1817 and lives in Wood county, this State, and the latter died in 1876, aged 61. The parents of Mrs. Myers were William Williams, born in 1807, lives in Cowley county, Kansas, and Nancy (Rine) Williams, died in 1852, aged 41. Two of Mr. Myers' brothers John and Madison, were valiant soldiers in the war between the States, both in the Union army, and taking part in several engagements. John was wounded at Cold Harbor, and taken to Washington, where he died. John R. Myers, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was a soldier under Harrison in 1812; he was born in Pennsylvania, and died in Missouri in 1863. His mother's father, Job Smith, was born in Marshall county, this State, and died there in 1870, aged 86 years. Mrs. Myers' ancestors were English. Mr. Myers moved to his present farm, 113 acres in Union district, two years ago. The land was then all wooded, but he has now 30 acres cleared. His postoffice address is Raven Rock, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

WILLIAM SCOTT - son of Francis and Catherine (Grooms) Scott was born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, February 9, 1828, and became a resident in Pleasants county, West Virginia, in 1865. He married in his native State, in Brownsville, February 9, 1859, Elizabeth Willard, and two sons, both living at home, have been born to them, namely Eastman, born September 17, 1861 and George B., born October 18, 1866 Elizabeth, his wife, is a daughter of George and Caroline (Almost) Willard, and was born in Fayette county, Pennsylvania, in May, 1840. Wiilliam Scott was nine months a soldier in the Union army during the war between the States, having been drafted into the 168th Pennsylvania Infantry. He is a ship carpenter, and began working at that trade in 1848. He has worked in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia; helped to build the Courier in Marietta, also the Red Cloud, the Ohio, the No. 4, and several others; is now constructing a barge on Middle Island creek. His postoffice address is Twiggs, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

SAMUEL B. SECKMAN - was born in Berkeley county, now in West Virginia, March 20 1810, a son of Philip and Anna E. (Bellomon) Seckman. He is a farmer and stock-raiser of Union district, having settled in this county in 1844. He married in Greene county, Pennsylvania, September 2, 1830, Sallie, daughter Mark and Margaret (Cimbell) Custer. She also was born in Berkeley county, August 6, 1812, and is now deceased, her death occurring at her home in this district, March 3, 1880. The children of this marriage were: Eliza J. (Sayer), born October 21, 1831, resides in Jackson county, this State; Andrew M., December 29, 1832, lives at home; Beniamin F., November 17, 1834, lives in this county; Anna E. (Sayer), April 20, 1837, died May 28 1875; Margaret (Woods), April 30, 1839, lives in Henry county, Missouri; Sarah A., August 15, 1841, died September 16, 1862. Anthony Seckman, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was born in Berks county, Pennsylvania, in 1763, and died in Berkeley county, this State, in 1838. He was a soldier in the war for Independence, and did a patriot's duty in many a hard-fought battle under General Washington. The father of Samuel B. was born in Berks county, Pennsylvania, April 9, 1779, and married in 1805; moved to Tyler county, this State, in 1844, and there died April 9, 1849. The ancestors of Mrs. Seckman were soldiers of the Revolution, and her father was first cousin to the lamented and gallant Custer killed by the Indians a few years since. Samuel B. Seckman was elected a justice of the peace in 1851, and served for eight years. He is principally interested in stock-raising on his farm, which lies along Big Run. His address is Twiggs, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

(NOTE from Grace Ebneter, gebneter@bellsouth.net: 2/23/1999 - Contrary to Hardesty's account, Sallie CUSTER SECKMAN's father was not a first cousin to Gen. Custer, but he was a third cousin to Gen. Custer's father. Sallie was a fourth cousin to Gen. Custer. Her ancestors were soldiers in the Revolution and I entered the DAR on the record of our mutual ancestor, Jonathan Custer, of Berks County, PA.)

CYRUS P. SMITH - born may 10, 1838, entered into the state of matrimony with Mary E. Allen, on the 8th of December, 1866. She was born October 29, 1847, and her parents were Asa P. and Margaret (Taylor) Allen. Five children, as follows, have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Smith: Londora A., born October 23, 1867; William A., September 19, 1869; Maggie F., February 25, 1871; Hattie O., November 23, 1873; Sarah V., April 25, 1881, died December 14, 1881. William and Susan (Gorrell) Smith were the parents of the subject of this sketch. Cyrus P. Smith is a farmer in Union district, and a merchant in Twiggs village. In his store is a full line of dry goods, notions, and all that goes to stock a well-kept country store. His postoffice address is Twiggs, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

ELZA SMITH - a son of William and Susan (Gorrell) Smith, was born in Tyler county, West Virginia, August 12, 1816. The ancestors of Elza Smith were among the early settlers of this portion of West Virginia. They came here when this country was inhabited by the Indians. Elza Smith's first marriage was with Eleanor, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Robinson, and the children of their marriage were four: Mary J., born May, 1842; Joshua R., April 12, 1845, died May 24, 1870; William A., July 30, 1846, died December 1, 1872; Mansfield, June 16, 1851. Mrs. Elza Smith was born in Belmont county, Ohio, August 1, 1822, and her death was on the 21st day of December, 1871. Eiza Smith married for his second wife Margaret, daughter of Joseph and Jane (Martin) McCoy, in Pleasants county, West Virginia, January 15, 1873. She was born in Tyler county, West Virginia, March 13, 1834. Mr. Smith was elected school commissioner for the term of four years. He lives in Mead district, Tyler county, West Virginia, close to the line of Pleasants county, the greater portion of his land being in Tyler county near Middle Island creek. His postoffice address is Twiggs, Pleasants County, West Virginia.

SQUIRE SMITH - and Priscilla Wells were United in matrimonial bands in the year 1848, October 5. in Ritchie county, West Virginia. Eleven children were born to bless their union, as follows: Amos, July 14, 1849; Eli, January 17, 1851, died August 15, 1863; Annias, November 18, 1852, died August 16, 185 3; William H., June 15, 1854, died, August 25, 1863; Sarah E., April 15, 1856, died August 8, 1863; Sylvester, February 5 1862; Martha A., February 17, 1865, died September 15, 1869; Sheridan, October 20, 1866; Dorthy, June 2, 1869. Squire Smith was born in Tyler county, this State, and was the son of William and Susan (Gorrell) Smith, and his ancestors were among those pioneer settlers of this vicinity to whom its present residents owe so much. His birth occurred on the 17th of March, 1824. His wife was the daughter of Ely and Hannah (Gorrell) Wells, and was born January 5, 1831, in Tyler county, this State. Mr. Smith has one of the best appointed farms in Union district, lying between Gorrell Run and Sugar creek, and four miles from the Ohio river. It contains 400 acres of land. He receives his mail at Sugar Valley, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JAMES M. SNIVELY - is a resident in Union district, Pleasants county, where he owns and tills a farm of 120 acres, situated on the dividing ridge between Middle Island creek ana the Ohio river, between one and two miles from Raven Rock. He was born in Clarington, Monroe county, Ohio, September 3, 1841, a son of Benjamin and Mary (Pascall) Snively. In the State and county of his birth he was wedded, January 31, 1867, to Mary E. Terry, daughter of George and Eliza (Williams) Terry, now deceased. Four daughters are growing into womanhood in the home this marriage founded: Ida B. was December 17, 1867; Clara J., December 29, 1870; Cora B., March 1, 1872; Emma J., December 10, 1874. Mrs. Snively was born in Monroe county, Ohio, and with her husband came to this county in the year 1872. Mr. Snively served in the Federal army during the war of 1861, in the 77th Ohio Volunteers. He was at the capture of Mobile, and fought at Marks Mills, Arkansas, where he was taken prisoner, and sent to Camp Fort, Texas; was released after ten months. His grandfather came from Germany to this country, settling in Pennsylvania; his father in later years made his home in Ohio. His wife is of English descent. Address James M. Snively at Raven Rock, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

HENRY STEEL -was born in Tyler county, West Virginia, April 25, 1845, and was in that county married to his present wife, September 2, 1876. She is Alice, daughter of Silas and Cynthia Ann (Naylor) McKenzie, and she was born in Washington county, Ohio, May 27, 1849. Mr. and Mrs. Steel have four children, who still make their home with them: George Howard was born June 2, 1874; Cora Isabell, August 24, 1877; Silas H., February 25, 1879; Jesse C., September 25, 1881. Thomas S. and Isabell (Hays) Steel, parents of Henry, are residents in Tyler county. Henry Steel's first marriage was with Catherine, daughter of Peter and Elizabeth (Roberts) Steed. She was born in Tyler county, August 22, 1848, and they were married February 15, 1866. Five children were born to them as follows: Eddy H., March 12, 1867; George, July 10, 1868, died September 10, 1872; Harriet, October 10, 1869, died September 22, 1871; Thomas, March 30, 1871; William, February 7, 1875, died September 14, 1875. Henry Steel served in the Union army during the war between the States, a member of Company E, 14th West Virginia Volunteers. He fought at Cloyd Mountain, Lexington, Lynchburg, Wmchester, Martinsburg, Halltown, Berryville, Fishers Hill, and Cedar Creek, Virginia. He received his discharge at Cumberland, June 27, 1865. His present occupation is farming, and he owns and tills a farm Of 100 acres in Union district. His postoffice address is Raven Rock, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOHN F. TAYLOR - and Rosanah Ruttencutter were united in matrimonial bands on the 6th day of September, 1844. He was a son of Joseph and Phebe (Cochran) Taylor, and his birth took place on June 1, 1820. His wife was a daughter of Daniel and Mary (Parker) Ruttencutter, and her birth occurred October 15, 1825. From the union of John and Rosannah Taylor eleven children were born, as follows: Mary E., December 7, 1844, died September 6, 1846; Phebe C. (Knight), August 25, 1846; Harriet R. (Flesher), April 21, 1848; Zachary T., February 13, 1850; Eliza C., March 6, 1852, died October 6, 1874; Joseph W., June 5, 1854; Thomas J., April 8, 1856; Maggie M (Bailey), November 28, 1858; Ella L., October 22, 1861; Frank M., May 22, 1864; Alice B., March 18, 1867. Their people are all well-known and influential Virginians, and Mr. Taylor's ancestors were among the pioneer settlers of West Virginia. His father came to Tyler county, this State, from Loudoun county, Virginia. John F. Taylor cultivates an excellent farm in Union district, receiving his mail at the postoffice on Grape Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

A. S. VANCE - son of William Vance, deceased, and Margaret (Baldwin) Vance, was born in Monroe county, Ohio, September 2, 1846, and became a resident in Pleasants county, West Virginia, in 1877. In Noble county, Ohio, January 21, 1869, he married Anna M., daughter of John W. and Ruth L. (Calvert) Gregory. She was born in Noble county, May 8, 1850, and her parents are still residents of that county. Two children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Vance: James L., October 12, 1869; and Clarence, August 11, 1871, who was drowned May 4, 1878. A. S. Vance was a Union soldier during the War of 1861, enlisting in 1863, in Company C, 25th Ohio Volunteers. He was wounded at the battle of Honey Hill, South Carolina, but soon recovered and resumed active service, continuing in service tW the close of the war, and receiving an honorable discharge at Columbus, Ohio. His brother, Isaac A., a member of the 176th Ohio Regiment, died in hospital at St. Louis, Missouri. William Vance, grandfather of A. S., was a soldier in the war of 1812, when he was but 18 years old, and fought under General Harrison. He was one of the earliest settlers in Belmont county, Ohio, where he died in 1878, aged 84. A. S. Vance is a lumber merchant in Union district, having a saw mill at the mouth of Mill Run, which he built in 1877. In the same year he built the first three houses in the village of Raven Rock. The style of the firm in which he is associated is: The Raven Rock Mill Company, manufacturers and dealers in all kinds of lumber, sash, doors, furniture, etc., A. S. Vance, business manager, Raven Rock, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

