From Confederate Military History, edited by Gen. Clement A. Evans, 1899
Presented by Linda Cunningham Fluharty.
LIEUTENANT JAMES P. ADAMS, a Confederate veteran has resided at Wheeling, W. Va., entered the service in June, 1861, as a member of the Shriver Grays, an organization formed in Ohio county, in the heart of the "Panhandle," and mustered into service as Company G, of the Twenty-seventh Virginia infantry regiment. With this command Mr. Adams served as a private until the winter of 1863-64, in the meantime participating in the early skirmishes on Virginia soil before Washington, D. C., and in the spring of 1862 serving under Stonewall Jackson in his famous Shenandoah campaign, including the battles of Kernstown, Cross Keys, and Port Republic, in which Private Adams was a gallant participant. In the winter of 1863-64 he was transferred to Clark's Baltimore battalion as first lieutenant. In this rank he fought in the campaigns of 1864, particularly in the battle against Grant's army at Cold Harbor, and in the battle of New Market, where he lost his right arm, an injury which ended his active service. Nevertheless he continued in the army, and in the winter of i865 he was put in charge of the invalid corps at Richmond, where he remained until the evacuation. At the time of the surrender of the army of Northern Virginia he was at Charlottesville. He was paroled at Richmond in June, 1865, and soon afterward returned to Wheeling, where he has subsequently resided and is now in the insurance business.
LIEUTENANT JOSEPH COLEMAN ALDERMAN, of Wheeling, W. Va., distinguished among the Confederate soldiers of Greenbrier county for faithful and devoted service, was born at Locust Grove, Amherst county, Va., October 19, 1839, the home of his maternal grandfather, John Coleman. His father, Rev. L. A. Alderman, a few years later removed to the old stone mansion opposite the town of Alderson, on the Greenbrier river, where young Alderson was reared. He was educated at the Lewisburg academy and Alleghany college, at Blue Sulphur Springs, an institution which was destroyed by the war. In his senior year at this college he enlisted on April 15, 1861, in the Greenbrier cavalry, a company which served in the West Virginia campaign of 1861 as bodyguard for General Garnett until his death, and afterward as bodyguard to Gen. R. E. Lee and as his couriers until he left that department. In December following the company was disbanded. Alderson was a young man of remarkable physical development and a famous athlete, qualities which, added to great personal daring, made him a natural leader among his fellows. He devoted his talents to the Confederate cause by raising a new cavalry company, of which he was elected second lieutenant. This company was assigned to the Fourteenth cavalry regiment, and Lieutenant Alderson a few months later organized another company, of which he was made first lieutenant, declining, as in the previous instance, the rank of captain. This became Company A, of the Thirty-sixth Virginia battalion of cavalry, distinguished in the commands of General Jenkins and W. E. Jones. Lieutenant Alderson commanded this company from June 12, 1863, to the close of the war, and was frequently in command of the battalion, acting as major. During his four years' service he never had but eight days' leave of absence from his command. He commanded his company at the fight at Buchanan, Upshur county, was in the fights at Weston, W. Va.; Ravenswood and Racine, on the Ohio river; Charleston and Buffalo, W. Va., and in the winter of 1862 was sent on detailed service to Roanoke, Va. Returning in the early summer of 1863, he passed through Lexington, Va., on the day of the interment of the body of Stonewall Jackson, and his company fired the military salute over the dead hero's grave. He next fought at Opequon, captured and brought in eight Yankees at North Mountain Gap, and then participating in the Pennsylvania campaign skirmished every day and night as far as Carlisle, Pa., whence he was sent with an escort of five men to carry important dispatches to General Early, near York, seventy miles away, through the enemy's country, one of his most daring exploits. He was with his command at Gettysburg, carried the first order on the first day from General Ewell to General Rhodes, and at night gave General Lee the first news of the Federal reinforcements. In the cavalry fight which followed from Hagerstown to Williamsport he was wounded by a fragment of shell and disabled two months. In 1864 he was in battle at Jonesville, W. Va.; Cumberland Gap, Rogersville, Tenn.; Waynesboro, Va., and Pettit's Mill. In the last encounter he was captured by the enemy. His conduct while a prisoner strikingly displayed his unconquerable spirit. He had hardly well started on the road north before he secured the escape of twenty-seven of his Confederate comrades, and while confined at Camp Chase, Ohio, he made three ineffectual attempts to escape by tunneling. He refused alike to take the oath or to give his parole on condition of remaining North. Finally, in February, 1865,he was sent to Fort McHenry and Point Lookout, and in the following month was exchanged at City Point. While on his way to rejoin the army he was informed of the end of the war. He took part, in all, in over two hundred engagements, and his service was frequently of the most arduous character, as in the winter of 1863-64, when he was in daily fighting, and in the Tennessee campaign, under General Jones, when he was on the march every night. Going west in 1865 he had charge of the middle division of the Butterfield overland express through the Indian country until it was broken up by the red men, when he joined his father and farmed near Atchison, Kan. Since 1869 he has resided at Wheeling, and has conducted an extensive insurance business and dealt largely in coal and timberlands. He has declined political advancement, but served as a West Virginia commissioner at the Ohio Valley centennial at Cincinnati in 1888 and at the Washington centennial in New York in 1889. He married Miss Mary, daughter of ex-Gov. Samuel Price, of Virginia.
MAJOR THOMAS D. ARMSEY, a citizen of Harrison county who enlisted in the Confederate service at the beginning of the war, and gained the rank of major by his gallantry and efficiency, became particularly famous through his unpleasant connection with one of the most famous disputes between the Confederate and United States governments regarding the treatment of prisoners. When he enlisted he did so as a Virginian, in a Virginia county, and he continued to regard western Virginia as a part of Virginia which had seceded from the United States and become a part of the Confederate States. Consequently he felt entirely justified by the laws of war in going back to his native county in 1863 to enlist recruits for the Confederate army. Other officers, as Robert White, had been authorized by the Confederate Government to do the same thing: raise a command within the enemy's lines. But Armsey was captured near Johnstown, April 18th, by part of the Sixth West Virginia infantry, Col. Nathan Wilkinson. He was given a military trial and condemned to death for "clandestinely enlisting for the Confederate service," but the sentence was commuted to solitary confinement for fifteen years, by President Lincoln, and Armsey disappeared within the walls of Fort Delaware. The Confederate government protested, to no avail, and as a measure of retaliation, when Maj. Nathan Goff, since the war very prominent in the State and secretary of the navy under President Hayes, was captured in January, 1864, he was put in close confinement. Goff was a native of the same county, and held the same rank, as Armsey, making the retaliation very fit. It is but justice to Goff to say that he bore his misfortune as bravely as did his old neighbor in Fort Delaware, and wrote his government that if Armsey were guilty he should suffer the penalty without regard to his own fate. But the inevitable result of this argument ad hominum followed. The two majors were exchanged, after Goff had remained in solitary confinement for a few months. At a subsequent period in his career Major Armsey was again captured, and taken to Clarksburg, where it appeared from the angry demonstration that his life was in danger. But Major Goff, happening there in the nick of time, gave him protection, and secured him honorable treatment as a prisoner of war.
COLONEL WILLIAM WILEY ARNETT, a distinguished jurist of Wheeling, W. Va., was born in Marion county, October 23, 1843, the son of Ulysses N. Arnett, who resided many years on the Monongahela river and served in the Virginia and West Virginia legislatures and in the constitutional convention of 1872. At the age of sixteen years he entered Allegheny college at Meadville, Pa., where he was graduated in 1860. He then studied law under Judge A. F. Hammond, and was admitted to the bar, but closed his office in April, 1861, to enlist as a private in Company A of the Thirty-first Virginia regiment of infantry. After three months' service in this capacity he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel by Governor Letcher, and put in command of a battalion of seven companies, afterward known as the Twenty-fifth Virginia infantry. About three months later he was given command of the Twenty-third regiment, but resigned this commission and re-enlisted in the Thirty-first regiment as a private. In December, 1861, he was elected captain of Company A, and subsequently he was transferred to the Twentieth Virginia cavalry, with the rank of colonel, in which command he served until the close of the war. During his military career, which was distinguished by soldierly devotion and skill as a commander, he participated in a large number of engagements, and was wounded at Cross Keys and Bristoe Station. He was in the fight at Camp Bartow, on Greenbrier river, West Virginia, in (October, 1861; went through Stonewall Jackson's campaign in the Shenandoah valley in the spring of 1862, and continued under Jackson's command through the Manassas and Maryland campaigns of that year, participating in the battles at McDowell's, Winchester, Cross Keys, Port Republic, Gaines' Mill, Frayser's Farm, Malvern Hill, Cold Harbor, Slaughter's Mountain, Second Manassas, Chantilly, Harper's Ferry, and Sharpsburg. After this arduous service in the infantry he took command of the Twentieth cavalry regiment, W. L. Jackson's brigade, and was distinguished at Droop Mountain and Covington. With the army under General Early in the Shenandoah valley he fought in several noted engagements, including Winchester and Fisher's Hill, and later in the year he was on detached duty on the western line of operations in Virginia, in command of his regiment, until March 1, 1865, when he marched to the relief of General Early at Staunton, and then moved to Lynchburg and pursued Sheridan to Ashland, skirmishing and harassing the Federal troops on their withdrawal. Returning to the protection of Staunton, he remained there until the close of the war, being paroled in May, 1865. On account of the test oath then in force in West Virginia he did not return there immediately after the war, but practiced law at Berryville, Va., until 1872, and from that time until 1875 at St. Louis, Mo., where he attracted attention as a successful criminal lawyer in several noted cases. Since 1875 he has resided at Wheeling, and has been engaged in a large number of famous legal contests, including the litigation attending the removal of the State capital. He is regarded as one of the leading lawyers of the State. In 1862 he was elected to the legislature while on duty in the army, but did not serve. After the war he served two terms as the representative of Clark county in the Virginia legislature, and in 1896 he was nominated for Congress from the First West Virginia district. In this contest, though not elected, he reduced the adverse Republican Majority Over 2,000 Votes.
ENOS S. ARNOLD, of Charleston, W. Va., prominent for many years in the wholesale trade of that city, was born in Berkshire county, Mass., May 10, 1820, the son of John and Prudence Arnold, natives of Connecticut. After a few years in business in New York city, Mr. Arnold removed to Charleston in 1842, and became one of the pioneer merchants of the city. In 1858 he was elected sheriff of the county, and on account of this official position, to which he was re-elected in 1860, he was unable to enter the Confederate service among the earliest volunteers. He had been active in the organization of the Kanawha Riflemen, of which he was orderly-sergeant in 1861, but a special order of Governor Letcher's forbade all sheriffs leaving their posts. In May, however, he resigned the office, and was at once detailed in the quartermaster's department by Col. C. Q. Tompkins. During the first part of his service he was on duty at White Sulphur Springs and at Richmond, Va., and subsequently was stationed at Salem, Va., in charge of the manufacture of clothing and shoes for the Confederate soldiers. Though much embarrassed by lack of supplies and raw material he labored earnestly in this important part of the service and earned the gratitude of all friends of the cause. When peace was restored he returned to Charleston, and resumed the dry goods business, which in 1877 was devoted exclusively to the wholesale trade. He continued in this business with much success for ten years, then retiring. He has also during his business career been largely engaged in the manufacture of salt, and has dealt extensively in real estate. He is an active member of thc Presbyterian church, holding the position of deacon, and has long been one of the most valued members of the community. He was married at Charleston in 1847, to Cynthia, daughter of Isaac Noyes, and two children were born to them: Isaac N. and Catherine, wife of F. W. Abney. A brother of Mr. Arnold, Alanson Arnold, served as a sergeant in the Twenty-second Virginia infantry throughout the greater part of the war, until killed at the second battle of Cold Harbor.