DAVID WAGONER - son of Christopher and Catherine (Muser) Wagoner, was born in Pennsylvania, May 6, 1817. His father moved from Pennsylvania to Tyler county, this State, in 1820, and was one of the pioneer settlers of this vicinity. His principal occupation was hunting, and game was plentiful, so that he shot as many as five deer in one day, sometimes. David Wagoner was united in marriage with Margaret, daughter of James and Margaret (Ball) Williamson, March 26, 1839. She was born in Tyler county, May 28, 1819. The children of this marrage are: Isaac, born August 27, 1841, John, November 6, 1842; Joshua, August 30, 1844; Elizabeth (Weekley), July 13, 1846; Christopher J., October 10, 1848; Joseph, October 14, 1850; Amos, June 13, 1853; Friend, March 22, 1855; Elroy, April 26, 1857; Maria Q. (Lamps), July 15, 1860. Elroy lives in the adjoining county, Tyler; the rest in Pleasants county, and Friend lives at home. The oldest son, Isaac, was three years in the 14th West Virginia Volunteers during the war of 1861. David Wagoner is a farmer in Union district, owning 25O acres lying along Sugar creek. His postoffice is Sugar Valley, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOSEPH WAGONER - was born in Pennsylvania, December 22, 1810, and came to Tyler, now Pleasants county, West Virginia, with his parents, when ten years old. He was married December 22, 1832, to Nancy Williamson, born in Tyler county, this State, October 4, 1812. The eight children their marriage brought them are as follows: Catherine (Hayes), bom October 19, 1834; William, October 14, 1836; Calvin, December 4, 1838; Margaret (Bullman), July 25, 1841; James, October 25, 1843; John R., May 17, 1848; Thomas J., January 4, 1849; Asa F., April 4, 185 2. Catherine and Margaret are living in Tyler county, the other children in Pleasants. Christopher and Catherine (Muser) Wagoner, parents of Joseph, died in this county. Joseph Wagoner is engaged in agricultural pursuits, owning a farm in Union district, of 313 acres, one and one-half miles from the mouth of Sugar creek. His postoffice address is Sugar Valley, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

THOMAS WAY - was united in marriage with Sarah A. Cooper in Belmont county, Ohio, March 22, 1846. He was born in that State and county, December 7, 1813, and was a son of John and Levisa (Edge) Way, well known residents of Belmont county. His wife was born in Loudoun county, Virginia, August 9, 1812, and was a daughter of John and Nancy (Messer) Cooper. She died August 9, 1881, leaving her husband and five children to mourn her loss, one child, the oldest born, having gone before her to the land of rest. These children were born as follows: Ruth Arminda, bom June 2, 1838, died September 14, 1874; John C., born November 7, 1839, lives in Tyler county; Elizabeth S. (Haught), bom July 30, 1840; Matilda A., April 3, 1842; Ozias C., November 17, 1843; Isaac C., December 15, 1845. One of these children, John C., was a soldier in the Union army, enlisting in 1861, in the 7th West Virginia Volunteers, as a private; was orderly sergeant till 1864, and then commissioned captain. He did a brave man's duty on the fields of Antietam, Gettysburg, Rapidan and the Wilderness, and was four times wounded. Thomas Way's grandfather, John Edge, was a soldier under Washington in 1776, and one of his uncles, fighting for America's rights in 1812, sickened and died at Sandusky Plains. Mr. Way was justice of the peace in Tyler county from 1863 for thirteen years; was also appointed president of the court in that county. He was ordained a minister of the Christian Church in 1856. He settled in Union district, Pleasants county, March 15, 1880, and is there engaged in farming, receiving his mail at Raven Rock, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

RUFUS WEEKLEY - and Sarah A. Williamson entered upon a matrimonial alliance for the rest of their joint lives on the 26th of August, 1868. He was born in Tyler county, West Virginia, February 12, 1847, and is a son of Lewis Smith and Margaret Weekley. His wife was born in this State and county, October 11, 1849. Her parents were John J. and Margaret (Wagoner) Williamson. An uncle of Rufus Weekley, William Weekley, was a soldier through the entire war between the States. Rufus Weekley is engaged in agricultural pursuits in Union district, this State and county, owning and tilling his own land, and enjoying that independence known only to the American farmer. He may be addressed at Raven Rock, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOHN WELLS - born in Middleboume, Tyler county, West Virginia, December 18, 1822, was a son of Ely and Hannah (Gorrell) Wells, who came to Pleasants county in 1837, bringing their son with them. He married Catherine, daughter of Thomas and Sarah (Wells) Gorrell, who was born in 1815, and died in 1871. Their children, six in number, died - four in infancy, and two at the age of ten. His present matrimonial alliance is with Rosa C. Smith, and was entered into September 21, 1871. Their children are: Ross, born June 4, 1872; Carrie, February 28, 1874; Anthony, September 19, 1875; Mary, March 30, 1877, died January 11, 1878. Rosa C., daughter of Anthony and Elizabeth (Frank) Smith, was born in Trumbull county, Ohio, March 28, 1835. Her parents settled in Tyler county in 1838. Ely Wells, father of John, was a pioneer of this county; he was born December 9, 1799, and now lives in this district; Hannah (Gorrel) Wells, his wife, died in 1847. John Wells received a captain's commission from Governor Pierpont, during our last war, in the 191st West Virginia Militia. His wife's father was a soldier in that war, and was killed by a hand-car on the railroad near Silver Run tunnel. She lost one brother, George, in the war, who was shot in the battle of Cloyd Mountain. John Wells is engaged in farming and stock-raising, his farm lying near Middle Island creek. His postoffice address is Sugar Valley, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

GEORGE M. WILLIAMSON - son of John J. and Margaret (Wagner) Williamson, was born in Pleasants county, West Virginia, June 26, 1840. His first marriage was with Josephine Maxwell, born in this county, January 25, 1850, and their children were: Porter C., born May 25, 1871, and Mollie C., born September 26, 1872, died December 8, 1873. The mother died November 15, 1873. At Marietta, Washington county, Ohio, March 6, 1878, George M. Williamson was united in marriage with Indie F. Craig, and two little ones, Oria, born March 8, 1879, and Wilber, born December 16, 1880, bless this marriage. Mrs. Williamson was born July 26, 18S6, and is a daughter of John and Ami (Flesher) Craig. Mr. Williamson was a soldier in the Union army, a member of Company F, 14th West Virginia Volunteer Infantry, enlisting in 1862, and serving until the close of the war. He is now a resident in Union district, in the village of Raven Rock, where he keeps a well-stacked store of general merchandise - dry goods, notions, groceries, hardware, etc. He is also the postmaster of Raven Rock, appointed March 21, 1882.

JAMES W. WILLIAMSON - born in Tyler county, West Virginia, in 1816, was a son of William and Sarah (Fuget) Williamson, who died in that county. He married in 1836, Susanna, daughter of John Adams; she was born in New Jersey, in 1810. Mr. Williamson has been long and honorably identified with the best interests of West Virginia. He began his official life in Tyler county, in 185l, when he was appointed surveyor of roads; in 185l he was elected justice of the peace, which position he continued to hold for three terms. In Pleasants county he was appointed president of the county court. In the troubled days of 1861, Mr. Williamson was representing Pleasants county in the legislature, which position he filled all through the war times, his term expiring in 1866. He had the pleasure of signing, with other Union representatives, the new State Constitution, declaring that West Virginia was a sovereign and independent State, and would ever maintain her motto, "Montani semper liberi." To maintain this doctrine, Mr. Williamson was commissioned captain by Governor Pierpont, and organized two companies of Virginia Guards, for home service during the war. Also authorized by the board of supervisors to recruit to fill the quota of Pleasants county during the war. Appointed by the legislature of West Virginia to run the lines of Pleasants county; also to lay off the same into townships; also appointed on the committee to lay off West Virginia. He is now a prosperous farmer in Union district, his postoffice address, Sugar Valley, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOHN J. WILLIAMSON - died 1890 - son of James and Margaret (Ball) Williamson, was bom July 12, 1810, in this State and county, where he married and has reared in habits of honor and industry, a family of nine children. He is now a prosperous farmer in Union district. His marriage took place January 3, 1833, and his choice was Margaret Wagner, born in Greene county, Pennsylvania, and daughter of Christopher and Catherine (Musser) Wagner. Their children are: Christopher J., born March 18, 1834, lives in this county; Martha M., February 20, 1836, lives at home; Margaret C. (Berkhimer), October 16, 1837, died 1899; George M., January 26, 1840, lives in Raven Rock; Charles W., September 8, 1841, lives in Raven Rock; Mary J. (Flesher), September 24, 1843, lives in this county; Sidney C., December 30, 1845, resides in the county; Sarah A. (Weekley), August 27, 1847, lives in the county; Chester, February 7, 1856, lives at home. The oldest son was a member of the 14th West Virginia Infantry, in Company F, during the war of 1861; was taken prisoner at Cloyd Mountain, and sent to Andersonville. Thomas Williamson, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was one of the earliest settlers in West Virginia, locating at an early day on a farm on the banks of Wheeling creek, four miles above Fort Henry. John J. Williamson was made overseer of the poor in 1852; served as land appraiser one term; in 1873 was elected constable, which office he still holds. His address is Sugar Valley, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

WASHINGTON DISTRICT.