LIEUTENANT CHARLES NEWTON AUSTIN, M. D., a prominent physician of Lewisburg, was distinguished for loyalty to the State of Virginia during the crisis of 1861. He was born in Augusta county in 1832, and was there reared until fourteen years of age, when he removed with his parents to Harrison county, now within the limits of West Virginia. He was graduated as doctor of medicine by the Cleveland medical college, Ohio, in 1856, after which he located and embarked in his profession at Ripley, Jackson county. In the spring of 1861 he was the principal organizer of a company of infantry in that county, which in June was assigned to the Twenty-second Virginia infantry regiment as Company B. Of this company he was made second lieutenant and he served in that capacity until General Wise, in command of the forces at that time, moved from White Sulphur Springs to Big Sewell Mountain, when all the sick and wounded were left at the former place in charge of Lieutenant Austin, with orders to establish a hospital. Soon afterward he received a commission as assistant surgeon, and about a year later was promoted surgeon. Immediately after the battle of Lewisburg he was assigned to duty as surgeon of Edgar's battalion, and with that command he continued on duty in the field with the exception of the period when the battalion served in the Shenandoah valley, and later when it joined the army of Northern Virginia. In the spring of 1864, on account of physical disability, he was compelled to retire from the service. During the course of his military service he participated in the battle of Fayetteville, W. Va., and the Confederate advance from that point to Charleston. Since the close of hostilities Dr. Austin has been engaged in the practice of his profession at Lewisburg.
LIEUTENANT SAMUEL HUNTER AUSTIN, M. D., of Lewisburg, W. Va., was born in Augusta county, Va., in 1840, of distinguished and patriotic ancestry, his great-grandfather, Alexander McClanahan, a native of Virginia, having held the rank of colonel in the Revolutionary army. He was reared from the age of five years in Harrison county, and was educated at the Virginia military institute. Destined for the medical profession, he had taken a course of lectures at the Winchester medical college when he put aside educational work for the defense of his beloved commonwealth. In May, 1861, he joined as a private in the organization of the Jackson Rifles, a volunteer company formed at Ripley, Jackson county, and first assigned to the Thirty-sixth Virginia infantry, and in July transferred to the Twenty-second regiment as Company B. A few days after his enlistment he was elected second lieutenant, and in May, 1862, was promoted first lieutenant. He continued in the latter rank until the spring of 1863, when he was appointed assistant surgeon and assigned to the hospital at White Sulphur Springs. In the spring of 1864 he was transferred to field duty and attached to the Twentieth Virginia cavalry, Col. W. W. Arnett commanding, with which command he continued until the close of the war. He participated in a great number of engagements in the campaigns in West Virginia, the valley of the Shenandoah and Maryland, in the list of which the most prominent names are: Cross Lanes, Carnifex Ferry, Fayetteville, Big Sewell Mountain, Lewisburg, Narrows of New River, Lynchburg, Hagerstown, Monocacy, Martinsburg, Darkesville, Winchester, Cedar Creek, Fisher's Hill, Mount Jackson, Waynesboro, Kernstown, and Opequon. His regiment disbanded at Buckhannon, and he was paroled at Staunton. He then made his home at Lewisburg and was married there in June, 1865, to Mary C., daughter of the late Joel McPherson. In the following year he was graduated in medicine at the medical college of Virginia, and embarked in the professional work which he has since continued with much success at Lewisburg. Dr. Austin has seven children: Amanda J., wife of William R. E. Byrne, of Charleston; Mary A., Addie L., Samuel McPherson, Charlie Virginia, Erie H., and Hale Blanch.
JOHN WILLIAM AYLOR, M. D., of Charleston, W.Va., a faithful soldier of Pickett's division, army of Northern Virginia, was born in Madison county, Virginia, in 1842, and there enlisted in April, 1861, as a private in the Seventh Virginia infantry. With this regiment he participated in the great Confederate triumph at Manassas in the summer of 1861, served at Yorktown and in the withdrawal of the forces toward Richmond, fought at Seven Pines, and at Frayser's Farm received a gunshot wound in the neck which disabled him for four months. He rejoined his command, participated in the battles of Fredericksburg, Va., and Plymouth, N. C., and shared the illustrious service of Pickett's division at Gettysburg. During the Wilderness campaign of May, 1864, he was captured on the skirmish line about twenty miles from Fredericksburg, and being sent to Point Lookout was held there until February, 1865, when he induced a doctor to put him on a boat for exchange of the sick, and by that strategem reached Richmond. After a short furlough he rejoined his command just after the battle of Five Forks, and remained on duty until three days before the surrender, when most of his regiment was captured. He soon afterward walked to his home, seventy-five miles distant, without waiting for surrender and parole. In 1868 he was graduated in medicine by the university of Virginia. After practicing in various places he made his home in 1889 at Charleston.
JAMES MADISON AYRES, of Hinton, W. Va., a gallant Confederate soldier identified with the record of Echol's brigade, was born in Greenbrier county in 1843. He is the grandson of John Ayres, a native of Rockbridge county, Va., who served with the Virginia troops in the war of 1812. Mr. Ayres was among the first to prepare for defense of the Old Dominion, enlisting April 11, 1861, in the Rock Point Grays, a company organized in Greenbrier county, and assigned as Company G, and later as Company F, to that distinctively western Virginia regiment, the Twenty-second infantry. He was promoted corporal in the winter of 1861, orderly-sergeant in the summer of 1862, and sergeant-major on the battlefield of New Market. He subsequently served as sergeant-major and acting adjutant of the regiment until the close of the war. In July, 1861, he participated in the fight at Scary, W. Va., and subsequently took part in the principal engagements in that region and southwest Virginia, including Tyler Mountain, Cross Lanes, Cotton Hill, Lewisburg, Montgomery's Ferry, Big Sewell Mountain, Dry Creek, and Droop Mountain. He took part in the defeat of Sigel's Federal command at New Market in May, 1864, and soon afterward, being called to eastern Virginia, was at the artillery fight of Totopotamoy, and was eight days under fire at Cold Harbour, also participating in the bloody repulse of Grant's army. He fought in the defense of Lynchburg against Hunter, and then marching down the valley, was engaged at Salem and Martinsburg, and, crossing the Potomac, fought at Sharpsburg; was under fire two days and nights at Maryland Heights, and was slightly wounded in the defeat of Wallace at Monocacy, but remained with his command and participated in the demonstration made by Early's army against the defenses of Washington, D. C. Returning to Virginia he fought at Leesburg, Snicker's Gap, Snicker's Ford, Kernstown, Winchester, September 19, 1864; Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek, and Rude's Hill, December, 1864. At the battle of Winchester his brother, William A. Ayres, color-guard of the Twenty-sixth battalion, was among the killed. After the close of hostilities Adjutant Ayres resided in Greenbrier county until 1882, with the exception of two years or more in Craig county, and then made his home in Summers county. Here he soon attained a prominent position in the community, and in 1890 began an honorable official career as deputy clerk of the county court. In 1893 and 1894 he was chosen city recorder of Hinton, and in 1896 he was elected county clerk for a term of six years. Mr. Ayres was married in 1870 to Belle W. Ingles, who died in 1881, leaving one son, William Ayres. In July, 1892, he was married at Hinton, to Priscilla F. Young.
CAPTAIN EUGENE BAKER, a veteran of the Ninth Virginia cavalry, W. H. F. Lee's brigade, army of Northern Virginia, and for many years high sheriff of Jefferson county, was born at Winchester, Va., in 1838. He removed with his parents to Caroline county in 1855, where in 1859 he became a member of the Caroline Light Dragoons, a company of mounted militia of which he was sergeant when it was mustered into the Confederate service. During the early part of the war period the company was on duty about eighteen months as couriers for Gen. T. H. Holmes, also in picket service on the Potomac river between Dumfries and Brooks Station. At the expiration of that time it was assigned as Company B to the Ninth Virginia cavalry. Sergeant Baker participated in the service of his command at the battles of First Manassas, the Seven Days' campaign before Richmond, the Maryland campaign, including the battle of Sharpsburg, and the cavalry engagement at Brandy Station. After the battle of Chancellorsville he was appointed captain and assistant quartermaster, to succeed Capt. James Forbes, who had been killed at Chancellorsville, and in this capacity he served during the remainder of the war. Among the later engagements in which he participated was one in Charles City county, in which his brother, Cecil Baker, lieutenant of Company B, Ninth cavalry, lost his life. At the close of hostilities Captain Baker returned to Caroline county, and farmed for a season, and since then has been a resident of Jefferson county, with his home at Charlestown. He was elected high sheriff of his county in 1876, and has held the office continuously, except one term, from 1881 to 1885. This prolonged trust by the people who know him best is a sufficient commentary upon the sterling character of this worthy Confederate soldier. In 1859 Captain Baker was married in Jefferson county to Anne M. Wiltshire.
NEWTON D. BAKER, of Martinsburg, W. Va., a veteran of Stuart's cavalry, was born in Washington county, Md., but in infancy was brought by his parents to Virginia, where he was reared, principally in Jefferson county. He enlisted in June, 1861, as a private in Company F of the First Virginia cavalry, under Col. J. E. B. Stuart, and shared the services of the regiment until the close of the war, at Appomattox having the rank of corporal, and acting as ordnance sergeant of the regiment. Among the many battles in which he participated were: First Manassas, the Seven Days before Richmond, Second Manassas, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Brandy Station, Early's Maryland campaign, including tho skirmishing before Washington, Winchester and Fisher's Hill. In the latter engagement, in the fall of 1864, his horse was killed and he received a wound in the leg which disabled him for six weeks. Captured in Jefferson county, he was sent to Fort McHenry, but exchanged ten days later. Finally paroled at Winchester, he entered upon the study of medicine, and was graduated in 1868 at the university of Maryland. Since then he has practiced his profession at Martinsburg. He is a valued member of thc State medical society, was its president in 1896-97, is railroad surgeon of the second division of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad company, and from 1883 to 1897 was a member of the West Virginia board of health, holding the office of secretary from 1888 to 1897. Dr. Baker was married in 1868 to Mary, daughter of Henry Durkehart, of Baltimore, and they have four sons.
CAPTAIN DENISON BUTLER BALDWIN, of Bluefield, W. Va., one of six brothers who served in the Confederate cause, was born at Wytheville, Va., in the year 1832, He is a descendant of Maj.-Gen. George W. Denison, of the British army, who was stationed at Stonington, Conn., in 1621, and there gave his daughter in marriage to the son of an early settler, Sylvester Baldwin. In July, 1861, Captain Baldwin entered the Confederate service as first lieutenant of Company K, Fifty-first Virginia infantry, Floyd's brigade, and continued in that rank until just before the battle of Fort Donelson, when Company K with several others were organized in a battalion under command of Maj. William P. Cecil, and Baldwin was made captain of his company. At the reorganization in the spring of 1862 he was again elected captain of Company D, Twenty-third battalion, Virginia infantry, commanded by Lieut.-Col. Clarence Derrick, of Washington, D. C. In this rank he continued until the close of the war. In the fall of 1863 he was detailed by Secretary of War Seddon as chief enrolling officer of the Ninth congressional district of Virginia, with headquarters at Abingdon, and his service in this capacity was performed with such fidelity and tact that Maj. James B. Dorman, in command of the camp of instruction at Dublin, Va., asked that Captain Baldwin should be promoted to major and continued upon the detail. Secretary Seddon signified his willingness to order this promotion, but Colonel Derrick protested, desiring to retain Captain Baldwin with the regiment. Consequently he returned to his command in the field in the summer of 1864, and remained with it, on duty in the Shenandoah valley, until the regiment was disbanded by General Echols at Christiansburg, Va., April 16, 1865. During the course of his military career Captain Baldwin participated in many of the daring expeditions and spirited combats on the Virginia border and in West Virginia, including the expedition under General Loring in 1863, and the affairs at Cotton Hill, McCoys, Fayetteville, Montgomery's Ferry, Camp Pyatt, Charleston and Elk River. On one occasion by order of General Echols he crossed the Ohio river at Ravenswood into Meigs county, Ohio, upon a reconnoissance, accompanied only by Capt. Robert Williams. Upon their return they were pursued by twenty Federal cavalrymen, with whom he and his companion had a spirited skirmish at Ripley, Jackson county. While with the western army he participated in the battle of Fort Donelson, and leaving there with Floyd's brigade, took part in the evacuation of Nashville, and was with his brigade at Chattanooga, Murfreesboro and Knoxville, Tenn. During the Shenandoah campaign of 1864 he participated in the fight near Woodstock and the battles of Strasburg, and was field officer at the storming of the breastworks at Cedar Creek. After the close of the war he farmed in Tazewell county, Va., one season, carried on a mercantile business at Tazewell until 1885, and then removed to Charleston, W. Va., and embarked in real estate and insurance, in which he has been engaged since 1888 as a citizen of Bluefield. During his residence at Tazewell he served as mayor and four terms as treasurer of the county. In February, 1858, he was married to Sallie W., daughter of William Barnes, and they have nine children living: William G., Denison O., Robert M., John M., Albert R., Sallie C., Amanda K., Louisa V. and Bettie L. The five brothers of Captain Baldwin who were in the Confederate service were: David T. Baldwin, a veteran of the Mexican war, who served as a private in Colonel Duncan's regiment at First Manassas, and lost his life in that battle; James H., assistant quartermaster at Wytheville, now living at Pocahontas; Robert G., of Staunton, Va., who, going to California in 1849, organized an expedition in 1854 to revolutionize northern Mexico, was shipwrecked and captured and held as a prisoner twenty-three months at the city of Mexico, and subsequently served as second lieutenant in the Forty-fifth Virginia regiment; William T., of Abingdon, a private of the Wythe Grays, Fourth Virginia regiment, Stonewall brigade, and afterward captain in Beckley's battalion of cavalry; and Albert Haller Baldwin, a private in the Forty-fifth Virginia infantry, who died in the service in September, 1861, a the age of sixteen years.
COLONEL ANDREW RUSSELL BARBEE, M.D., a soldier and surgeon, now residing at Point Pleasant, W. Va., was born at Hawsburg, Rappahannock county, Va., December 9, 1827. His father, Andrew R. Barbee, was of French and Welch descent; his mother, Nancy (Britton) Barbee, of Irish and German ancestry. After receiving an academic education at Petersburg, Va.; he studied medicine at the Richmond medical college, and the university of Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in April, 1851. His practice was begun in his native county and continued in Madison county, and he subsequently engaged in planting in addition to his professional work at Poca Bottom, Putnam county, where he resided at the outbreak of the war. Though he and his father held slaves in this period, of the value of some, $30,000, they were not attached to the institution; and they were firm supporters of the Union as long as it was a question of debate only, Colonel Barbee being so much opposed to the secession of Virginia as to canvass Kanawha and other counties, speaking in opposition to the measure. But when the mother State had cast her lot with the South he was loyal to her decision, and entered her military service as captain of a company of 161 men from Kanawha and Putnam counties, all good shots, and everyone of whom had voted against secession. The company was assigned to the Twenty-second infantry regiment, and rendered faithful service in the western Virginia department, the Shenandoah valley and south western Virginia. At the reorganization in 1862 he was elected lieutenant-colonel, and after the death of Colonel Patton at Winchester, in September, 1864, he succeeded to the command of the regiment. He also served for a time upon the staff of Gen. John C. Breckinridge, until the latter became secretary of war, and after becoming disabled from wounds he was assigned to professional duties in medical charge of the reserve forces in southwestern Virginia. He participated in the first engagement in the Kanawha valley, at Scary Creek. In the following autumn he was in the fights at Cross Lanes and Carnifix Ferry, and he subsequently took part in the West Virginia affairs at Gilestown and Lewisburg. In the spring of 1864, in the Shenandoah valley, he commanded a body of reserves at the battle of Piedmont, and was in the later fight with Averell at Rocky Gap, near White Sulphur Springs, where he received a gunshot wound in the elbow-joint, breaking a bone and severing the ulnar nerve; also was hit in the right hip by a gun barrel, which was driven into the groin, causing him great suffering and partial paralysis. In the fall of 1864 he was in the campaign with Early at Kernstown, New Market and Winchester. He was at Abingdon, Va., when Gen. John H. Morgan was killed at Greeneville, Tenn., and helped to bury the famous Confederate trooper. At Saltville, Va., in the fall of 1864, he was in command of the small force of reserves which sustained the attack of Burbridge's Federal force and fought desperately until the enemy retreated. During the latter part of his military career he devoted much of his time to professional duties, doing much to ameliorate the suffering of the wounded soldiers of either army. At a convalescing camp he encountered one of the most peculiar cases within his experience as a surgeon: that of a soldier who, in the act of applying an opprobrious epithet to a comrade, had been struck by a brick upon the head. The blow drove in the temporal bone, and the man fell unconscious, with half of his last word unuttered. He was left as dead, but Dr. Barbee relieved him by the operation of trephining, when the man instantly returned to consciousness and his previous drunken condition and finished the word he was saying forty-eight hours before. After the close of hostilities Dr. Barbee resumed his practice at Buffalo, Kanawha county, and in 1868 removed to Point Pleasant, his home since that date. He enjoys a large and lucrative practice, devoting much of his attention to surgery, and is highly regarded by his professional brethren as well as by his people. He is a member of the medical associations of his own and Gallia (Ohio) counties, and of the West Virginia and Ohio Valley medical associations. Of the State association he was president in 1875. Since 1885 he has been president of the examining board for pensions for his section of the State, and subsequent to 1881 he served for a number of years upon the State board of health. Not long after the war period he also took an active part in political affairs, and was elected to the State senate from the fifth district, by a decisive majority, in spite of the fact that he was dangerously ill during the campaign. His service in the State Senate was so satisfactory that he was nominated for Congress against Eustace Gibson. The election was so close as to require a recount, but was finally decided in favor of his competitor. In July, 1897, he was elected secretary and executive officer of the State board of health and registrar of vital and mortuary statistics for West Virginia. Early in his career Dr. Barbee was married to Margaret A. G. Thompson, daughter of his medical preceptor, Dr. J. J. Thompson, and they have four children living.
MAJOR WILLIAM LEIGH BARKSDALE, M. D., of Hinton, W. Va., is deserving of notice as particularly active in the organization of Confederate troops in western Virginia, and on account of his prominent service in a professional capacity. He was born in Halifax county, Va., in 1836, and was there reared and educated. He was graduated at the Jefferson medical college, Philadelphia, in March, 1858, and from that time until the spring of 1861 was engaged in the practice of medicine at Lewisburg, W. Va. There he became a member of the Greenbrier cavalry, organized a year or more previous to the secession, and with this company went into active service in April, 1861, as a private, with the understanding that he would act as medical attendant. The company served as couriers for General Garnett, but after his death the organization was dissolved. Dr. Barksdale then assisted in the organization of three companies in Greenbrier county, and was ordered by Gen. Henry Heth to remain in that county on medical duty. He was thus engaged four months and then joined as a private one of the companies he had assisted in forming, and was soon afterward detailed as assistant surgeon at the hospital at Giles Court House. Three months later he was promoted surgeon, with the rank of major, and assigned to Maj. T. B. Swann's battalion of rangers. This command was soon consolidated with other companies as the Nineteenth Virginia cavalry regiment, of which Dr. Barksdale served as surgeon until the winter of 1862, when he was promoted brigade surgeon of the brigade of Gen. W. L. Jackson. He acted in this capacity in the field up to General Early's campaign against Washington, D.C., during which he accompanied the Twenty-second Virginia infantry regiment as surgeon. He was subsequently assigned to the Thirty-fifth infantry battalion, and held the position of surgeon of Patton's brigade of Echol's division throughout the Valley campaign of 1864, and until the close of hostilities, at the end being with his command at Christiansburg. During his career he participated in the West Virginia engagements at Beverly, Droop Mountain an Bulltown, the important battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864, and the other engagements of General Early's valley campaign. Resuming his practice at Lewisburg after this, he returned to Halifax county on account of the death of his father, subsequently practiced at Lewisburg a year, and at Alderson, Monroe county, from 1875 to 1892. Since the latter date he has followed his profession at Hinton. Wherever he has made his home he has held high station in social and professional life. At Alderson he served upon the town council and was elected mayor.
CAPTAIN ROBERT W. BAYLOR, of Charleston, Jefferson county, was conspicuous among the strong and energetic spirits who served as rallying points of patriotism in northwestern Virginia in 1861. He held the rank of colonel of Virginia troops at the outbreak of the war, but not being continued in that position at the organization, raised a company of young men in Jefferson county, which was subsequently distinguished in the Confederate service as Company B of the Twelfth Virginia cavalry. It was a notable company in membership, many famous families of Virginia being represented, and a considerable number of them are now prominent in civil life, perhaps the most conspicuous being William L. Wilson, ex-postmaster-general and president of Washington-Lee university, and Charles Broadway Rouss, of New York. This company, known as the Baylor light horse, entered the service in Ashby's cavalry, but was not long under the command of its organizer, as he was severely wounded in an engagement at McGaheysville, April 27, 1862, and taken prisoner. He was subsequently tried by Federal court martial and condemned to be executed, on account of his activity in the Southern cause; but the sentence was set aside by General Kelly, with the approval of Secretary Stanton. He was held a prisoner until late in 1864, but when exchanged his wound still disabled him. He survived until 1883. He was of an old Virginian family, descended from John Baylor, who immigrated from England about 1694. His father, Richard Baylor, served as a private in the Baylor Dragoons, Continental army, commanded by his cousin, Col. George Baylor. Three sons of Capt. Robert W. Baylor also served in his cavalry company: Richard C., who was mentioned by General McClellan for bravery in going through the lines at Auburn to warn General Lee of the critical situation of General Stuart's command, and was killed at Parker's Store, near Fredericksburg, November 29, 1863; Robert W., who was killed at Charlestown, November 29, 1864; and George, now a prominent attorney at Charlestown, who was the brilliant leader of the company after his father's capture. Capt. George Baylor, born in Jefferson county in 1843, was educated at Dickinson college, Carlisle, Pa., and graduated in 1860, and subsequently was an instructor in the Episcopal high school in Fauquier county until April, 1861, when he enlisted in Company G of the Second Virginia infantry. He served with the Stonewall brigade during the first year of the war, took part in the battle of Manassas, and received excellent training as a soldier under his famous commander. In the spring of 1862 he joined the Baylor Light Horse, of which he was elected second lieutenant, and with this company, which formed part of the command of Turner Ashby, participated in the Valley campaign of 1862, fighting at Kernstown, Winchester, Middletown, Cross Keys, and Port Republic. After Jackson moved to the Chickahominy, his company was left in the valley, where it engaged in frequent raids upon the Federal outposts, aiding materially in causing the enemy to fall back to Harper's Ferry. They then participated in the Second Manassas campaign, the capture of Harper's Ferry, and the battle of Sharpsburg. In a fight near Charlestown he received a wound in the leg. Lieutenant Baylor was in command of his company from June, 1862, throughout its subsequent campaigns and engagements. In February, 1863, during a raid in Jefferson county, he was captured by the Fourteenth Pennsylvania regiment, and sent to Fort McHenry. Attempting to escape he was confined two weeks in a cell, and then sent to Fort Delaware, but was so fortunate as to be one of twenty officers who were exchanged in April, the only exchange of that year. Returning to his command, now Company B of the Twelfth Virginia cavalry, W. E. Jones' brigade, Stuart's cavalry corps, he participated in the operations of 1863, including the engagements at Brandy Station, Oakland and Altamont, Md.; Mine Run, Upperville, Warrenton Springs, Auburn, Bristoe Station, Parker's Store and Little Baltimore. At Warrenton Springs the Twelfth regiment being under command of Colonel Funsten, Lieutenant Baylor held the front and was ordered to charge the bridge, held by the Federals, in the dusk of the evening. He led his men in columns of four along a narrow causeway, in the face of a sharp fire, until at the abutment he found that the planks had been removed from the bridge, and he must retrace his steps and try the ford. Without the slightest confusion the command obeyed the order to right about wheel, and in a moment it was plunging through the ford, amid the wild huzzas of the Confederate infantry, and dashing up the hill, soon cleared the enemy from their rifle-pits and won a passage for the remainder of the Confederate force. For this brilliant performance Lieutenant Baylor and his troop enjoyed the unique distinction of receiving a furlough of ten days by order of General Lee. He subsequently took part in the West Virginia raids under Jones and Rosser, and at Medley, near New Creek, in January, 1864, received a wound in the shoulder which compelled his retirement until May, when he rejoined his command. Joining General Lee, he was in the advance on the morning of May 5th, in the Wilderness, his brigade opening the ball by the defeat of Wilson's Federal division of cavalry near Todd's Tavern, and subsequently fought at Hawe's Shop, Ashland (where he led the charge), Sappony Church, Trevilian's, Charles City Court House (where he was slightly wounded), Reams' Station, and the famous cattle raid. Then being ordered with his brigade to the Shenandoah valley, he was engaged at Brock's Gap, Tom's Brook, Cedar Creek and Midd1etown. On November 22d, while on a reconnoissance with six men, he stampeded at night a Federal outpost, at Allstadt's Lane, and captured thirteen men and twice as many horses. He was then detached with his company to operate in the lower valley, and on the night of November 29th attacked the camp of the Twelfth Pennsylvania cavalry at Charlestown, killing and wounding eleven of the enemy, and capturing twenty-seven prisoners and thirty-seven horses. In a subsequent fight near White Post a Federal squadron in pursuit of him suffered defeat and a similar loss. On April 5, 1865, he joined the command of Colonel Mosby, as captain of Company H, and was engaged on the same day at Millville, and on April 10th at Fairfax Station. He surrendered at Winchester, May 8, 1865, and then returned to civil life. He was graduated in law at Washington-Lee university in 1867, and after practicing at Kansas City, Mo., five years, returned to Charlestown. Here he formed a partnership with William L. Wilson, which continued until 1881, when Mr. Wilson was elected president of the West Virginia university. During the same period he held for four years the office of prosecuting attorney for his county. Since then he has continued in the practice of law, and is now counsel of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, and distinguished in his profession.