MARTIN BACHMAN - son of Jacob and Barbara (Kendig) Bachman, was born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, January 30, 1838, and settled in Pleasants county, West Virginia, in Washington district, in 1869, where he is engaged in manufacturing and dealing in timber and oil-barrel heading. He married in the State and county of his nativity, January 5, 1869, Maggie Miller, who was also born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, the date of her birth, March 8, 1840. She was a daughter of David and Martha (Hindman) Miller. Four children, all living at home, have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Bachman, as follows: Eloise Mahlon, born October 31, 1869; Maggie Elizabeth, April 23, 1871; Walter Powel, June 8, 1872; Edith May, May 2, 1880. Martin Bachman has the following war record for service in the war of 1861: He enlisted in September, 1861, in Company E, 79th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, and was promoted for gallantry on the field at Champion Hill, October 8, 1862, to a sergeant's rank; March 1, 1863, was discharged for disability. He recruited his health, and then went back as first lieutenant of Battery 1, Independent Pennsylvania Artillery, serving one year, and was discharged. Then served in the capacity of acting assistant adjutant general in the 1st and 3d Brigades, DeRussey's Division, Department of Washington, until final discharge in July, 1865. He possesses the most flattering testimonials from his superior officers, as to his ability and energy in duty. He has served five years on school board. His postoffice address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOHN W. BARKER - born in Ritchie county, West Virginia, March 12, 1850, is a son of James and Mandane (Davis) Barker, who came from Ritchie county to settle in Pleasants in 1852, bringing their infant son with them. The father, who was born July 22, 1822, died in this county May 22, 1863. In Marietta, Ohio, January 24, 1882, John W. Barker was United in marriage with Nellie Riggs, who was born in the State and county, March 7, 1864, and is the daughter of Martin and Eliza (Smith) Riggs, well-known residents of this county, where both were born. Mr. Barker is engaged in the mercantile business, in the town of St. Marys, Washington district, and keeps a full stock of dry goods, groceries, boots and shoes, queensware, hats and caps, notions, and, in fact, everything needed to fully stock a country store. In addition, he keeps baled hay, corn, oats, etc., all of which he will sell as cheap as the cheapest for cash or ready pay. The residents of Washington and adjoining districts will do well to give him a call before buying elsewhere. His postoffice address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

WILLIAM O. BARRICK - son of Adam and Mary (Hays) Barrick, deceased, was born in Marion county, West Virginia, July 18, 1838, and settled in Pleasants county in 1882. He was joined in marriage with Fanny, daughter of Alfred and Mary Ann (Lapping) Smith, on the 14th of February, 1864, in this county, at St. Marys. Six children bless their union, born and living as follows: Reginald Sims, born June 12, 1864, lives at Cambridge, Ohio; Valandigham, born June 4, 1866, resides in Columbus, 0hio; Frank P., born March 15, 1868; Grace Gertrude, October 16, 1873; Maggie A., May 2l, 1876; Roy Chester, August 12, 1881. The last four still gladden the home of their parents. Mrs. Barrick was born in Monongalia county, this State, January 25, 1844. Mr. Barrick has been constable, and served five years as justice of the peace. He had two brothers in our late war, one of whom died from sickness, while in the service. Mr. Barrick lives in what is called Forest City, and his trade is that of a cooper, in which line he will be found unexcelled. His address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

ALFRED HAMILTON COLE - was born in Belmont county, Ohio, near Powhaten, October 9, 1842, a son of Wilson C. and Rebecca Bedford (McFarland) Cole. He entered the Union army August 11, 1862, in the 15th West Virginia Volunteer Infantry, and served through the war, mustering out at Wheeling, West Virginia, June 24, 1865. He was once slightly wounded, in the battle of Berryville, in the Shenandoah valley, and he witnessed the gallant ride of Sheridan from Winchester, and fought that day under him. He took part in all the other battles of his regiment. After the close of the war, in March, 1866, he settled in Pleasants county, Washington district, and the following year June 1, 1867, he married Dorcas Medora Cecelia Reynolds, the marriage taking place at her father's farm, on Middle Island, this township. She was born on the home farm, March 6, 1848, and is the daughter of Daniel Webster and Sarah (Larue) Reynolds. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Cole are: Charley Robert, born December 30, 1867; Cora Matilda, July 16, 1869; Sallie Rebecca Leeta, January 14, 1871; Warren Wilson, August 28, 1872, died November 25, 1872; Lillian Mabel, May 1, 1874; Walter William, September 25, 1875; Sylvia Amanda, November 18, 1880; Martha Priscilla, July 31, 1882. All live at home, making the fourth generation of the same blood who have lived on this farm, first settled on in 1790, by the maternal grandfather of Mrs. Cole, Isaac Larue, who located this farm at the mouth of Middle Island creek in that year, and was the first settler in the county. It is now one of the finest farms in the district, and Mr. Cole is here engaged in farming and stock-raising. His postoffice address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

ALONZO BARRICK CORE - was born in St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia, May 2, 1855, a son of William G. H. and Adelia C. (Barrick) Core, who came to this county in 1848. In St. Marys, March 25, 1879, he married Anna Bier, who was born in Washington county, Ohio, January 29, 1857. She was the daughter of William E. and Cloie (Reynolds) Bier. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Core, are: Claudia Berenice, born September 25, 1879; and Clay Carl, born October 24, 1881. A. B. Core has been a merchant, but is now living on a farm south of St. Marys. His address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

PARKER J. DUFF - was born in Clarington, Monroe county, Ohio, April 26, 1843. In the same town six years later, on the 5th of January, 1849, Martha May was born, daughter of William H. and Nancy (Henthom) May, now deceased. These two young people united their lives in the place of their nativity, October 7, 1864, and ten years later decided to try their fortune among the Virginians, settling in Washington district, Pleasants county, in 1874. They are the parents of five children, the first three born in Clarington, Ohio, and the two last in St. Marys. this district. Annie F. was bom September 3, 186S; Thomas F., October 4, 1867; John C., April 26, 1869; Roy, September 23, 1874; Bessie, September 22, 1877. The parents of Mr. Duff were John and Annie F. (Judkins) Duff; the latter is living in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania; her husband has been dead many years. The war record of Parker Duff shows one of those instances of patriotism that are the just pride of our republic. At the opening of hostilities in 1861, Parker Duff, his older brother, John C., and a younger brother, Thomas F., all enlisted in the defense of the Union, leaving their widowed mother alone at home. This patriotic mother not only urged them to go, but regretted that she had no more sons for such a cause. Thomas F. served in the navy; John C. in the 2Sth Ohio; was wounded at Chancellorsville, in May, 1863, and taken prisoner at Gettysburg; in July, 1863, paroled on the field, and served till close of term. Parker J., was in the 7th West Virginia Infantry, enlisting as a private, then promoted to a lieutenancy, then brevetted captain. Served in all the engagements of his command until discharged for disability, September 3, 1864. He is now doing business in St. Marys as a druggist, receiving his mail at that place.

JOHN S. HALL - was born in Laporte county, Indiana, September 15, 1845, a son of Samuel G. and Rachel (Hudkins) Hall. The former is deceased, and the latter is living in Pleasants county, West Virginia, having come here in 1874. John S. Hall served as teamster during the war, and lost his eyesight by fever in Nashville, Tennessee. Re also had four brothers who served in that war: Leonard S., attorney; Simon D.; W. W., attorney; and Allen S., all returned without any serious wounds. John S. Hall is editor of "The Oracle," a county paper published in St. Marys, and one that is very popular and deservedly so, with the people of this vicinity. His address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

ABRAHAM RUTTENCUTTER - son of Daniel and Mary Ruttencutter, is a resident of St. Marys, Washington district, Pleasants county, West Virginia, where he is well known as proprietor of the Exchange Hotel, and as a careful and accommodating drayman. He will be glad to meet the traveling public at his place, and will make it as pleasant as possible for all who favor him with their patronage. He also has good stabling in connection with his house. Mr. Ruttencutter married in this State and county, April 5, 1860, Christiana Watson, who was born in Ritchie county in 1842, on the 11th of June. They have six living children at home with them and have lost one infant daughter. The children were born and named as follows: Missouri Belle, born April 20, 1861; Mary Rosanna, February 28, 1867; John Daniel, October 21, 1869; Joseph Andrew Jackson, November 14, 1872; Charlotta Elizabeth Blanche, March 28, 1876; Bessie Maude, January 28, 1879, died July 28, 1880; Charles Franklin, August 23, 1881. Mrs. Ruttencutter is the daughter of John and Rosanna (Barker) Watson. Her father was born May 5, 1815, and her mother March 12, 1818 - both are living. Abraham Ruttencutter receives his postoffice mail at St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOHN SCHAUWECKER - is a native of Germany, born in Reutlingen, Wurtemberg, October 18, 1845. He is a son of Christian C. and Albertine L. M. Schauwecker, who were both born in Wurtemberg, where they still live, in the years 1816 and 1818, respectively. Christian C. Schauwecker carries on a tannery business in Germany, and with him his son John became a master of the business. He then came to America, in 1865, settling first in Columbiana county, Ohio, where he stayed three years, and then went to Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, and worked at his trade awhile there; then went back to Ohio, working in several places, until he came to Pleasants county, West Virginia, in the summer of 1870, and embarked with a brother in the tannery business for themselves, first in a small way, and by careful management increasing the business, until now he has one of the largest and best appointed tanneries in West Virginia. Since 1879 John Schauwecker has been sole proprietor. He married in this district, May 2, 1872, Mary A. Schuepbach, daughter of Nicholaus and Dorothea (Liukart) Schuepbach. She was born in Monroe county, Ohio, March 16, 1854. The children of this marriage are four in number, as follows: Herman J. A., born March 30, 1873; Caroline Louisa, April 14, 1875; Julius A., July 17, 1873; Magdalene D., January 16, 1881. Mr. Schauwecker's postoffice address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

GEORGE WILSON SEEVERS - was born in Pleasants county, June 29, 1849, a son of David and Hannah (Britton) Seevers, who came to this county in the early part of the present century. In Pleasants county, November 14, 1869, he married Lucy C. Curtis, who was born in the county, May 22, 1855. The children of this marriage are: Darcy Dexter, born June 28, 1870; William Joshua, January 8, 1872; Lillian Eve, April 20, 1873; Euphemia Ellen, November 5, 1874; Arthur Byron, January 5, 1876; Mary Belle, August 15, 1878 - all live at home. Lucy (Curtis) Seevers is a daughter of Hiram J. and Mary E. A. (Medley) Curtis. Both were born in Pleasants county, and are among its widest known and most highly esteemed residents. Mr. Curtis was colonel of the Virginia National Guards during the war between the States. Joshua Seevers, a brother of George W., served in the Union army at the time, a member of Company A, 1st West Virginia Volunteer Infantry. For the first two years he was in active service, taking part in all the battles of his regiment; then disabled from duty, was detailed hospital nurse, till his term of service ended. George W. Seevers is by trade a cooper, and is engaged in that business connection with the tilling of the soil. His residence is in Washington district, and his postoffice address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOB SMITH -is a native of the Keystone State, he having been born in Greene county, Pennsylvania, February 5, 1838. When he was ten years age his parents removed with him to this State, and to what is now Pleasants county, West Virginia. In this State and county, and in Washington district, where he now resides, on the 6th day of December, 1864, he married Barbara C. Hubbs. She was born in Belmont county, Ohio, July 29 1845, and was the daughter of Joseph Hubbs, now deceased, and his wife, Joanna (Ambler) Hubbs. Mr. Smith's parents were Alfred and Mary Ann (Lapping) Smith; the latter is deceased. Mrs. Smith's parents became residents in Pleasants county in 1855. Job Smith is engaged in agricultural pursuits, principally farming and stock-raising, and his postoffice address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOHN M. STROBEL - was born in Stuttgart, province of Wurtemberg, Germany, August 12, 1818. His parents were Jacob and Margaret (Knoellinger) Strobel. He married in Germany, October 22, 1843, a native of the place in which he was born. She was a daughter of Johannes and Caroline (Kappler) Harmann, named Christenia Catherine, and was born October 7, 1820. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Strobel were five: Catherine Caroline, born February 14, 1846, died December 8, 1846; Catherine Caroline, born December 12, 1846, died September 19, 1848; Philip Jacob, born December 8, 1848, died December 12, 1848; Fredericke (Bushfield), born December 16, 1849, lives in St. Marys; Christian Ewald, born April 8, 1866, resides in Ramsey, Fayette county, IWnois. John M. Strobel has been for a number of years a resident in Washington district, Pleasants county, and has served as school trustee in St. Marys for five years. He is engaged in business in that city, keeping a furniture store, and carrying on the undertaking business. His motto is satisfaction guaranteed, and he solicits the custom of the people of St. Marys and vicinity.