LIEUTENANT JACOB S. BOAK, of Martinsburg, W. Va., a lieutenant of the Jackson horse artillery, was born in Berkeley county in 1839. He entered the Confederate service in April, 1861, as corporal of an artillery company later known as the Jackson horse artillery, of which he was promoted orderly-sergeant in the spring of 1862, and third lieutenant in the summer of 1863. He served throughout the war, finally being paroled at Charleston. Among the numerous engagements in which he participated were: Two-mile Creek, near Charleston, in the summer of 1861; Cross Lanes, Carnifix Ferry, Fayetteville, Big Sewell Mountain, and the series of skirmishes which followed until the command reached Dublin depot; Fort Donelson, where he was captured, afterward being held at Camp Douglas, Illinois, eight months, and exchanged at Vicksburg; the three days of battle at Gettysburg, Atlee's Station, near Richmond, the engagements with Hunter near Lynchburg, the battle of New Market, where Lieutenant Boak planted the first battery in position and directed the firing of the first shot; the defeat of Milroy at Winchester; Fisher's Hill, and Liberty Mills, where his horse was shot under him and eight bullets pierced his clothing, six of them inflicting slight wounds. Not long after the close of the war he began the study of dentistry, and has since followed that profession. He is an active member of the United Confederate Veterans, and holds the rank of chief of artillery on the staff of Gen. Robert White, commanding West Virginia division. Dr. Boak was married in 1873 to Kate A. Davis, of Maryland, and they have seven children living. Three brothers of Dr. Boak were in the Confederate service: Samuel L., of the Trans-Mississippi department, who died in 1877; William E., orderly-sergeant in the Stonewall brigade, killed at Second Manassas; and Clarence, now residing in Florida, who served throughout the war in the Jackson horse artillery.
MAJOR JOSEPH M. BROUN, of Charleston, W. Va., was born at Middleburg, Va., December 23, 1835, a descendant of William Broun, a Scotchman of French descent, who settled in Westmoreland county and practiced law in the colonial period. He was educated at the Ridgeway academy, the university of Virginia in 1853-54, and the university of Georgia in 1855. During 1857 he was with the command of Col. Joseph E. Johnston, employed in marking the thirty-seventh parallel between Kansas and Indian Territory, and in 1859 he was engaged in teaching at Bloomfield academy, near the university of Virginia, under his brother, Prof. William LeRoy Broun, now a distinguished educator residing at Auburn, Ala. He studied law at the university during 1859 and 1860, and in the fall of the latter year entered the practice with his brother, Maj. T. L. Broun, at Charleston, Kanawha county. At that place, previous to the war, he became a member of the Kanawha rifles, under Capt. George S. Patton, and in December, while using one of the flint-lock muskets with which the company were equipped, was badly crippled in the left arm by the explosion of the piece. For this reason he was not mustered in with the company in the spring of 1861, but in July of that year he accompanied his brother and a force of Boone and Logan county volunteers up the Big Coal river, meeting General Wise at White Sulphur Springs. Subsequently he was appointed by General Wise captain and assistant quartermaster of the Third Wise legion, which upon the reorganization under General Lee became the Sixtieth regiment, Virginia infantry. In December following he accompanied the regiment, under General Lee's command, to Pocotaligo, S. C. In May, 1862, the regiment was with the army of Gen. J. E. Johnston before Richmond, but in June Captain Broun was again ordered to South Carolina and stationed at Georgetown. Remaining in this department, he was transferred, in 1864, to Augusta, Ga., where he remained until early in the spring of 1865, when he was ordered to report in person to the quartermaster-general at Richmond. Starting upon the Journey, notwithstanding the interference of General Sherman with safe and comfortable travel at that time, he proceeded in company with Major Hill, a wounded Georgia soldier, in a wagon drawn by mules, until he reached Abbeville, where he learned the fate of Richmond, the surrender of Lee and the assasination of President Lincoln. Near this point President Davis had arrived, escorted by a body of mounted Kentuckians and Texans, chiefly, with whom Captain Broun and Major Hill turned back to Georgia. Quartermaster-General Lawton placed Captain Broun in charge of the specie wagon train, and the dangerous and delicate trust was faithfully executed. President Davis, foreseeing that the large escort would invite attack from the enemy, directed the troops to break up into small squads, and make their way through the country to the department commanded by Gen. Kirby Smith. At first the men refused to leave the President. One Texan, who enjoyed a remarkable resemblance to Mr. Davis, urged him to exchange personality, in order to facilitate his escape, proposing to take the risk of the Confederate presidency and turn over to Mr. Davis his Rangers' uniform. But the President refused, declaring that he would assume no disguise during his retreat to the West. Captain Broun was informally promoted major by the President and continued in charge of the specie, until it was finally disposed of under orders, undergoing not a few perils in this duty. After separating from Mr. Davis, he accompanied Major Hill to Athens, surrendered at Augusta, and finally returned to his home in Virginia. Resuming the practice of law at Charleston, he has become distinguished in his profession.
MAJOR THOMAS L. BROUN, of Charleston, W. Va., a well-known attorney and for many years prominently identified with the development of the Kanawha valley, is a native of Loudoun county, Va., the son of Edwin Conway and Elizabeth Broun, and the grandson of William Broun, a native of Scotland who settled in Westmoreland county and engaged in the practicc of law in tho colonial period. William Broun was the son of George and Margaret Broun of Scotland. Tho maternal grandparents of Major Broun were Dr. James Channel and Susan, his wife, nee Susan Pickett, of Fruit Farm, Fauquier county, Va. Dr. Robert Broun, a brother of William Broun, settled near Charleston, S. C., and the descendants of the two brothers are now prominent throughout many parts of the South. The Brouns constitute a very old and prominent family in Scotland. It is said the family originated in Bordeaux, France, where the name was spelled Brohnn, subsequently contracted into Broun, with an accent on the u, showing the abbreviation of the name. Major Broun graduated at the university of Virginia in 1848, and two years later, after teaching school in his native county, he removed to Charleston, in Kanawha county, and began the study of law in the office of the Hon. George W. Summers. He was admitted to the bar in 1852, and soon became associated in business with W. S. Rosecrans and others as the attorney for companies engaged in mining and shipping coal from the Coal River region. After the resignation of Rosecrans from the office of president of the Coal River navigation company Major Broun was elected to that position, which he held until the beginning of the war in 1861. He entered the Confederate service in April, 1861, as a private in the Kanawha riflemen, which became the nucleus for the Twenty-second Virginia infantry regiment; and shared the operations of that command until promoted, in the fall of 1861, to major of the Third regiment in Wise's legion, subsequently known as the Sixtieth regiment Virginia infantry. In November he was taken sick with camp fever on Big Sewell Mountain, Va., and remained disabled for duty until February, 1862, when he reported for duty at Richmond. His regiment having meanwhile been removed from the Wise legion and ordered to South Carolina, he was detailed at Dublin depot in Pulaski county, Va., as post commandant and quartermaster. In this capacity he continued, efficiently caring for the large interests of the Confederate government at that point, until May 9, 1864, he went into the battle of Cloyd's Mountain, near Dublin depot, as a volunteer aide-de-camp upon the staff of Col. Beuhring Jones, then commanding the Sixtieth Virginia regiment, formerly the Third regiment in the Wise legion. In the bloody battle which followed Major Broun was terribly wounded, causing his disability during the remainder of that year. In January, 1865, while convalescent, he was ordered to Wilmington, N. C., to take charge of the paper mills in the Carolinas and Georgia, which were supplying the government printing establishment at Columbia, S. C. This duty Major Broun discharged until the occupation of that territory by Sherman's army, after which he proceeded to Richmond. After the evacuation he followed our retreating army, but at Amherst Court House, Va., learned of the surrender. Two months later he returned to Charleston, W. Va., and was soon re-elected to the position of president of the Coal River navigation company, which he had relinquished in 1861. But as Confederate soldiers were at that time disbarred from the practice of law in West Virginia, he removed to New York city in June, 1866, and was there busied with professional work until November, 1870, making West Virginia law and land titles a specialty of his practice. In 1870 political disabilities were removed from Confederates by the West Virginia legislature, and lawyers who had been in the Confederate service were thereafter permitted to practice law in West Virginia. Since 1870 Major Broun has been a resident of Charleston, and has achieved high rank as a lawyer and business man. He has been active for many years in disseminating information regarding the resources of the Great Kanawha river and its tributaries, and in attracting capital to the development of the Coal River region especially. He is a member of the Masonic order, a vestryman and warden in the Episcopal church, and is a director of the Sheltering Arms hospital of Paint Creek, Kanawha county. With his old comrades he maintains an association through membership in Patton camp, with the United Confederate Veterans. In June, 1866, Major Broun was married to Mary M., daughter of Col. Edmund Fontaine, of Hanover county, Va., who was the first president of the Chesapeake & Ohio railroad, and for many years previous to that the president of the Virginia Central railroad.
E. STANARD BUFFINGTON, M. D., in these latter days of peace a prominent physician of the upper Ohio valley, residing at Huntington, W. Va., was born at the site of that city, in Cabell county, in 1847, of ancestry distinguished in the history of Virginia. He is the son of Peter Buffington, a native of Cahell county, by his marriage to Eliza Stanard Nicholas, of Richmond,Va. Peter Buffington was educated at the Ohio university, represented his county in the Virginia house of delegates, was the first mayor of Huntington, was one of the organized of the Bank of Huntington, and was its president until his death in 1875. After the secession of Virginia Dr. Buffington continued loyal to the Old Dominion, and was thoroughly devoted to the Confederacy. He entered the Virginia military Institute, and participated in many severe marches and other military service of the cadet corps under Colonel Shipp, including the battle of New Market, in the Shenandoah valley, in May, 1864, where the boys of the cadet corps were distinguished for bravery and endurance. Dr. Buffington was then but sixteen years of age, but, like his heroic young comrades, bore himself like a veteran. He continued in service with the cadets after their removal to Richmond. He was then appointed a midshipman in the Confederate States navy, a rank he held during the remainder of the war; but owing to the condition of affairs on the James river, was not permitted to engage in active service. After the close of hostilities he resumed his academic studies, and then entering upon a course of preparation for the medical profession, was graduated in 1872 by the Jefferson medical college of Philadelphia. During the quarter century and more which has since elapsed he has gained a high rank among the professional men of West Virginia, and the warm regard of his fellow citizens. He has served upon the city council and for four years was a member of the pension board at Huntington, but his professional duties have in the main entirely engrossed his attention.
LEWIS H. BURKS, a prominent business man and financier of Huntington, W. Va., was identified during the Confederate period with the Southern cause, serving mainly within the limits of the present State of West Virginia. He was born in Cabell county, May 26, 1840, the son of Bluford B. Burks, who was born in Amherst in 1811, and came with his parents to Cabell county in youth. The father was a pioneer pilot on the Ohio and Kanawha rivers, and is reputed to have piloted the first boatload of salt out of the Kanawha. For forty years he followed this occupation, then retiring to his farm, and dying at Guyandotte in 1881. Previous to the Confederate war Lewis H. Burks was a student at Marshall college until eighteen years of age, then was upon the river for a year as pilot, and after that was engaged in farming for two years. Adhering to the Confederate cause at the outbreak of war he enlisted in the early fall of 1862 as a private in the Eight Virginia cavalry. A few months later he was detailed to the quartermaster's department in the field, in the department of Western Virginia, and the remainder of his services, until the close of hostilities, were mostly rendered in this capacity. He also participated in the battles of Dry Creek and Greenbrier, West Virginia. After the restoration of peace he was engaged for fourteen months in mercantile business at Beach Fork, Wayne county, and then returned to his native county. Here his life has ever since been a busy one devoted to business pursuits in which he has been eminently successful. At first giving his attention to the grain and tobacco trade, he subsequently engaged in farming and lumber dealing which he still carries on very extensively. He is a director of the First National bank, and a man of prominence and influence in many business channels. On November 19, 1867, Mr. Burks was married to Helen, daughter of John Laidley, a well-known attorney of Cabell county.
GEORGE HENRY BURTON, of Bluefield, W. Va., commissioner of the United States circuit court for the district of West Virginia, was a faithful Confederate soldier throughout the war until he became a prisoner of war and experienced the hardships of Northern prison camps. He was born in Bedford county, Va., in 1835, and from that county entered the Confederate service, becoming a private in Company F of the Fiftieth Virginia infantry. He joined his regiment at Wytheville in June, 1861, and soon afterward was appointed commissary-sergeant. When his command had reached the narrows of New river, advancing under the brigade command of General Floyd, he was appointed brigade forage-master, a position he continued to occupy until General Floyd was relieved of command after the capture of Fort Donelson. He then returned to Wytheville, and WRS made brigade forage-master under Gen. John B. Echols. In this capacity he served until the fall of 1863, when he accompanied the Fiftieth regiment to Culpeper Court House, to enter the brigade of General Jones. He continued with his regiment as a private and participated in the first day's fighting at the Wilderness, May 5, 1864, when he was captured by the enemy. Many weary months of prison life followed, passed at Point Lookout until August, 1864, and at Elmira, N. Y., until March 6, 1865, when he was paroled on account of sickness. Before he could be exchanged, and while he was at home ill, the war came to an end. During his military service, in addition to his other important duties, he participated in the engagements at Locust Lane, W. Va.; Cloyd's Mountain, Fort Donelson, Princeton, W. Va.; Lewisburg, W. Va., and the Narrows of New river. After the close of hostilities he resided for some time in Appomattox county, where he was elected constable in 1865. He served four years in this office and two years as deputy sheriff of the county, after which he was elected collector of the southside township, an office he resigned to remove to Alabama. For a time he managed a sawmill at Tuscaloosa, in the latter State, but returned to Appomattox county and continued in the same business there until 1875. Subsequently he farmed in Buckingham county five years, and during one year managed a hotel at Mineral Hill Springs in Tennessee. After this he engaged quite extensively in the lumber business, making his headquarters in McDowell county, and managing six mills. From 1887 to 1891 he held the office of justice of the peace in McDowell county, removing at the end of his term to Bluefield, where he was appointed commissioner of the United States district court, by Judge J. J. Jackson, in 1892. From this office he was removed on account of congressional legislation in June, 1897, but was reappointed in the following September. Mr. Burton is a faithful public official and popular socially. He is a member of the Methodist church, and is fraternally connected with the Masonic order, the Odd Fellows, the Elks, and the Sons of America. He was married in 1852, in Campbell county, to Sarah Robinson, who died in 1857, leaving three children, of whom one survives, Sallie R., now the wife of John W. Casedy, of Lynchburg, Va. He was remarried in 1861, in Blount county, Tenn., to Vestina J. Landrum, and they have had twelve children, of whom seven survive: Rosa L., wife of Joseph T. Graham; Nannie E., John P., Daisy L., wife of C. V. Ferguson; Maud V., Bernard E. and Alva P. Burton.
WILLIAM F. BUTLER, former adjutant-general and State librarian of West Virginia, was born at Richmond, Va., August 10, 1837. At the city he was reared and educated and entered into business prior to the war. He entered the Confederate service in May, 1861, as a private in Company B of the Fifteenth Virginia regiment of infantry, and was soon on active duty in the field, participating in the well-remembered engagement at Big Bethel, the first considerable encounter upon the soil of Virginia. Subsequently he served upon the Peninsula, and on the retreat from Yorktown took part in the battle of Williamsburg. He was also in the two days' battle at Seven Pines, and went through the arduous and bloody campaign before Richmond, called the Seven Days' battle, which resulted in driving McClellan from his advanced position near the Confederate capital. After this, worn with fatigue and shattered in health, he lay sick at Richmond for some time, and upon partial recovery was ordered on detached duty to Georgia, where he served during the remainder of the war under General Winder, his military record being closed by parole at Augusta, Ga., in May, 1865. After the close of hostilities he returned to Virginia and removed to Wheeling, where he has made his residence for many years. Since 1887 he has held the position of bookkeeper in the bank of Wheeling. During the administration of Governor Jackson he held the office of adjutant-general and State librarian of West Virginia.
JOHN H. CAMMACK, a well-known business man of Huntington, W. Va., and during the Confederate war a faithful soldier of Virginia, was born in Rockingham county in 1843. At the age of nine years he removed with his parents to Staunton, Va., and thence, in 1859, to Harrison county, now in the State of West Virginia. Here he enlisted on May 20, 1861, in the Confederate service, becoming a private in the company of Capt. U. M. Turner, organized at Clarksburg. This command was subsequently assigned to the Thirty-first Virginia infantry as Company C, and participated in the campaign of 1861 in northwestern Virginia. He was promoted corporal in the summer of this year, and served in this capacity until May 6, 1862, when physical disability caused his discharge. In July, 1863, he rendered effective help in the organization of Lady's battalion, afterward incorporated in the Twentieth Virginia cavalry, commanded by Col. W. W. Arnett, of Wheeling, as Company I, and he received a commission from the secretary of war at second lieutenant of this company. However, he resigned this commission in favor of another, and took a place in the ranks as volunteer private until December, 1863. On January 1, 1864, he became a member of the Tenth battalion of heavy artillery at Richmond, Va., the command with which he was identified for more than a year. On January 9, 1865, he was transferred by Gen. R. E. Lee to his old cavalry command, the Twentieth, which he joined near Gordonsville, and remained with it until the close of hostilities, during the last three weeks being the only remaining representative of Company I. The record of his participation in battle is an eminently honorable one, including the affairs at Grafton and Philippi, among the earliest of the war; Carrick's Ford, Laurel Hill, Greenbrier River, and the various skirmishes thence up to Alleghany Mountain, December 13, 1861, after which fight he had command of his company for a short time. Thence proceeding to Richmond, though, as has been seen, out of the service on account of disability, he took the place of his brother, Lucius S. Cammack, as ordnance officer on the staff of Gen. Stonewall Jackson, in the Seven Days' battles. His brother had been left in hospital at Charlottesville, and J. H. Cammack, in his stead, was under fire in this campaign, and at Frayser's Farm, acted as courier for General Jackson. His next fighting was near Pocahontas Court House, W. Va. With the artillery he served the guns at Malvern Hill, fighting gunboats, and at Mechanicsville participated in the prolonged artillery duel at Dutch Gap. fought in defense of Fort Harrison, and after the capture of that stronghold took part in the defeat of the Federals at Fort Davis, where he was wounded in the right hip by a fragment of shell. This was followed by a season of hard fighting on the Charles City road, in which he was actively engaged. His long and varied service in behalf of the Confederacy was closed by his participation in the cavalry operations of his regiment in the spring of 1865, and in May of that year he was paroled at Columbia, Va. Returning to his home to take up again the duties of civil life he subsequently removed to the city of Huntington, where he has been for many years an honored and useful citizen.
LIEUTENANT WILLIAM B. CARDEN, of Charleston, W. Va., a gallant veteran of the Stonewall brigade, was born in Page county, Va., August 17, 1838. He entered the Confederate service in April, 1861, as a member of the Smith Blues, which became Company D of the Fourth Virginia regiment. In 1862 he was promoted lieutenant of his company. He participated in the battle of Manassas, July 21, 1861, sharing the honors won by his brigade upon that historic field; and during the Shenandoah Valley campaign of 1862 he took part in the battles of Kernstown, Cross Keys and Port Republic. After this campaign he was disabled about two months with an attack of small pox, but recovered in time to go into the battle of Second Manassas. He took part in the Maryland campaign, fighting at Harper's Ferry and Sharpsburg, was slightly wounded in the battle of Chancellorsville, and at Gettysburg was captured by the enemy on the third day. With this misfortune there began a long and wearing experience as a prisoner of war, during which he was confined at Point Lookout, Fort McHenry, Fort Pulaski, Fort Delaware, and was one of the six hundred Confederates who were placed under fire at Morris island, S. C., in the summer of 1864. He was finally paroled in July, 1865, after two years' detention, during which he suffered innumerable hardships and deprivations. Removing to Charleston, W. Va., in 1866, he engaged in business as a contractor and builder until 1877, when he was appointed foreman of the cabinet shop in the State's prison at Moundsville. After eighteen months' service he became foreman of a furniture factory at Belton, and two years later entered the furniture business at Fairmount, where he remained for several years. For five years he was janitor of the State house at Charleston, and for six years was superintendent of the Charleston street railroad which he had built as contractor.