DR. JOSEPH BARNETT WATSON - is a physician and surgeon resident in St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia. He was born in this State, in Ritchie county, February 25, 1839, and his parents, John and Rosanna Watson, removed to Pleasants county in 1844, bringing him, then in his third year, with them. In this county and district, in the village of St. Marys, May 20, 1862, Joseph Barnett Watson and Mary E. Carrold were joined in the bands of matrimony. She is the daughter of William and Catherine Carrold, well known and highly respected residents in Wood county, this State, and in that county their daughter, Mary E., was born November 16, 1838. Dr. Watson graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Baltimore, Maryland, class of 1876, and settled down in his present location, where he enjoys a large practice, and the respect and confidence of the people among whom his labors call him. His postoffice address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

GRANT DISTRICT.

BENONIN BROTHERS - was born in Noble county, Ohio, September 16, 1841, and is a son of John and Deborah (Helms) Brothers, residents of that State and county. December 31, 1862, he married, also in Noble county, and in 1881 he cast his lot in with the people of Pleasants county, West Virginia, settling in Grant district, and combining the tilling of the soil with the occupation of school teaching. The lady whom he chose to journey with him through life, was Margaret Ellen, daughter of Wesley Jackson and Barbara Ellen (McMullen) Westbrooks, and she was born in Belmont county, Ohio, August 20, 1844. Her parents now live on the little Kanawha, in Wirt county, this State. Both her grandfathers were soldiers in the war of 1812, and her father served in the Union army in the war of 1861, three years; he was in the 116th Ohio Volunteers, and participated in all the many engagements of that regiment. Several of her uncles and cousins served through the entire war. The children born to bless the wedded life of Mr. and Mrs. Brothers, seven in number, are as follows: John, born April 23, 1866; Wesley J., April 21, 1868; Josiah, April 24, 1870; Deborah, December 11, 1873; Willie, June 22, 1877; Daniel, August 14, 1879; Barbara Ellen, June 2, 1881; all live at home. Mr. Brothers' postoffice address is Willow Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOHN LEMUEL FLOWERS - who is a resident in Grant district, Pleasants county, West Virginia, where he is extensively engaged in farming and stock-raising, was born April 23, 1881. He was the son of John and Catherine (Lemley) Flowers, now deceased, the former in Gallipolis, Ohio, and the latter in Wood county, West Virginia. January 1, 1855, in Wood county, Mr. Flowers was joined in marriage with Mary Jane Conkel, who was born in Marshall county, this State, January 10, 1836, a daughter of John and Elizabeth (Clark) Conkel, then residents in Marshall county. They came to Pleasants county in 1853, and here ended their days, Mr. Conkel dying in 1861, and his wife living to the good old age of 88, dying in 1881. Mr. and Mrs. Flowers are the parents of: Mahala (Baker), born October 10, 1855, lives in this county; Ellen Alice, January 22, 1857, died April 30, 1857; Minerva Jane (Wingrive), March 9, 1860, lives in Wood county; John William, January 11, 1862; Philip Andrew Jackson, March 9, 1864; Thomas Jefferson, April 4, 1866; Anna Laura Belle, January 26, 1869; Martha Elizabeth Catherine. January 23, 1872; the five last named living at home. One of Mrs. Flowers' brothers, James Madison Conkel, enlisted in the Confederate army, in 1861, deserted and got safely into the Union lines, though nearly starved. Mr. Flowers' postoffice address is Willow Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

J. C. FORD - formerly a ship-master, trading between New Orleans, Louisiana, and Havre-de-Grace, France, but now a resident on River Hill farm, Grant district, Pleasants county, West Virginia, was born in Lincoln county, Maine, October 5, 1816, a son of Dr. E. J. Ford and Abigail (Cobb) Ford, his wife. In New Orleans, April 29, 1850, J. C. Ford was joined in marriage with Marie Eliza, daughter of William H. and Johanna (Somerset) Maunsell, of Mount Zion, Limerick county, Ireland. She was born in Shropshire, England, September 9, 1824, and died in Parkersburg, January 6, 1874, leaving five living children to mourn the irreparable loss. The family record of these children, reads as follows: Albert William, born at Augusta, Maine, March 27, 1851, married Eveline Miller, of Frederick, Maryland, June 27, 1875, and is a resident physician in Brooklyn, New York; Charles J., born in Havre-de-Grace, France, September 27, 1852, lives in Richburg, Allegheny county, New York; Edward Maunsell, born in Augusta, Maine, October 27, 1854, married Harrie Westover, of St. Joseph, Missouri, December 27, 1880, and is now engaged as cattle-dealer, in Kansas and Indian Territory, with his residence at St. Joseph, Missouri; Maria Louisa, born at Washington bottoms, Wood county, West Virginia, June 24, 1862; and Thomas Ridgate Maunsell, also born at Washington bottoms, October 26, 1863; the two last named living at home with their father. Two grandsons have been born, namely: William M., son of Albert William and his wife, and a son named Harold, born to Edward M. and his wife. J. C. Ford receives his mail at the Bull Creek postoffice, Wood county, West Virginia.

JACOB GARRISON - was born in Greene county, Pennsylvania, May 11, 1825, and became a resident in Wood county in 1859. In the State and county of his nativity, October 4, 1849, he married Elizabeth Huggins, also a native of Greene county, Pennsylvania. Ten children were born to bless this union, the first five in Pennsylvania, and the others after their parents settled in West Virginia. Their record is as follows: J. T., born May 7, 1850, lives at home; Ruah Ellen, May 30, 1852, died in February, 1853; David Adam, December 24, 1853, died in May, 1854; Johnson Baily, December 27, 1854, lives at home; Ellis Simeon, October 23, 1857, died December 7, 1880; Rachel Margaret, August 27, 1860, died May 27, 1878; Rufus Rolston, August 23, 1866, lives at home; Jacob Elmore, December 27, 1867, lives at home; Ulysses Grant, January 1, 1873, lives at home; Mary Elizabeth, December 31, 1874, died January 15, 1875. David and Rachel (Johnson) Garrison, parents of Jacob, lived and died in Greene county, Pennsylvania. The parents of Mrs. Garrison, John and Sarah (Johnson) Huggins, settled in Wood county in 1860. Jacob Garrison served three years in the Union army during the war between the States, and participated in all engagements of his regiment until wounded in battle at Berryville, Virginia. One of his brothers, and two of his wife's brothers, served in the same army. Mr. Garrison settled on his farm, which is in Union district, Wood county, just over the line from Grant district, Pleasants county, in 1859, and although giving three years time since then to his country, has now 260 acres of land, mostly tillable; has cleared 100 acres himself. His postoffice address is Bull Creek, Wood county, West Virginia.

JOHN L. HARNESS - deceased, and Elizabeth A. Irvin were joined in the holy bands of wedlock in Wood county, West Virginia, January 14, 1844. He was a native of that county, born May 13, 1817, and she was born seven years later, July 18, 1824, at Ellicot Mills, Maryland. They have had seven children, whose record is as follows: Elmon L., born June 23, 1846, resides in Kansas; Mary T., December 29, 1847, lives at home; Euphemia C., January 9, 1851, died October 14, 1851; Anne M. (Dunbar), October 29, 1852, lives in Wood county; William S., September 4, 1857, lives at home; Ida V., March 7, 1860, lives at home; John A., September 12, 1862, lives at home. Solomon and Catherine (Stump) Harness, the parents of John L., settled in this county in 1809. The parents of Mrs. Harness, William and Euphemia (Murray) Irwin, came here in 1830, and the details of their settlement will be found elsewhere in this book, in connection with the history of their son James, who is a brother of Mrs. Harness. John L. Harness was a prosperous and highly esteemed resident of Grant district. William S. Harness is engaged in agricultural pursuits, receiving his mail at the postoffice at Willow Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

RANDALL INGRAM - born in Monroe county, Ohio, May 28, 1845, settled in Pleasants county, West Virginia, in 1873. In this county, October 4, 1873, he was united in marriage with Matilda A., daughter of George and Nancy (Powell) Hudkins. She was born in Pleasants county, April 23, 1858. Three little ones, all living at home, bless this marriage, born as follows: Bernice, October 20, 1874; R. B. Hayes, September 12, 1876; Lucy Ingram, January 4, 1880. Atkinson and Lucinda (Wells) Ingram are the parents of Randall Ingram. The war record of Randall Ingram for services rendered the cause of the Union during the war of 1861 is of uncommon interest. Enlisting in Company F, 36th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, August 17, 1862, during three years' service he saw fighting in sixteen pitched battles, and was a participant in seven skirmishes in Virginia following the battle of Antietam, which was one in which he was engaged; his last service was eleven days skirmishing in West Virginia, just before Lee's surrender closed the war, and following which he received an honorable discharge. He is now settled on a well-stocked farm in Grant district, where he is engaged in farming, stock-raising and dealing in wool. His postoffice address is Willow Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JAMES IRWIN - a prosperous farmer residing in Grant district, Pleasants county, was born in Maryland, March 3, 1820. When he was ten years of age his parents took up their residence in this State and county, and here their son has lived to the present time, an honored and useful citizen. He was married in Marietta, Ohio, July 7, 1847, to Alvira Johnson, who was born in Pennsylvania, in Greene county, January 1, 1823, and came to Pleasants county with her parents, Ruel and Elizabeth (Leap) Johnson, in 1839. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Irwin were: Harriet (Rolson), born August 14, 1845; Armintia, born in January, and died in June, 1851; Ida, born in October, 1853, and died in December, 1855. The family record of Mr. Irwin's parents is as follows: His father, William Irwin, born in Belfast, Ireland, came to this country in 1809. March 16, 1819, he married, in Maryland, Euphemia Murray, born in Paisley, Scotland; they came to West Virginia in 1830. Here both died, the father January 6, 1851, and the mother March 25, 1865. They were the parents of ten children, James, the subject of this sketch, being the oldest. His brothers and sisters were as follows: Joseph, Ann, Jane, Agnes, Maria, Theresa, William, Melissa, Frank and Tabitha. James Irwin served sixteen years as justice of the peace, first under the old State constitution, and later under the new. He is now one of the school commissioners in this district. His wife's grandfather, John Leap, served through the entire war of 1776 unharmed, and lived to the age of 104, dying in Indiana. James Irwin's postoffice address is Willow Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

GEORGE HARRISON JARVIS - son of Peter and Margaret (Steward) Jarvis, deceased, was born in Belmont county, Ohio, December 6, 1847, and became a resident in Pleasants county, West Virginia, in 1865. In the following year, and on the first day of that year, at Newport, Washington county, Ohio, he married Mary Josephine Cook. She was born in that State and county, December 6, 1847, a daughter of Emblem Nicholas and Martha W. (Wood) Cook, who came to Pleasants county in 1854. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Jarvis are: William Harrison, born October 17, 1866; Joe Emblem, May 12, 1869: Martha May, March 25, 1871; Frank Alvin, January 15, 1874; Herbert Leslie, April 6, 1876; Charley Cook, March 17, 1879; and the baby, born May 16, 1881 - all live at home. Mr. Jarvis has a war record to be transmitted with pride to his children and his children's children. He was in the war of 1861, in the 7th West Virginia Volunteer Infantry, and served over three years; was in the battles of Antietam, Malvern Hill, and in the retreat from Richmond under McClellan; then fought at Gettysburg, Chancellorsville, at the second Bull Run battle, at Fredericksburg, and in the battle of the Wilderness. In this battle he was shot in the jaw, and retains, as a souvenir of the engagement, the bullet with which he was hit and a part of his jaw bone. At Antietam he was shot through the arm and thigh, and still carries about in his limb this latter bullet. Gettysburg battle was on July 4, 1863, and he lay in water till the following morning and contracted typhoid fever, from which he did not recover until October following. He is now a farmer in Grant district, his postoffice, St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

AMMIEL JOHNSON - son of Ruel and Elizabeth (Leap) Johnson, was born in Pennsylvania, December 15, 1814, and settled in this State in 1840. He married Sophia King, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Shaw) King, in Preston county, West Virginia, in 1836. She was born in Pennsylvania, February 6, 1814. Twelve children were born to bless this union, as follows: James A., February 13, 1837, lives in Wood county; Milton B., October 10, 1838, Wood county; Phineas, November 29, 1840, died in 1846; Tabitha J. (Rawson), November 19, 1842, lives in Wood county; Elizabeth A. (Everly), May 6, 1845, this county; Melissa (Everly), June 8, 1847, Pleasants county; Benjamin F., July 10, 1849, died July 19, 1849; Lydia C. (Furman), June 10, 1851, Pleasants county; Willie I., October 10, 1853, Pleasants county; Ruel H., November 26,1855; Alice E., October 16, 1857; Ira O. Nellis, February 13, 1860. Mr. Johnson is a farmer in Grant district, and receives his mail at Bull Creek, Wood county, West Virginia.