MAJOR JAMES LAWRENCE CARR, a resident of Kanawha county from 1833, and prominent in the affairs of the Kanawha valley before the war, during that struggle was conspicuous among those who adhered to the fortunes of his native State, and rendered effective service to the Confederate States government. He was born in Albemarle county, Va., a grand-nephew of Thomas Jefferson, and was educated at the university of Virginia. Removing to Charleston in 1833, he embarked in the practice of law and speedily attained prominence, being associated at one time with James Kendrick and later with Isaac Read, in an extensive practice. In 1857 he was president of the bank of Kanawha, and in 1860 was president of the board of directors for the improvement of the Kanawha river, associated with the James river and Kanawha company, and the great "waterline" of Virginia. At the outbreak of the war he ardently advocated the cause of Virginia, and entering the service with the earliest volunteers, served under General Wise, and his successor, General Loring, in their campaigns in the Kanawha valley. His health failing he retired from duty on the field in the winter of 1862-63 and was assigned to duty as post commissary, with the rank of major, at Dublin Depot. From this important point he furnished supplies for the forces in southwest Virginia under Gens. Sam Jones, Breckinridge and others. After the close of hostilities he returned to Charleston, where he died February 1, 1875. He was a man of noted ability and unspotted integrity. Dr. Lawrence Carr, son of the foregoing, was born at Charleston in 1848, and was reared and educated at that city. When about sixteen years of age, in December, 1864, he entered the service as a member of the corps of topographical engineers, under Capt. A. McG. Smith, of Manchester, Va., and remained on duty until the close of the war. Previous to his enlistment he took part in the engagement at Charleston, on the occasion of General Loring's advance down the valley. After the return of peace he spent some time in Kansas, Missouri, Texas and Louisiana, and while at New Orleans studied medicine in the State university. He was graduated as Doctor of medicine in 1874 at the Louisville medical college, and since that time has been successfully engaged in the practice at Charleston, W. Va.
LIEUTENANT JOHN GAY CARR, a Confederate hero of the Kanawha valley, was born in Albemarle county, Va., but lived for many years before the war in Kanawha county, where he entered the service in May, 1861, as a private in the Riflemen. He was promoted to a lieutenancy in this gallant company, and was identified with its record and that of the Twenty-second Virginia regiment, of which it formed a part, until he was killed in battle near Lewisburg, Va., August 26, 1863. He was a promising young man, had exhibited the noblest qualities of a soldier both in the ranks and as an officer, and his death was deeply mourned by his comrades and the people of his home county.
LIEUTENANT COLONEL R. PRESTON CHEW, of Charlestown, W. Va., occupies a conspicuous place in the record of the army of Northern Virginia as an artillery officer connected with Stuart's cavalry, and during the latter part of the war as chief commander of the horse artillery of the army. His characteristics as a soldier were well epitomized in the words, "as true as steel and ever ready," used in the official report of a general to whose command he was attached early in his career. A few years ago, in a private letter, Gen. Wade Hampton wrote: "Chew was here a year or two ago, and I was delighted to see him. I always regarded him as the ablest commander of the horse artillery, though that gallant body of men at different times had very gallant and efficient officers." Colonel Chew was born in Loudoun county, Va., in April, 1843, but since 1847 his home has been in Jefferson county. In 1859 he entered the Virginia military institute, where he was a cadet at the outbreak of the war. Going to Richmond with the corps of cadets in April, 1861, he was ordered to Harper's Ferry in charge of a squad of eleven cadets, to report to Col. "Stonewall" Jackson, under whom he acted as a drill-master for a short time. He then began his illustrious career with the artillery as acting lieutenant of Deshler's battery, in Greenbrier county. After about two months' service there, he organized, at the request of Gen. Turner Ashby, at Charlestown, a company of mounted artillerymen, the first organization of the kind in the Confederate service. In command of this battery, of which he was elected captain in August, 1861, he served with Ashby's cavalry command until that gallant leader fell, two days before the battle of Cross Keys. He served throughout the Valley campaigns with Jackson, fighting at Kernstown and Port Republic, leading the advance and covering the retreat, and was mentioned with praise by Gen. C. S. Winder for volunteer cavalry service during the attack on the Federals at Charlestown, May 28th. He remained with the cavalry under command of General Robertson, when Jackson moved to reinforce Lee at Richmond, and joined Stuart's cavalry division, the artillery of which was then under command of Major Pelham, in time to participate in the Manassas campaign, fighting at Slaughter's mountain and Brandy Station. With his cavalry brigade now under Gen. T. T. Munford, he was distinguished in the gallant defense of Crampton's Gap, Md., where, according to the report of General Munford "he used his guns with great coolness and effect, retiring only when he had exhausted every round of ammunition." At Sharpsburg, serving on the left of the Confederate line, he rendered effective service, the horse artillery contributing largely to the repulse of Sumner's corps. He continued in command of his battery, sharing the operations of the cavalry, throughout 1863. On the night of May 16th, with 45 men, he made a daring attack upon a Federal cavalry company at Charleston, defeating them and capturing 86 prisoners and 75 horses. That a four-fold force of the enemy overtook him at Piedmont on the next day and recaptured the spoil, does not detract from the brilliancy of his action. He was with his battery in the fight at Fleetwood hill, one of the most famous cavalry battles of the war, and in other cavalry engagements which preceded the Gettysburg campaign. He was engaged on the second and third days of the battle of Gettysburg, aided in the protection of the army trains on the retreat, and participated in the Bristoe campaign with the division of General Hampton. In the spring of 1864 he was promoted major and placed in command of the artillery of the cavalry corps, consisting of the batteries of Breathed, McGregor, Thompson, Hart and Shoemaker, of four guns each. In this capacity he served throughout the campaign of 1864, beginning with participation in the battle of May 5th, at the Wilderness. At Trevilian's he materially aided in the discomfiture of Sheridan, General Hampton reporting that "the artillery under Major Chew was admirably handled and did good service." In the fall of that year the cavalry corps was reorganized and General Hampton placed in command of the five divisions, and Major Chew was promoted lieutenant-colonel and chief of horse artillery, in command of the corresponding five battalions of two batteries each, including 40 guns and 1,200 men. In this rank he served until the close of the war under Generals Hampton and Fitzhugh Lee, taking part in the fighting around Petersburg up to and including the last day of occupation, and the battle of Five Forks, and during the retreat protected the rear, fighting at Sailor's creek and all the way to Appomattox. After taking part in the engagement at the latter place he escaped before the surrender with about 30 men and joined the army of General Johnston, with whom he surrendered. He then returned to Jefferson county, where he is now an influential citizen. He has represented his county during three consecutive legislatures in West Virginia. In 1871 Colonel Chew was married to Louisa F., daughter of the late John A. Washington, who served with the rank of lieutenant-colonel upon the staff of Gen. R. E. Lee, until he fell in the discharge of duty, during the West Virginia campaign of 1861.
CAPTAIN WILLIAM B. COLSTON, of Martinsburg, W. Va., a veteran of the Stonewall brigade and now a prominent citizen of Berkeley county, of which he is a native, was born in 1836. He was educated at the Episcopal high school near Alexandria, and at the university of Virginia, and in April, 1861, entered the Confederate service as a private in the Hedgesville Blues, organized in Berkeley in 1859. This organization became Company E of the Second Virginia infantry, Stonewall brigade, and was the color company. About three months after enlistment he was made orderly-sergeant, and at the reorganization of the army in 1862, was elected first lieutenant. In the spring of 1863 he was promoted captain, and during the remainder of his service he had command of the company. Serving under General Jackson in the Valley campaign of 1862, he was severely wounded in the left hip at the battle of Kernstown, and disabled four months in consequence; then returning to his regiment he fought at Cedar mountain and Second Manassas. In the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, he received a second wound, of a very serious nature, and eight months passed, six of which he was confined to his bed, before he was again fit for duty. His next important battle was Mine Run, where his brother, Raleigh T. Colston, colonel of the Second regiment, was killed. The severe wounds he had received now prevented him from further active service in the field, and he was assigned to post duty at Charlottesville. Six months later, however, tired of this inaction, he went to Petersburg, and bearing recommendations from his superior officers, applied to Gen. Clement A. Evans, commanding a division including the Stonewall brigade, for a position on his staff, which was granted by the general. Captain Colston then returned to Charlottesville to procure a horse, and on his way to rejoin General Evans, he was captured by the enemy at Farmville and paroled, the army having been surrendered. In 1863 he was elected by the soldiers from Berkeley county, then in the hands of the enemy, as representative in the legislature, and he served in that capacity during two winters, in addition to his military duties. Returning to his home after the close of hostilities he was engaged in farming until 1872. Since then he has occupied an honorable and conspicuous place in the affairs of Martinsburg and the county as a public official and journalist. From 1876 till 1880 he held the office of county assessor; from 1880 to 1884 was magistrate of the county; in March, 1885, was appointed postmaster of Martinsburg for a term of four years, and in 1890 was elected clerk of the circuit court, a position he held for six years. He has the honor of being the only Democrat who has held the latter office in Berkeley county since the war. From 1883 until 1889 he had editorial charge of the Martinsburg Statesman, which he conducted with marked ability. Captain Colston was married in 1866 to Minnie Summers, and they have four children: Susan S., Jane B., Elizabeth M., and Sophie H. The third of the Colston brothers who served in the Confederate cause was Edward, a private in the Second Virginia cavalry from 1862 until Appomattox, where he lost his left arm. He is now a prominent attorney at Cincinnati, Ohio.
LIEUTENANT WILLIAM A. CRACRAFT, chief surgeon of the West Virginia division of the United Confederate Veterans, now residing at Elm Grove, Ohio county, was born in Claysville, Pa., February 23, 1844. In 1848 his family removed to Triadelphia, Ohio county, where he was reared, receiving his academic education at West Alexander, Pa. Though but seventeen years of age at the outbreak of the war, he entered the Confederate service in 1861, as a private in Shriver's Grays, Company G of the Twenty-seventh Virginia infantry, Stonewall brigade. In Jackson's command in the Shenandoah valley he participated in all the operations during the winter of 1861-62, and until the battle of Kernstown, when he was among the captured. As a prisoner of war he was held at Fort Delaware from the latter part of March until August, 1862, then being exchanged at Aiken's landing. He at once rejoined his command, and though his year's enlistment had expired, participated in the battles of Second Manassas, Harper's Ferry and Sharpburg, when he accepted an honorable discharge, and going to Richmond re-enlisted in the cavalry service. He was detailed for recruiting service in Rockbridge county, where, and in adjoining counties, he was successful in organizing two companies of cavalry, afterward known as Lady's battalion, which formed part of the Twentienth Virginia cavalry, under Col. W. W. Arnett. brigade of Gen. W. L. Jackson. In this command Dr. Cracraft was commissioned lieutenant of Company I, the rank in which he served during the remainder of the war. As a cavalry officer he participated in a large number of battles, mainly in the Shenandoah valley and in West Virginia, and was distinguished throughout for soldierly conduct and personal daring, as well as skill in command. Among these cavalry actions the most important were those at Beverly and Bulltown, W. Va., Droop mountain, Mill Point, Panther's gap, Staunton, Waynesboro, Lynchburg, Monocacy, Md., the demonstrations before Washington. D. C., during Early's expedition, a skirmish on the old battlefield of Sharpsburg, Shepherdstown, Smithfield, Leetown and Winchester, September 17, 1864. At Fisher's Hill, soon after the battle of Winchester, he was badly hurt by the explosion of a shell, which has seriously affected his hearing to the present time and was compelled to accept a furlough of three weeks. Returning to his company in time to participate in the surprise of Sheridan's army at Cedar creek, also Lynchburg, he continued on duty in the valley during the remainder of the war, taking part in various minor actions, and being engaged in a scouting expedition in command of thirty men, at the time of the surrender of the army of Northern Virginia. He was paroled at Clarksburg, Va., in May, 1865, and soon afterward went to Staunton, where he procured a duplicate parole from General Duval, having lost the original. Leaving Staunton in June 1865, he returned to his home at Triadelphia, and entered upon the study of medicine, a profession in which his father was distinguished. He attended the university of Virginia during 1866 and 1867, where he received his medical education. After practicing at Triadelphia four years, he made his home at Elm Grove. He is regarded as one of the leading physicians of Ohio county, and has been notably successful in his professional career. From 1872 to 1893 he was physician to the county infirmary, and in 1892 he was appointed physician to the Home of the Aged at Altenheim. His appointment as chief surgeon of the West Virginia division, United Confederate Veterans, was made in 1897. Dr. George A. Cracraft, father of the foregoing, also served devotedly in the Confederate cause, from just before the battle of Gettysburg until the close of the war, as surgeon, with the rank of major, first with Gen. A. G. Jenkins' cavalry and later with the Nineteenth Virginia cavalry regiment. He was a native of Pennsylvania, born in 1815, suffered banishment from Triadelphia in 1863, on account of his sympathy with the South, and after the restoration of peace survived until April, 1888.
CAPTAIN GEORGE CULLEN, a prominent citizen of Huntington, W. Va., is a deserving veteran of Early's division of the army of Northern Virginia. He is a native of Orange Court House, Va., and during the John Brown episode of 1859, served with the Montpelier Guards, a militia company which was ordered to Harper's Ferry, and escorted john Brown to the gallows. In April, 1861, he entered the active service as first lieutenant of his company, which was assigned as Company A to the Thirteenth Virginia infantry regiment. In the spring of 1862, he was elected captain of the company, the rank in which he served during the remainder of the war, also during a large part of the time acting in command of the regiment. In the brigade of General Elzey and the division of General Ewell he took part in the Shenandoah Valley campaign of 1862, fighting at Kernstown, Front Royal, Cross Keys and Port Republic. He continued to serve in Jackson's command through the Seven Days' battles and at Cedar mountain, Winchester, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, and afterward shared the operations of Ewell's corps at the Wilderness, in the defense of Petersburg, and on the retreat to Appomattox, where he was surrendered and paroled. He was wounded many times, seriously at Cedar mountain in the shoulder and leg, and again very severely at the Wilderness battle, when a ball penetrated his head over the right eye, and passing through cracked the skull at the back. Notwithstanding this apparently fatal injury, he walked sixteen miles to Orange Court House that day, but he was disabled for some time afterward. After the close of hostilities he remained at home until 1871, when he made his home at Huntington, W. Va. There he has attained a high standing in the community and is a popular and influential citizen. He has been twice elected mayor of the city, and has served several years as councilman and street commissioner.
CAPTAIN JAMES NEWKIRK CUNNINGHAM, of Martinsburg, W. Va., born in Berkeley county in 1838, was previous to the war of the Confederacy a member of a cavalry company commanded by John B. Hoge. He entered the service as corporal of this company April 19, 1861, his command becoming Company B of the First Virginia cavalry, of Stuart's brigade. At the reorganization in 1862 he was elected first lieutenant, and in the spring of 1863 he was detailed by General Wickham as provost. marshal of the brigade. He continued in this duty, having 20 men under his command, until the spring of 1864. While escorting 317 Federals, captured at Spottsylvania, he was met near Beaver Dam Station by Sheridans command, overpowered and the prisoners released. On the following day, at the battle of Yellow Tavern, Captain Hammond, of Company B, was killed, and Cunningham was promoted captain and given command of his company. Among the numerous engagements in which he participated are First Manassas, Fredericksburg, Sharpsburg, Tom's Brook, Gettysburg, Chancellorsville, the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Yellow Tavern, Beaver Dam, Brandy Station, Woodstock and Front Royal. He was wounded at Front Royal and again at Woodstock, disabling him for further service. He was paroled at New Market exactly four years from the time of his enlistment. Since then he has been engaged in farming. Two brothers of Captain Cunningham served with him in Company B, First cavalry: James L., now living in Berkeley county, who was wounded and captured at Gettysburg, and held in prison until the close of the war, and Charles A., who was killed at the battle of Winchester, September, 1864.
MAJOR ROBERT WOOD DAILEY, M. D., of Romney, W. Va., a medical officer of the army of Northern Virginia, was born in 1821, at the town where he now resides. He was orphaned at an early age by the death of his father, and was reared by his mother at her old home at Winchester, and educated at the Winchester academy, a noted school of that day, presided over by John Bruce. In 1842 he was graduated in medicine at the university of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, and then located for the practice at Romney until 1852, when he removed to Cumberland, Md. He was occupied in his profession at the latter place at the outbreak of the war, and in June, 1861, he went to Richmond, and being commissioned surgeon, was assigned to Taliaferro's brigade as brigade surgeon, with the rank of major. He served in this capacity two years, accompanying his command in the field through Jackson's campaign in the valley, the Seven Days' battles before Richmond, and at Cedar Run and Fredericksburg battles. Subsequently he was in charge of the general hospital at Lexington, Va., one year, until the hospital was closed, and he was then appointed senior surgeon of a conscript medical examining board, with headquarters at Lexington. He continued to serve in this department, rendering important services in the recruiting of the Confederate army, until the close of the war. He then returned to Romney, where he has ever since been engaged in professional work. For twenty years he has served as physician to the deaf, dumb and b1illd schoo1s at Romney. Dr. Dailey is a descendant in the fourth generation of James Wood, a native of Winchester, England, and a lieutenant in the British navy, who founded the town of Winchester, Va. His great-uncle, James Wood, was a colonel in the Revolutionary army, and governor of Virginia from 1796 to 1799, inclusive. Two sons of Dr. Dailey served in the Confederate cause: Benjamin Dailey, now living at Moorefield, who was with General Rosser as a courier from 1862 to Appomattox, and was shot through the left lung at Spottsylania, and James Dailey, now residing at Romney, who served as a private in Chew's battery, from 1863 to the close of the war.
BENAJAH THOMAS DAVIS, now a prominent druggist of Huntington, W. Va., was born at Richmond, Va., in the year 1842. He was reared and educated at that city, and there enlisted at the age of nineteen years in April, 1861, as a private in an infantry company, which was assigned as Company B to the First Virginia regiment. After a service of two months he was honorably discharged on account of physical disability. Soon afterward and while still unfitted for field duty, he was appointed warden of Camp Lee hospital at Richmond, a post he held for about eight months. In April, 1864, just before the opening of the Wilderness campaign, he volunteered as a private in Company I of the Tenth Virginia cavalry, brigade of (ten. W. H. F. Lee, whose operations he shared until the close of hostilities. About six months after his enlistment he was promoted sergeant of his company. His record as a cavalryman during this last year of the war was one of great activity, bravery and devotion. He fought at Spottsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, White Oak creek, Stony creek, Hatcher's Run, the brilliant raid which resulted in the capture of cattle destined for Grant's army, many skirmishes before Petersburg, and finally the battle of Five Forks. He was wounded at Stony creek and while engaged in the cattle raid, and was paroled at Farmville after the surrender. His civil life since then, after the first three years, which he passed in farming on the James river, has been devoted to business pursuits. After residing successively at Columbus, Ohio, and Richmond, Va., he made his home at Huntington in 1872, and embarked in the drug trade, which he has since conducted with much success.
JAMES WARD DAVIS, of Lewisburg, W. Va., a practicing attorney since 1842, and during the past forty years a prominent lawyer and citizen of Greenbrier county, was born in Greenup county, Ky., January 17, 1819, He is the son of George Naylor Davis, who was born in Cecil county, Md., in 1781, removed to Kentucky in 1788, enlisted for the war of 1812 as lieutenant, and being promoted captain commanded a Kentucky company at the battle of the Thames, in which Tecumseh was killed. His brother, David Davis, and their father, Nicholas Davis, a native of Maryland, served in the war of the Revolution. The wife of George Naylor Davis was Harriet, daughter of Capt. Thomas Bragg of the Revolutionary army, who was a cousin of the grandfather of Gen. Braxton Bragg, C. S. A. Her mother was Lucy Blakemore, of Frederick county, Va., who died at Vanceburg, Ky., in 1862, at the age of ninety-nine years. General Washington was entertained at the home of her father, near Berryville, after the battle of Yorktown, and she frequently related to her grandson, yet living, that her brother George was a member of the general's staff, and that Washington called them all cousin, there being a somewhat remote kinship. James Ward Davis finished his education at Marietta college, Ohio, and was admitted to the practice of law in Kentucky in 1842. In 1849 he served one term in the Kentucky legislature. After practicing law in Greenup county fifteen years, he removed to Ohio and then to Greenbrier county, Va., and in 1860 was elected commonwealth attorney of Fayette county. He entered the Confederate service in April, 1861, as an aide-de-camp to General Wise, by whom he was sent to take charge of the militia in the counties of Wyoming, Logan and Boone. In Logan county, on September 25, 1861, in command of about 225 men, he fought the battle of Chapmansville, against the Thirty-fourth Ohio regiment, commanded by Colonel Piatt. He was severely wounded, a thumb and finger being shot off, his right arm broken, and a gunshot wound in the breast. Two days later he was captured and paroled, and after that saw no active service. In 1868 he resumed his professional work in Greenbrier county, and has since continuued in active practice without interruption. He was a delegate from Kentucky to the Baltimore Democratic convention which nominated Polk and Dallas, and from Ohio to the Cincinnati convention in 1856 which nominated Buchanan and Breckinridge. He was a delegate from Virginia to the Charleston and Baltimore conventions of 1860, and was a candidate for elector at large on the Douglas ticket. In 1876 he was a delegate from West Virginia to the Cincinnati convention, and made an address seconding the nomination of Hayes, and in 1880 he was chosen as a delegate to the Republican national convention at Chicago. He has frequently been called upon to act as special judge, invariably winning the compliments of the bar and local press. At the May term, 1895, of the Fayette circuit court he was elected special judge, and at the close of the session resolutions were adopted in recognition of the ability, fairness and courtesy displayed in the discharge of the duties of the office. He is yet, at nearly eighty years of age, capable of remarkable physical and mental activity, and maintains an honored place among the members of his profession. In religious faith he is a Presbyterian. May 30, 1844, he was married to Margaret Lynn Stuart, daughter of Lewis and Sarah (Lewis) Stuart, and granddaughter of Col. John Stuart, who commanded a company at the Indian battle of Point Pleasant, October 10, 1774, in which his brother-in-law, Charles Lewis, was killed. In 1795 Colonel Stuart entertained Volney, the Frenchman, afterward famous as an author, who was sent to him by Washington, with a letter of introduction, to view what the President pronounced the best part of America, Greenbrier county.
CAPTAIN ROBERT FLOURNOY DENNIS, late of Lewisburg, Va., a devoted friend of the Southern cause, was born in Charlotte county, Va., September 18, 1823, the son of Col. William H. Dennis, for many years a member of the Virginia senate, and president of that body. He was graduated at Washington college with first honors in 1845, studied law at the university of Virginia, and in 1849 embarked in the practice at Lewisburg. He served eight years as prosecuting attorney in the counties of Greenbrier, Pocahontas and Fayette, and attained great prominence as a lawyer. At the outbreak of the war he organized the first company of volunteer infantry which entered the Confederate army from Greenbrier county, and in command of this company was ordered to Harper's Ferry, where he was attached to the Twenty-seventh regiment, Virginia volunteers, of T. J. Jackson's brigade, afterward known as the Stonewall brigade. He commanded bis company in the first battle of Manassas, in the Romney expedition and the battle of Kernstown. Under the act of Congress reorganizing the army, Captain Dennis was exempted by age from active service, and he accepted a position in the transportation department, in which he served until June, 1864, when he was captured by a Federal command at Crow's Tavern, in Alleghany county. He was subsequently held as a prisoner of war at Camp Chase, Ohio, until February, 1865. Resuming his law practice as soon as possible after the war, he continued in this profession until his death in October, 1897. From 1876 to 1884 he served with distinction in the State senate, the greater part of the time as chairman of the judiciary committee, also as chairman of the commission for the revision of the West Virginia statutes.