ARTHUR P. RIGGS - son of Isaac and Nancy Riggs, was born in Tyler county, West Virginia, and is engaged in the hotel business in St. Marys, Washington district. He married in Tyler county, August 15, 1865, India Barker, a native of Ritchie county, born December 8, 1848. They have seven children, born and named as follows: Irvin B., December 30, 1867; Nancy Mary Ann, April 18, 1870, died October 3, 1870; Edward Lavin, November 26, 1872; Grace, April 25, 1875; Arthur Clifton, September 14, 1877; Selby Vane, December 9, 1879; Edith Mandane, July 13, 1882. The living children are all at home. The parents of Mrs. Riggs, James and Mandane (Davis) Barker, settled in Pleasants county in 1852. He was born in West Virginia, July 22, 1822, married October 27, 1846, and died May 22, 1863; his wife's birth occurred October 12, 1832. A. P. Riggs is keeping the Riggs house, which has just been refitted for the accommodation of the traveling public, and all who patronize him will have the benefit of a first-class house at moderate bills. His postoffice address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

GEORGE W. ROLSTON - was born in Wood county, West Virginia, January 26, 1823. In Pleasants county, May 16, 1872, he was united in the bands of matrimony with Elizabeth Biddle, daughter of Lloyd and Frances Biddle, and three children were born of the union, as follows: An infant daughter, born April 23, 1878, died same day; Maud, May 22,1874; Harry, October 5, 1876, died August 22, 1878. The parents of George W. Rolston were Nathaniel and Sarah (Harness) Rolston, his father being the son of William Rolston, who settled in Union district, this county, in 1804. At that time Pleasants county was in its primeval condition of solitude save for an occasional clearing, and the usual pioneer life of deprivation was experienced, an interesting account of which will be found elsewhere in this volume, in the personal history of Nathaniel Rolston. Nathaniel Rolston, himself, father of George W., served under Harrison in the 1812 war. George W. Rolston has been twice married, his first wife, Agnes P. Irwin, whom he married January 2, 1848, dying February 29, 1868. Mr. Rolston is engaged in farming and stock-raising in Grant district, and his postoffice address is Willow Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

GEORGE W. SEIBERT - son of John and Elizabeth (Miess) Seibert, was born in Centre county, Pennsylvania, July 17, 1827, and became a resident in this State in 1865. He married in Williamsburg, Ohio, October 23, 1859, Elizabeth Kain, whose parents were James and Ann (Holman) Kain, residents in Clairmont county, Ohio, at the time of their daughter's birth, May 5, 1832. Mr. Seibert has served in his district as one of its trustees. He had one brother, David, in the Union army, during the trouble between the North and South, and he was so severely wounded at Gettysburg that he was discharged for disability. His wife had one brother in the same service in an Ohio regiment. George W. Seibert carries on a general machine shop and repair works, his business being located in Grant district, on Cow creek, not far from the Ohio river. He is prepared to make or repair almost anything in wood or iron; his shop turns out broom handles, wash boards, brush blocks and chairs, and special attention is given to repairing threshing machines, mowers, and reapers. His postoffice address in Willow Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

ABLASON SMITH - son of Abraham Byers and Mary Ann (Lyon) Smith, now deceased, was born in Hardy county, West Virginia, September 5, 1837, his parents soon after his birth settling in Tyler county. His wife is Ann Maria, daughter of John M. and Ann Maria (Syx) Gano, and they have been traveling together along the journey of life for nearly twenty years, their marriage rite having been performed on the 9th of August, 1863. Three sons, now approaching manhood, were born to them in the early days of their wedded life, all now living at home with their parents. They are: Valmer Gano, born June 12, 1864; Joseph D., May 2, 1865; Jacob O., July 9, 1866. They have also one daughter, Bessie May, born February 5, 1882. Mr. Smith had two brothers in the Federal service during the war between the States. The war record of his brother Joseph D. will be found in the history following this. The other brother died from the effects of water drank from a poisoned spring near Rumney. Ablason Smith is busily and successfully occupied with the many interests of an able farmer, giving much attention to the raising of stock. His farm lies in Grant district and his postoffice is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOSEPH DENT SMITH - was born in Hardy county, West Virginia, February 20, 1842, and went to Tyler county with his parents when three years old, in 1845; came to Pleasants county in 1854. In this county, Washington district, February 16, 1871, he was united in marriage with Flener Dye, and three children, all living at home, bless their union. These children were born as follows: Jerry Dale, May 16, 1873; Bertha Garthelia, February 1, 1875; Myrta Bell, October 23, 1879. Abram Byers Smith and Mary Ann (Lyons) Smith, both deceased, were the parents of J. D. Smith. His wife was a daughter of John and Elizabeth Dye, and was born in this State and county, January 8, 1845. Her mother is no longer living. Joseph Dent Smith served in the Union army in the war of 1861, a member of Company A, 11th West Virginia Volunteers, and participated in many of the stirring events and dangerous situations of the army of the Potomac. He was in battle at Pleasants Mills, New Creek Station, Cedar Creek, Hatches Run, and witnessed the surrender of Lee at Appomattox. Mr. Smith is a farmer, his postoffice address, St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOSEPH STOOPS - born in Greene county, Pennsylvania, May 25, 1816, was married in Wood county, West Virginia, November 13, 1850, to Rowena C. Ingraham, who was a native of Wood county, born May 29, 1822. Their children were: Eliza L., born April 21, 1853, married Anthony Melrose, August 31, 1876, lives in Tygart district, Wood county; Ingraham E., born January 15, 1855, married Ellen J. Reynolds, November 16,1876, lives in Wood county; Oglevee, September 21, 1856, married Martha E. Stephens, September 21, 1882, and lives in Wood county; Katie F., born February 17, 1860, lives at home; Rowena Josephine, May 31, 1862, married William B. Hoy, August 17, 1882. One adopted son is also a member of this family. His proper name, Robinson, having been dropped, he is called James Franklin Stoops; he was born October 22, 1874. William and Anna (Oglevee) Stoops, parents of Joseph, who were residents in Greene county, Pennsylvania, are both dead; the former was a native of New Jersey. Mrs. Stoops' parents were Abraham F. Ingraham, born in West Virginia in 1803, died in 1872, and Nancy (McAtee) Ingraham, still living, born in 1802. He settled in Wood county in 1816, and their marriage occurred in 1821. Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Stoops, after their marriage in Wood county in 1850, moved to Indiana, staying till 1852 in Switzerland county; then went to Adams county, till 1855; sick there all the time, they started back to Wood county, traveling in a buggy. They then settled on their present home farm in Union district, Wood county, near the boundary line of Grant district, Pleasants county, which they had owned in all their wanderings, but hated to live on because of its loneliness. But after their hardships and sickness in Indiana, they settled down here contented, improved their farm, and now in their older days have all they need of this world's goods. Mr. Stoop's business is farming and stock-raising, and his postoffice address is Deer Walk, Wood county, West Virginia.

FRANCIS MARION TRIPLETT - son of Robert S. and Rebecca Maria (Robinson) Triplett, was born in Pleasants county, West Virginia, March 28, 1837, and in this county was married October 3, 1866. The lady of his choice was Isabella, daughter of John and Isabella (Rodgers) Arnott, residents in Marietta, Ohio. Eight children, named as follows, have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Triplett: Charles A., Isabella Maria, Maggie and Elizabeth, Robert S., John, Ida May, Francis M. Mr. Triplett has at various times filled many of the district offices within the gift of his townspeople. He was elected surveyor in 1865, served two years; then was elected again in the fall of 1880, and still holds the position; was appointed treasurer in 1869, serving two years; has been school trustee several terms. He has been twice married, his first wife, Rebecca E. to whom he was married January 12, 1864, dying in May, 1865. She was a daughter of Joseph and Phebe (Cochran) Taylor. Mr. Triplett was one of the West Virginia Guards during the troubled days of the war between the States. He was lieutenant, then major, then lieutenant-colonel of his regiment, which was called out to help repel the Confederate raid under Jones on Harrisville. Mr. Triplett is a resident in Grant district, where he is engaged in farming and surveying; his headquarters are at Willow Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOSIAH P. WESTBROOKS - was born in Monroe county, Ohio, October 8, 1849, and settled in Pleasants county, West Virginia, when in the thirtieth year of his age. The mother of his children is Mary Ellizabeth, daughter of William and Delilah (Vanvranken) Conklin. She was born in Orange county, Indiana, October 10, 1849, and their marriage took place in Lawrence county, Indiana, November 21, 1872. Their children, four in number, all living at home, were born as follows: Lilhian Belle, September 30, 1873; John Wesley, January 13, 1876; George Daniel, January 18, 1879; Delia Ellen, December 5, 1880. Wesley Jackson Westbrooks, born March 1, 1819, and Barbara Ellen (McMullen) Westbrooks, born May 8, 1822, are the parents of Josiah P.; they live at Enterprise, on the Kanawha river, this State. The father of Mrs. Westbrooks, was born in 1821, and died April 12, 1874; her mother, born November 26, 1826, came to live with her in 1881. The services rendered by different members of this family to their country make a very honorable showing. Mr. Westbrook's grandfather was a soldier in 1812; his father fought to maintain the Union in the war between the States, enlisting in the 116th Ohio, and engaging in twenty-six battles; several uncles and a number of cousins were in the same service. One uncle, a member of an Indiana Regiment, was killed by sharp-shooters. One of Mrs. Westbrooks' brothers was one year in the service and died of disease contracted in the army. Mr. Westbrooks is a school director and road supervisor in Grant district. In this district he is engaged in carrying on a farm and a welktocked store of such general merchandise as meets every want of the people of the locality. His postoffice address is Willow Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

McKIM DISTRICT.

J. FRANK BARRON - son of M. L and Nancy V. (Amlin) Barron, was born in Athens, Athens county, Ohio, October 19, 1856. He with his parents moved to this county in 1872. Here he married Lizzie G., daughter of Silas and Margaret (Alexander) Gallaher. She was born in St. Marys, March 9,1857, and in that city she was joined in wedlock with J. Frank Barron, December 8, 1881. The child of this marriage is Mazie G., born September 8, 1882. Mr. Barron is a teacher by profession, and was elected justice of the peace in 1882, in McKim district, for the term of four years. His address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

ALLEN R. HARDY - born in Noble county, Ohio, September 8, 1842, settled in Pleasants county, West Virginia, in 1868. He married in Washington county, Ohio, October 24, 1867, Rachel, daughter of Jonathan and Agnes (Pryor) Cline, residents in Washington county, where their daughter was born May 24, 1844. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Hardy were born as follows: Elmer M., November 21, 1868; John B., August 11, 1870; Bertha C, February 13, 1872, died November 29, 1873; Caroline, July 2, 1874; Apes L, April 10, 1876; Horatio E., July 5, 1878, died July 25, 1880; Albert A., May 29, 1881. The living children are all at home. Allen R. Hardy's father, also an Allen Hardy, was born in Frederick county, Virginia, October 11, 1805, and emigrated to Ohio in 1826, and was one of the earliest settlers of Noble county. He married Polly Anderson, who was born in 1805; she died in 1842, and he survived her many years, departing this life on the 6th of September, 1881. Allen R. Hardy and wife are members of the Baptist Church, and Mr. Hardy is the Sabbath school superintendent of School No. 2, on French creek. He was elected member of the board of education for two terms, and acted as president of the board one term. He owns and cultivates a good farm lying on French creek, six miles from St. Marys. His postoffice address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOHN F. HART -and Elizabeth Nutter were united in marriage in Doddridge county, West Virginia, July 12, 1857, and the children of their marriage, eleven in number, were born as follows: Marion, May 14, 1858; Mary E. (Davis), April 10, 1860; Malinda B. 1862; William D., March 9, 1864; Naomi, February 24, 1866, died July 27, 1877; Lydia, May 15, 1868; Rosetta, January 3, 1871; John W., April 1, 187 3; Ira L., September 29, 1875; Sarah E., January 14 , 1878; Hester A., July 19, 1880. The three oldest of these children have made homes for themselves in the county; the remaining living children are at home. John F. Hart is a son of William and Elizabeth (Higginbotham) Hart, whose interesting pioneer experience is detailed elsewhere in this history. He was bom in Tyler, now Wetzel county, September 18, 1834, and coming to this locality with his parents when but six years old, he shared the hardships and excitements of their frontier life. His wife was a daughter of Andrew and Melinda (Willis) Nutter, both deceased, the former in 1855, at the age of 61, and the latter in 1861, at the age of 63. Mr. Hart has served his district several terms as district clerk; was one term on the board of education, served two terms as surveyor of roads, and is now secretary of the board of education. His occupation is that of a farmer, and he gives his attention specifically to grain and stockers. His postoffice address is Union Mills, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

WILLIAM HART -was born in Baltimore county, Maryland, October 13, 1805, and his parents were William Hart, who died in 1822, aged 75 years, and Mary (Courier) Hart, who died in 1848, at the age of 80. Mr. Hart came to West Virginia, as it now is, in 1828, and resided in Wetzel county till 1840, when he and his brother James came to this locality and bought 500 acres on McKim creek, on a part of which land his sons are now engaged in cultivating as good a farm as can be found in this county. He has been twice married, his sent wife joining her fortunes with in May, 1852. She was Matilda, daughter of Joseph and Stacey (Barker) Stull, both deceased, and was born in Monongalia county, this State, in August, 1827. The children of this marriage are: Franklin R., born February 19, 1853, resides in Pleasants county; Enoch L., July 16, 1855, died October 4, 1858; Landora V. (Jewel), March 18, 1857, lives in this county; George W., December 5, 1858, lives at home; Stacey E., July 27, 1862, lives at home; Martha J., July 31, 1865, lives at home; Samantha A., December 26, 1867, died in 1869. The children of the first marriage were: John F., September 18, 1834; Sarah A. (Masters), March 15, 1835; Sabra E., September 29, 1837, deceased; Mary, June 5, 1839; William H., November 17, 1840; Salathiel, September 4, 1842; Thomas H., February 1, 1845; Josiah, January 1, 1847, died April 21, 1877; Francis M., October 22, 1949, died April 14, 1877; James C., November 7, 1851. Mr. Hart's first marriage was to Elizabeth, daughter of William and Sabra (Snodgrass) Higginbotham. She was born November 17, 1807, and married December 26, 1833, and her death occurred March 7, 1852. When Mr. Hart came to this county the land was well covered with woods, and the woods well filled with wild beasts and Indians. Wild game was plenty and neighbors scarce. Most of the people here were living Indian fashion, and being a shoemaker, he greatly astonished them by making a pair of shoes of tanned leather - many of them were wearing moccasins. Mr. Hart was also a surveyor, and helped lay out all the roads in the neighborhood. His old age is now spent in comfort, and he looks upon these pioneer experiences as something to be transmitted to posterity. His postoffice address is Union Mills, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

WILLIAM H. HART - was born in Tyler, now Wetzel county, West Virginia, November 17, 1840, a son of William and Elizabeth (Higginbotham) Hart, whose interesting pioneer experience has just been given. William H. Hart was united in marriage with Martha J. Wilson in Pleasants county, West Virginia, April 4, 1880. She was the daughter of Samuel and Margaret (Weaver) Wilson, who settled in Pleasants county in 1862, and her birth was in Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, May 1, 1853. The children of William H. and Martha J. Hart are: Laura E., born December 15, 1880, and Francis M., born June 24, 1881. Mr. Hart is a farmer by occupation, and is living on a farm near French creek, McKim district. His postoffice is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOHN LOCKE - and Margaret Haines were united in marriage in Pleasants county, West Virginia, June 7, 1863, and their union has been blessed with the following children: Clarissa J., born May 9, 1864, died July 2, 1867; Ella J., June 12, 1868, died April 1, 1869; John R., June 29, 1872, lives at home; James O., September 7, 1875. The parents of Mrs. Locke, settlers in Pleasants county in 1840, were William and Debora (Wells) Haines. Her father was born in 1801, and died in 1874; her mother, born in 1799, still lives in this county. John Locke was a son of Job and Mary (Speilman) Locke, pioneers of Pleasants county. His father, born in 1798, died in 1872, and his mother, born in 1818, died in 1880. His great-grandfather, Andrew L. Locke, was a minister of the Gospel, and emigrated to America from Sweden, at an early date, settling in New Jersey. His son, Andrew, and his grandson, Job, moved to Pennsylvania, and in 1840 Job, father of the suject of this sketch, came to Pleasants county. This was then a new country, and he, with his little family, including John - then four years old - were subjected to all the hardships of pioneer life. The first school John attended was in a little log house near Pine Grove, and his teacher was Aaron DeLong. In his boyhood's days he had many an exciting chase. He once caught and tamed a young fawn. Deer and wild turkey were common game in those days. John Locke's farm lies on McKim creek, and he is engaged in tilling the soil and in sheep-raising. He has served his district three terms as school director. His postoffice address is Union Mills, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

WILLIAM T. LOCKE - son of Isaac and Nancy (Gapen) Locke, was born November 30, 1843, and came with his parents to this county in 1857. His father was born in New Jersey, March 11, 1795, and his mother in Greene county, Pennsylvania, June 6, 1803. William T. Locke is one of the most energetic and public spirited among the residents in McKim district, and largely identified with the best interests of Pleasants county. He cast his first vote for George B. McClellan, and since that time he has served a number of years in McKim district as secretary of the board of education, and at present is president of the Lafayette district school board. In 1882 he was appointed superintendent of the Pleasants county infirmary, and is acceptably filling that position. He in occupation and inclination a farmer, and his father's trade was that of a blacksmith. Address William T. Locke at Union Mills, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JAMES E. ROBISON - was born in Harrison county, West Virginia, October 22, 1837, and was married in Preston county, this State, February 10, 1859. The object of his choice, Rachel K. Poynter, was born in Preston county, May 24, 1839. The children born of their marriage were: Jesse C., born March 5, 1860, died August 15, 1861; Mary J. (Edwards), June 28, 1862, lives in Pleasants county; Elma V., April 4, 1865, lives at home; William H., November 4, 1867, lives at home; Julia M., April 25, 1870, died March 23, 1874; Ida M., June 25, 1873, died March 18, 1874; James C., July 29, 1875, lives at home; Okey J., October 10, 1877, died August 7, 1880. Jesse and Jane (Hammon) Robison, father and mother of James E., settled in Pleasants county in 1851; he was born July 9, 1809, and her birth occurred January 4, 1812. The parents of James E. Robinson's wife, Hynson C. and Mary A. (Shaw) Poynter, born May 11, 1813, and June 26, 1823, respectively, came to Pleasants county in 1851. Hynson Poynter served as a union soldier during the war between the States, a member of Co. F, 6th West Virginia Volunteers; he was discharged after two years of service for disability. James E. Robison came from Ritchie county to Pleasants with his parents in 1851, and in 1858 went to Preston county, where he married; in 1860 he came back to this county, and bought the farm he now lives on, which he is engaged in tilling. He was at one time in the lumber trade, running a saw-mill on Long Run for three years. His address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

BENJAMIN F. SECKMAN - son of Samuel B. and Sarah (Custer) Seckman, deceased, was born in Greene county, Pennsylvania, November 17, 1834. He married in this State and county, august 6, 1856, and his bride was Sarah J., daughter of John and Nancy (Gerard) Coen. She was born in Washington county, Ohio, July 25, 1837, and is the mother of nine children, born as follows: Caroline E., August 5, 1857, died Aptil 11, 1859; Mary F. (Jones), July 16, 1859, lives in 1864, lives at home; Stephen A., May 24, 1866, lives at home; Kenner R., May 15, 1869, lives at home; Emma J., April 15, 1873, died May 12, 1873; Martha R., August 19, 1875, lives at home; Josephine L., June 29, 1880. Mr. Seckman has one association with the war between the States, he having taken part in the Ellenboro raid, under Captain Jones. Mrs. Seckman was elected road surveyor for McKim district, and with the exception of two terms has served fifteen years; has served as trustee ten years, and was elected a member of the board of education in 1881. He owns a fine farm of 300 acres, lying between the waters of McKim and Bonds creeks, and is principally engaged in stock and grain-raising. His postoffice address is Union Mills, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

REV. JOHN R. SHINGLETON - son of Alexander and Eliza (Shingleton) Shingleton, was born in Harrison county, this State, on Booths creek, June 7, 1832. He is a minister of the Gospel of glad tidings, and has ever striven to do the work his Master had appointed him to do. His present wife is Amanda Locke, to whom he was joined in marriage January 31, 1864. Their children, all living at home, are: John Seymour, born April 23, 1865; Andrew Jackson, November 28, 1866; Colman Luther, March 31, 1870; Cora Myrtle, April 4, 1871; Edward Tyndall, August 22, 1872; Margaret Ann, December 18, 1873. Isaac and Nancy (Gapen) Locke are the parents to whom Mrs. Shingleton owes her life. Mr. Shingleton's first marriage was with Margaret, daughter of Isaac and Mary (Wise) Cox; she was born March 17, 1836, and died July 14, 1863. This marriage was consummated April 21, 1853, and from it were born: Sarah Jane (Cunningham), January 30,1854, died July 19, 1878; Francis Marion, November 7, 1855, died December 3, 1859; Isaac W., January 9, 1858; Oliver Albert, April 7, 1860; Eliza Ellen (Cunningham) June 13, 1863; the living children of this marriage reside in this county and district. Mr. Shingleton served four years as assessor of Pleasants county from January, 1877, to January, 1881. He has baptisted 365 persons, and married 158 couples. He has been fifteen years postmaster at Union Mills, Pleasants county, West Virginia, which position he still holds.

WILLIAM GEORGE W. STINER - joined his life in marriage bands with that of Elizabeth A. Lacey in Washington county, Ohio, on the 14th day of September, 1870. Three daughters and two sons make glad the home this union consecrated. They were born and named as follows: Nora C., was born July 16, 1871; Amos F., August 21, 1872; Mary F., September 18, 1875; Eva Naomi, June 27, 1878; William Henry, August 28, 1882. Mrs. Stiner was bom in State and county in which her marriage took place, July 24, 1849, a daughter of Amos and Elizabeth (Hamilton) Lacey. William G. W. Stiner was also born in Washington county, Ohio, on the 24th of May, 1948, and his parents were Henry and Catherine (Latshaw) Stiner. In the year of his marriage, and when 22 years of age, he settled with his young wife in Pleasants county, McKim district, and being a young man of enterprise and energy, he is there adding yearly to the value of the farm which it is his occupation to carry on. He was elected school trustee for McKim district in 1874, and re-elected in 1876 and 1880. His postoffice address is Union Mills, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

GEORGE W. VARNER - was bom March 7, 1839, and was a son of William and Letitia (Wood) Varner, residents of Brooke county, West Virginia. He settled in Pleasants county, this State, in 1867, and is now a prosperous farmer of McKim district. In Belmont county, Ohio, March 27, 1867, he was joined in marriage with Angela V. Daniel, and their union has been blessed with six children, as follows: William T., born December 23, 1867; Letitia S. B., October 3, 1869; Oliver W., February 20, 1872; Caroline, June 19, 1874; Mary A., May 21, 1877; Clara M., April 24, 1880. Angela V. Daniel was born in Indiana, on the 12th day of August, 1841, and her parents were William and Sarah (Garrett) Daniel, now both deceased. William Varner, father of George W., was born in Greene county, Pennsylvania in September, 1807, and his wife is a native of the same State, born in Fayette county, in September, 1805. George W. Varner receives his postoffice mail at St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

ELI B. WILSON - is a native of Wood county, West Virginia, born in Washington district, July 16, 1825, a son of Ralph and Mary (Oliver) Wilson. In this county, May 31, 1849, he was joined in marriage with Caroline Lamp, who was born in Belmont county, Ohio, May 27, 1830. They have six children, all living near them, the two youngest at home, and the first four in homes of their own in the county. They were born as follows: Mary Jane (Coen), February 24, 1850; John W., November 16, 1851; Margaret E. (McFarland), February 4, 1854; Eliza A. (Hooper), May 10, 1856; William J. B., January 1, 1862; Sarah H., February 13, 1866. Mrs. Wilson's parents were Jacob and Susanna (Snyder) Lamp, the latter born March 27, 1793, is still living in this county. Mr. Wilson's father settled in Pleasants county in 1820, coming from Old Virginia, and settling on a farm on St. Marys bottom land, where his son was born and partly raised. Eli B. remembers when there was but one house in St. Marys, and he saw the first steamboat that came up the Ohio river. His own farm, of over 100 acres, is located on McKim creek, eight miles from St. Marys. Mr. Wilson was elected school director in 1866 by a large majority of the votes of his fellow townsmen, and served four years. His postoffice address is Union Mills, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JEFFERSON DISTRICT.

BAZEL CHILDERS - miller and engineer in Jefferson district, Pleasants county, West Virginia, was born in Harrison county, this State, July 22, 1820. In Marietta, Ohio, August 24, 1868, he entered into his present marriage relation with Susanna, daughter of John and Lucinda (Stone) Sims, and the following year, on the 1st of June, they took up their residence in Pleasants county. Here they have become the parents of three children - Orlando Curtiss, born August 14, 1873; Anna M., May 12, 1877; Sherman, April 5, 1880. John G. and Miranda (Pryon) Childers, are the parents of Bazel Childers. His wife's father died in 1874; her mother in 1850. Mr. Childers has served in this district as school trustee and as supervisor. He contracted a previous marriage with Ellen Howard, the children of which marriage were: Sarah Elizabeth, born November 18, 1843, deceased; Artemeliss Caroline, born March 9, 1848, deceased; Amehydra, October 16, 1845; Margaret, January 22, 1852; Artezia, June 23, 1860; Alice Ann, April 26, 1862; George Washington, February 9, 1850; John Henry, April 30, 1854. Mr. Childers owns a small piece of land on the direct road from the river to Volcano, and on this land has a steam grist and flour mill, turning out custom and manufactured work second to none. Anyone wishing anything in his line will do well to give him a call, or address him at Willow Island postoffice, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

GRANVILLE D. DALLISON - born in Wood county, West Virginia, October 17, 1853, and married Maggie Reece, who was born in the same county and in the same year on the 16th of July. Their marriage took place November 15, 1877, and two sons were born of it as follows: William Richard, September 28, 1878, and John Frederick, August 10, 1880. Mr. Dallison's father, James A. Dallison, is now residing in Pennsylvania; his mother, Frances Salina (Shingleton) Dallison, is no longer living. His wife's parents, Henry and Anna (King) Reece, are well-known residents of Wood county, this State. James A. Dallison took an active part in the service of the government, during the war between the States, enlisting in Battery K, of the Ohio Artillery, and participating in thirty-two battles. Among his engagements were the battles at Gettysburg, second Bull Run, Cross Keys and Antietam. He served through the entire war, and at its close received an honorable discharge. Granville D. Dallison is thoroughly proficient mechanic at his trade, that of a sawyer, and is now engaged as head sawyer at Dunn's mill spoken of elsewhere in this district's history. Being an ambitious and capable man, he holds himself ready for any more advantageous offer. His postoffice address is Schultz, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

GEORGE GRIFFIN HAMMETT - deceased - son of William and Sophia Hammett, was born in Pleasants county, West Virginia, April 3, 1833, and at the time of his death was a successful farmer and stock-raiser in Jefferson district. At Paris, Monroe county, Missouri, on the 10th day of December, 1865, he married Paulina F. Steward, who is the mother of his children, born as follows: Sophia Alice, November 22, 1866, died August 1, 1868; William Andrew, April 29, 1868, died April 22, 1880; Edwin, August 28, 1869; Anna, May 15, 1871; Mary Rebecca, November 25, 1872; Charles, February 22, 1874; Rufus Mortimer, September 4, 1875. The living children are at home with their mother. Mrs. Hammett was born in Marion county, Missouri, November 13, 1843, and her parents were William Henry and Mahalia (Butler) Steward. She is an energetic and able manager, and since her husband's death successfully carries on the place he left on her hands, in the interests of her children. The farm lies at the head of Limestone Run, on the old State road. Her address is Schultz, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

REV. DAVID HAWKINS - a minister of the Gospel in the Methodist Protestant faith, is settled among the people of Jefferson district, Pleasants county, West Virginia. He was born in the adjoining county, Tyler, March 14, 1849, and his parents, Presley and Susanna (Latham) Hawkins, settled in Pleasants county in April, 1856, bringing their young son with them. In 1868 David Hawkins united with the Methodist Protestant Church, in which he has ever since been a consistent member. About three years ago he was called to the work of the ministry, and the Lord has blessed with good success his labors in this field. He married in this district January 16, 1872, Martha A. Dunn, who was born in Harrison county, West Virginia, May 3, 1852. The children of this marriage are: Franklin, born January 16, 1873; Maggie Rebecca, July 6, 1878; David R., December 21, 1879. Mrs. Hawkins was a daughter of Thomas and Rebecca (Spencer) Dunn, who settled in Pleasants county January 7, 1861; her father is now deceased. Mr. Hawkins, in addition to his ministerial work, owns and cultivates 65 acres of good land, and also deals extensively in stock, buying, raising and selling the same. His postoffice address is Willow Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

GRANDISON C. HUGHES - was born in Nicholas county, West Virginia, on the 10th of January, 1837, and in 1864 became a resident in Pleasants county, settling among the people of Jefferson district, purchasing land here, and otherwise identifying himself with the interests of this locality. In Parkersburg, Wood county, this State, he entered into a matrimonial alliance with Massa, daughter of Edward and Sarah (Rutman) Wellen. She was born in Marshall county, this State, March 13, 1844. Mr. Hughes is a son of Thomas and Nancy (Kincaid) Hughes, and is a descendent of the famous pioneer family of Hughes, his grandfather of that name, being the founder of the Fort Hughes so famed in frontier history. He was a noted Indian fighter and many a pioneer family blessed his name, and many an Indian feared it. Grandison C. Hughes is a farmer and extensive dealer in stock, always prepared to meet any demand of the market at market rates. His address is Willow Island, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

JOHN L. MATTHEWS - son of Solomon and Catherine (Fogus) Matthews, was born in Homer, Washington county, Ohio, June 1, 1856. He married August 7, 1881, and settled in Pleasants county, West Virginia, in Jefferson district, in March, 1882. His wife is Anna, daughter of Josiah [Note: Joshua in census records.] and Lucinda (McVay) Barlow, residents of Ritchie county, this State. She was born in Monroe county, Ohio, in 1865. Mr. Matthews is a logger by occupation, and would like to hear from any one who desires an active and competent workman in that line. His residence is at the head of Spice Run, and his postoffice address is Schultz, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

WILLIAM PARKS - deceased - and Eliza Anna Cameron were joined in marriage in Washington county, Ohio, June 16, 1852, and the children are: Rosa Ann, born November 7, 1855, resides in this county; Mary Jane, September 15, 1857, resides in Monroe county, Ohio; David B., May 29, 1858, lives at home: Joseph Josiah, July 7, 1860, died on his seventh birthday; Rachel Lucinda, June 15, 1862, lives at home; George B. McClellan, August 19, 1864, lives at home; Will Henry F. C., May 29, 1868, lives at home. Mrs. Parks was born in Columbiana county, Ohio, December 1, 1827, and was a daughter of Allison and Christiana (Swadiner) Cameron, now deceased. Mr. Parks' parents, David and Rachel Parks, are no longer living. William Parks, who was born September 17, 1821, was drafted into the Union army in the war of 1861, and sent to Marietta, Ohio, where he contracted an illness which unfitted him from ever working any more, and from which he subsequently died. During his last days his wife had a hard struggle to keep her home and care for him and their children, and it is the opinion of all conversant with the circumstances that she is entitled to a pension, and should receive it at once. She is now carrying on their farm of 100 acres, and her postoffice address is St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

HENRY RINARD - a prosperous farmer, tilling land in Jefferson district, settled in Pleasants county in November, 1876. He was born in Washington county, Ohio, September 22, 1837, a son of Isaac and Catherine (Scott) Rinard, and lost his mother by death in 1856. He was united in marriage in Monroe county, Ohio, October 30, 1856, with Emily A. Knowlton, who was born in that county and State, April 11, 1839. Their family record shows ten children, born as follows: Lydia Ann, March 29, 1858, resides in this county; Mary Ellen. September 13, 1860, died September 19, 1881; Jeanetta, born May 13, 1862, lives at home; James Richard, March 7, 1865, lives at home; Isaac Daniel, February 12, 1867, died March 20, 1867; William Elsworth, born August 9, 1868; Lorena, November 15, 1870; Samuel Farrand, August 11, 1873; Evelina, February 15, 1876; Henry Watson, August 25, 1878. The younger children all live at home. Daniel and Lydia (Powell) Knowlton, parents of Mrs. Rinard, are both deceased. Mr. Rinard had two brothers in the Federal service during the war between the States, and one of them died of measles contracted while in active service. Henry Rinard receives his mail at St. Marys, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

LAFAYETTE DISTRICT.

JOHN M. BIRKHIMER - was born in Greene county, Pennsylvania, October 26, 1827, and when in his twentieth year settled with his parents in Pleasants county, West Virginia. In Monroe county, Ohio, November 23, 1865, he was joined in wedlock with Ruhama Myers, born in that State and county, March 9, 1844. Seven children, all living at home, are the result of this marriage: Mary, born March 14, 1867; John K., August 3, 1868; Ann, December 7, 1870; Emma S., July 8, 1873; Joseph P., March 15, 1876; William C., February 7, 1879; Oliver F., April 1, 1882. Thomas Birkhimer, the father of John W., settled in Pleasants county in 1847, and here died in 1881, aged 75 years; his mother's death occurred in 1878, when she was 75 years old. Her name before her marriage with Thomas Birkhimer was Sarah McClelland. John Myers, deceased, and Sarah (Vandievington) Myers, the parents of Mrs. Birkhimer, were well-known residents in Monroe county, Ohio, and her mother still makes her home there. Mr. Birkhimer's father was a physician, following his profession in Pleasants county for 30 years. John M. Birkhimer has been twice married, his first wife, Maria, daughter of Alben and Margaret (Newland) Robinson, was born April 14, 1828, and died August 29, 1859. She was married to Mr. Birkhimer May 21, 1850, and their children were: Theodore R., born April 11, 1851; Thomas A., April 16, 1854; Sarah M., August 8, 1856, lives in Tyler county, this State. Mr. Birkhimer was elected assessor for three years in 1864; deputy sheriff for 1862-3. His trade is that of a gunsmith, which business he followed till 1870, when he settled on his present place where he owns and farms over 200 acres. His postoffice address is Sugar Valley, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

ALEXANDER CAMPBELL - son of Robert and Margaret (Bell) Campbell, was born in Brooke county, West Virginia, February 17, 1811, and settled in Tyler now (Pleasants) county in 1841. He married in Jefferson county, Ohio, January 15, 1835, Clarinda, daughter of John and Isabella (Stone) McMillen. She was born in Pennsylvania, May 26, 1813. The children of this marriage, twelve in number, present the following record: Martha J., born November 4, 1835, died May 1 9, 1853; Mary (Hemsworth), February 13, 1837, resides in this county; James H., January 1, 1839, died December 24, 1866; John N. April 24, 1840, died May 25, 1853; George W., November 28, 1841, die May 15, 1853; Calvin C., October 20, 1843, lives in Parkersburg; Nancy L. (White), August 16, 1845, lives at home; Susan E. (Linger), December 12, 1847, lives in Lewis county, this State; Alexander T., March 4, 1850, lives in this county; Winfield A., June 12, 1852, lives in this county; Thornton F., May 6, 1854, lives at home; Sinia M., August 6, 1856, lives in Tyler county. The oldest son, James H., was in the Union army in the war of 1861, a member of the 14th West Virginia Volunteers; fought in the battle of Cloyd Mountain, was taken prisoner, and was seven months in Andersonville. He was afterwards killed by the cars at Belair, Ohio. Mr. Campbell served as overseer of the poor and surveyor of roads for ten years. He has a fine farm along the waters of McKim creek, and is principally engaged in grain and stock-raising. His address is Hebron, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

ARCHIMEDES W. GORRELL - born in Tyler county, West Virginia, July 19, 1832, was nine years of age when his parents took up their residence in Pleasants county. Here he married, June 21, 1860, and here an the interests and activities of his life have been centered, except for the years of the last war, during some of which time he was in the camp or on the march, in the interests of his country. He was a member of the 14th West Virginia Regiment of volunteers, enlisting at Wheeling, this State, and receiving honorable discharge at Cumberland, Maryland. Annie M. Locke, daughter of Isaac and Nancy (Gapen) Locke, became his wife in her 25th year, she having been born in Greene county, Pennsylvania, August 7, 1835. Their children are: John W., born September 5, 1861; Mary, Nancy A. B., Ettie M., Clara M., Emma J.; and Isaac T., born January 19, 1871. The parents of Mr. Gorrell were Abram S. and Mary (Robinson) Gorrell, the former born October 24, 1809, and the latter December 31, 1812; they settled in this county in 1841. Mr. Gorrell was elected county superintendent in 1872; re-elected in 1816, and in 1880. The elder son, John W., is a teacher of high standing. Mr. Gorrell's residence is near Pine Grove, and in Lafayette district, and he divides his time between farming and teaching. His postoffice address is Hebron, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

THOMAS D. GORRELL - born near Middlebourne, Tyler county, West Virginia, May 13, 1821, was a son of Ralph and Catherine Gorrell. He married in that county, December 23, 1841, taking to share the joys and sorrows of life with him, Sarah Williamson, who was born July 14, 1822. They settled in Pleasants county in 1845. Nine children were born of this union, whose record is as follows: Moses E., born April 16, 1843, died March 30, 1866; Ralph, September 22, 1845, died September 30, 1845; Martin L., February 28, 1847, resides in Pleasants county; Delila A., March 6, 1850, lives at Hebron; Catherine, March 23, 1852, lives at home; Maria J., September 12, 1854, lives at home; Margaret P., October 18, 1861, deceased; Anna Della, January 2, 1865, died in October, 1865; Roscoe Morgan, February 11, 1867, lives at home. Moses and Nancy (Ball) Williamson, both deceased, were the parents of Mrs. Gorrell. Her father was a man of extraordinary ability and one of the best-known and highest esteemed of the pioneer settlers of Pleasants county. He held several offices within the gift of the people, both in Pleasants and Tyler county; was justice of the peace over forty years; sheriff of Tyler county several terms; first sheriff of Pleasants county; was a soldier of the 1812 war, and voted at every presidential election except the first. He was born June 17, 1784, and died June 2, 1882, 98 years of age. Mr. Goffell, subject of this sketch, also to a high degree merits and receives the esteem of his neighbors; one of the first justices elected in Pleasants county, he held the position over 20 years; in 1866 he was elected county surveyor one term. He is now the postmaster at Hebron, where he is also engaged in grain and stock-raising, and is the proprietor of a first-class country store of general merchandise.

JOHN L. ISRAEL - and Margaret Davis were joined together in matrimonial bands in Pleasants county, West Virginia, June 21, 1862. He was born in Frederick county, Maryland, son of Reuben and Julia A. Israel, and his wife was a daughter of Lewis and Sarah (Carr) Davis. Ten children bless this union, their names as follows: Julia A., William H., Mary, Cordelia, Effie, Lorenzo W., Isophine, Margaret, Minnie, Sarah. John L. Israel came to this State with his parents in 1841, from Maryland. His father bought the land he now lives on, a fine farm on Rock Run, in Lafayette district, and lived upon it until his death, when John L. inherited it. At the time the family took possession of it the place was all woods, and the country round about scarcely settled at all. The farm is now in fine condition, and principally devoted to grain-raising. Mr. Israel receives his mail at the postoffice in Hebron, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

DR. LEANDER B. MAXWELL - was born in Brooke county, West Virginia, November 18, 1834, came with his parents to Tyler (now Pleasants) county, in 1842. He was united in marriage with Kate Tracy, in Tyler county, West Virginia, February 27, 1877, and two sons, George T., born November 26, 1878, and Oliver H., born October 24,1880, are the children of their union. Mrs. Maxwell was born in Holmes county, Ohio, January 8, 1845, and was a daughter of William and Nancy (Ish) Tracy. The former died in 1861, and the latter now lives in Washington county, Ohio. Leander B. Maxwell entered into a first marriage in March, 1859, with Josina, daughter of John and Frances (Hawkins) Hammond. She was born in Tyler county, West Virginia, June 25, 1840, and died July 21, 1876. The children of this marriage were: John W., bom March 29, 1860, died June 26, 1864; Samuel L., November 2, 1862, lives in Illinois; James F., May 16, 1866; Leslie M., September 16, 1869; Albert R., October 2, 1873: Edmund H., February 13, 1876 - the four last named live at home. Mr. Maxwell is descended from Scotch ancestors, who emigrated to this country in 1800. His father, Samuel S. Maxwell, bom August 27, 1805, is now one of the oldest settlers in Pleasants county. He came here from Brooke county in 1842, and established the first postoffice in Lafayette district in 1844, and named it Hebron; was postmaster till its removal to its present location. Eliza (Lowery) Maxwell, mother of the subject of this sketch, died in 1859, aged 52 years. L. B. Maxwell was a Union soldier in the war of 1861, serving three years. He is now a notary public, appointed by Governor Jackson, in 1882; was elected county commissioner in 1880, and reelected in 1882. He is a physician by profession, and owns a fine farm of 160 acres in Lafayette district. His postoffice address is Hebron, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

LEONARD C. SHINGLETON - a prosperous farmer of Lafayette district, was born in Harrison county, this State, September 9, 1825, and came to Tyler county (now Pleasants), in 1838. In this county he married, November 15, 1866, Lavina J. Smith, born in this county, June 11, 1831. Two children, Olive P., born April 8, 1868, and Wesley J., February 10, 1872, were born of this marriage. Two daughters of Mrs. Shingleton by a former marriage, are: Maxie R. Wells, born December 29, 1860, and Mary C. S., born April 29, 1863. Their home is with their mother. Mrs. Shingleton, was a daughter of William and Susan (Gorrell) Smith, deceased, the former in 1879, and the latter, at the age of 75, in 1869. Mr. Shingleton also contracted a previous marriage, uniting with Minerva J., daughter of Thomas and Margaret (Cook) Hill, March 13, 1851. She was born in Harrison county, this State, December 23, 1830, and died January 3, 1863. The children of this marriage were: Cyrus T., born January 20, 1852, died September 17, 1853; Elizabeth R. (Wagner), September 19, 1853, lives in Hebron; Cordelia A. (Jones), November 23, 1854, lives in this county; Frances V. (Wagner), December 28, 1856, resides in this county; Salona B., May 22, 1858, lives at home; Jerome B., April 2, 1860, lives at Hebron; William J., September 6, 1862, died January 10, 1863. Mr. Shingleton was appointed postmaster in 1858, and held the position twenty years. He is now notary public, which office he has held ten years. His address is Hebron, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

GEORGE S. SMITH - born in Tyler county, West Virginia, on the 18th day of July, 1855, is now a resident in Pleasants county, where he cultivates an excellent farm, located in Lafayette district. His postoffice address is Hebron, Pleasants county, West Virginia.

THOMAS WEEKLEY - son of Richard and Prudence (Wood) Weekley, was united in marriage with Hannah, daughter of George and Catherine (Barker) Watson, and their children were seven: Louisa (Shingleton), deceased; George W., deceased; Richard M.; Emily J., deceased; Edwina (Maxwell); William L., born July 21, 1859, lives in Hebron, this county; John C., December 28, 1861, also lives in Hebron. George W., the oldest son of this family, enlisted in Company F, 14th West Virginia Volunteers, for service during the war between the States, and in the battle of Cloyd Mountain was wounded and taken prisoner. He died from the wound there received. William J. Weekley is a farmer of industrious habits in Lafayette district, possessing the esteem and confidence of all who know him, by whom he is regarded as an honest and upright gentleman. His address is Hebron, Pleasants county, West Virginia.