WILLIS W. DICKIE, of Bluefield, W. Va., whose professional skill and devotion to duty as a surgeon of the Confederate army are well remembered by many a veteran throughout the South, was born in Spartan burg district, S. C., in 1834. Thence he removed in childhood to Talladega county, Ala., and from that locality in 1852 to Huntsville. Returning to Talladega two years later he entered upon the study of medicine with Dr. Nicholls, and was graduated in 1857 at the Charleston, S. C., medical college. Then making his home in Calhoun county, Ala., he practiced his profession there until June, 1861, when he entered the Confederate service. At first preferring the duty of a soldier in the ranks he served as a private in the Tenth Alabama regiment, Col. John J. Woodward, and participated in the Peninsular campaign in Virginia, in 1862, in the brigade of Gen. Cadmus M. Wilcox. He took part in the defense of Yorktown, and the battles of Williamsburg and Seven Pines, and fought with his brigade through the Seven Days' campaign against McClellan. Subsequently, with Longstreet's corps, he participated in the battles of Second Manassas and was wounded in the head by a fragment of shell. On account of this injury he was in hospital for six weeks, and on convalescence was detailed to wait upon Major Martin, of the Tenth Alabama regiment, who had been wounded by the same explosion in the battle of Manassas. At a later date Private Dickie was appointed assistant surgeon and assigned to the hospitals at Richmond. After the battle of Sharpsburg he was sent to Winchester, Va., with the reserve corps of surgeons, where he served in the hospital about four months. When the Federals took possession of the town he escaped with ninety convalescents, whom he brought in safety to Staunton. He then reported to duty at Richmond, and was ordered to report at Charleston, S. C. In this department he was assigned first to Columbus, Ga., and about ten weeks later to Atlanta, where he remained six weeks. Then returning to Richmond he was assigned to duty at Chimborazo hospital, where he remained until the close of hostilities. Since the war he has been engaged in the practice of medicine, and is now in the enjoyment of a successful practice at Bluefield.
JOHN Q. DICKINSON, now a prosperous citizen of Charleston, W. Va., rendered his service as a Confederate soldier in the famous cavalry corps led by Stuart, Hampton and Fitzhugh Lee. He was born in Bedford county, Va., in 1831, and was reared and educated in his native county. In April, 1862, he enlisted as a private in Company A of the Second Virginia cavalry regiment, under Col. T. T. Munford, with whom he served as a private until he was captured near Charlottesville, in February, 1864. The remainder of his service he very unwillingly passed amid the deprivations and misery of military prison life at the Old Capitol, Washington, and Fort Delaware, until he was finally released, in June, 1865. While in the field he participated in a number of the famous battles of the war, and many others of less note but spirited character, including the engagements of Jackson's Valley campaign at Winchester, Harrisonburg, Cross Keys, Port Republic, and Waynesboro, the Seven Days' campaign, Fredericksburg, Brandy Station, of June, 1863, and several minor fights in the same vicinity; the defeat of Milroy at Winchester, and Harper's Ferry. After the close of hostilities he removed to Morgan, Kanawha county, W. Va., and embarked in the salt industry, which he engaged in for a considerable time with much success, and is still connected with. About the year 1888 he made his home at the West Virginia capital and became president of the Kanawha Valley hank. He still holds this prominent financial position and is conspicuous among the business leaders of the valley. In 1864 he was married to Mary D., daughter of the late John D. Lewis, of Bedford county, Va.
LIEUTENANT PATRICK F. DUFFY, of Charleston, W. Va., ex-auditor of State and president of one of the banking institutions of the State capital, served during the Confederate war as one of the soldiers of the gallant Thirty-sixth regiment. He was born in Ireland, March 15, 1840, the son of Michael and Margaret (Fee) Duffy, and accompanied his parents to America in 1855. They settled in Nicholas county, where a few years later young Duffy enlisted in the Confederate cause, his sympathies being heartily with the South in her struggle for independence. He became a member of Company F, of the Thirty-sixth Virginia regiment, in June, 1861, and after participating in the Kanawha valley campaign of 1861, including the engagements at Cross Lanes and Carnifex Ferry, was promoted lieutenant of his company in the spring of 1862. He took part in the battle of Fort Donelson, with his regiment, ear1y in 1862, receiving a severe flesh wound in this famous engagement, and subsequent1y returning with the command to Virginia, took part in various campaigns in western Virginia and the valley, including the actions at Pearisburg, Fayetteville, C1oyd's Mountain, and Piedmont. In the latter action, in June, 1864, he was taken prisoner by the Union forces and sent to Camp Morton, Indiana, and thence to Johnson's island, where he was held until April, 1865. He was subsequently at Fort Delaware two months, and finally was paroled in June, 1865. Lieutenant Duffy then returned to West Virginia, and making his home at Webster Court House, was engaged in mercantile pursuits about fifteen years. In the meantime he became well known for his active and intelligent interest in political affairs, and his influence in this channel was largely increased during his four years' service as sheriff of Webster county, from 1876 until 1880. In 1884 he was a candidate for the office of auditor of State on the Democratic ticket and was elected, taking possession of that office for a four years' term in 1885. In 1888 he was re-elected. During his eight years' service as a State official he was distinguished for the faithful discharge of duty and a scrupulous regard for the interests of the people. When this official career was closed, in 1893, he continued his residence at the State capital, and was elected president of the Commercial Savings bank of Charleston, a position he yet holds.
MAJOR BENJAMIN F. EAKLE, of Lewisburg, W. Va., was distinguished among the Confederate soldiers of the Greenbrier region in the campaigns in West Virginia, the Shenandoah valley, and with Stuart's cavalry of the army of Northern Virginia. He was born in Augusta county, Va., August 7, 1826, and about the year 1847 removed to Greenbrier county, and made his home at White Sulphur Springs. In 1858 he engaged in the mercantile business at Lewisburg. In April, 1861, he enlisted in the Greenbrier cavalry, and being elected lieutenant served in that rank until the company was disbanded in the fall of 1861. He then went to Richmond and obtained authority to organize a new company of cavalry. This organization he completed in March, 1862, and he was elected captain, and assigned to duty with his command in Greenbrier and that vicinity. During the summer and fall of 1862 he served with his company under the command of General Loring and later under General Echols, in the movement down the Kanawha valley, and in the following winter was detailed on scouting duty in Greenbrier, Morrow and Mercer counties. His company was assigned, in the following spring, as Company K, to the Fourteenth Virginia cavalry, Col. James Cochrane commanding, in the brigade of Gen. A. G. Jenkins, and Captain Eakle was elected major of the regiment. In this rank he rendered the remainder of his service. Among the engagements in which he participated perhaps the most important were the fighting at Laurel Hill and Carrick's Ford, in the command of the lamented Garnett, the engagement at Chambersburg, Pa., in 1863; the cavalry fight on the third day of Gettysburg, when he had a horse killed under him, Shepherdstown and Culpeper Court House; the fighting with Hunter from Staunton to Lynchburg and at the latter place; Monocacy, Opequan, Winchester (September 19, 1864), and Cedar Creek. At the battle of Monocacy he was shot through the body, but was again in the saddle six weeks later. At the battle of Cedar Creek, October, 1864, he was captured by the enemy, and he subsequently experienced many weary months at Fort Delaware, not being released until July 25, 1865. Major Ballard acted as manager of the Exchange and Ballard hotels at Richmond from 1865 to 1872, and subsequently was connected with the White Sulphur Springs hotel as chief clerk, and later as general manager. Since 1894 he has been engaged in agriculture and stock-raising in Greenbrier county. Despite his more than four years of service in the field and prison camp, he is yet a man of fine physique, and though retired from business, actively enjoys the comforts of life and the rewards of an honorable and successful career.
CHARLES JAMES FAULKNER, of West Virginia, distinguished as a jurist and statesman in the annals of the original State of Virginia, was born in Berkeley county, at Martinsburg, in 1806, was graduated at Georgetown university, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1829. In 1831 he entered the Virginia house of delegates, where he advocated the gradual emancipation of the blacks. He served as a commissioner on the Maryland boundary and was elected State senator in 1841. In 1848 he was again elected to the house of delegates and in 1850 was a member of the State constitutional convention. In the meantime he had gained a wide reputation as a jurist, and prominence as one of the rising statesmen of Virginia. Up to 1852 he was a Whig, but refusing to follow his party in the support of Scott, he joined the Democracy in successful advocacy of the election of Pierce. Prior to Buchanan's administration he served four terms in the United States Congress as the representative of what was the Tenth legion of the Democracy of Virginia. Such was his prominence at this period that during President Buchanan's administration Faulkner was assigned to the important post of minister to France. He arrived in Paris February 18, 1860, and was presented to the Emperor March 4th. He was soon required to handle questions of immense importance, the claims of the Confederate States for recognition, and the impending alliance of European powers for the establishment of imperial power in Mexico. His voluminous reports, all now on file at Washington, and the testimony of many of the most reputable people who were advised of his conduct as representative of the United States in France, conclusively show that while filling this position he was true to his trust. It was in accordance with the clear enunciations of the Washington government that he represented to Napoleon's minister that the United States did not contemplate coercion of the seceding States, and his prompt remonstrance against the tripartite attempt on Mexico elicited the thanks of the home government. Yet after the Confederate government had been established, he sympathized with its objects, and he became the victim of misrepresentation. Resigning after the inauguration of President Lincoln, he returned to America in August, 1861, and was at once treated as a citizen of the Confederate States by the Federal authorities, who, under the "war power," seized and confined him as a hostage for the treasurer of Pennsylvania, who had been captured and detained at Richmond. He was held about one month at Washington, six weeks in Fort Lafayette and six weeks at Fort Warren. During this detention he received marked attention from distinguished men of the Northern cities. After his exchange for Congressman Ely, in December, 1861, he lived for some months with his son-in-law, Thomas S. Bocock, in Appomattox, Va. He was appointed lieutenant-colonel and assistant adjutant-general on the staff of Gen. T. J. Jackson, and composed, from the rough notes of Gen. Stonewall Jackson, twenty-two of the official reports of that famous chieftain. After the war he returned to Berkeley county, and resumed the practice of law, in which he was distinguished before the Supreme court of the United States, as well as the courts of his State. He was a member of the State constitutional convention of 1872, and was a representative in Congress from 1875 to 1877, after which he declined re-election. His death occurred November 1, 1884.
CHARLES JAMES FAULKNER, since 1887 senator for West Virginia in the United States Congress, was born at "Boydville," the ancestral home of his family, at Martinsburg, Berkeley county, Va., September 21, 1847. His ancestor, Maj. James Faulkner, rendered distinguished service in the war of 1812. His father, Charles James Faulkner, congressman, minister of the United States to France, and assistant adjutant-general of Gen. T. J. Jackson, won by his ability, dignity and patriotism, a permanent place in history. At the age of twelve years he accompanied his father to Paris, and was given the advantages of study in the schools of that city and Switzerland. In August, 1861, he returned to America with his father, who was, upon arrival in the North, seized and held as a hostage for a prominent Pennsylvanian imprisoned at the South. Young Faulkner then went to Virginia, and in 1862, at the age of fifteen years, entered the Virginia military institute at Lexington. As a cadet at this institution, under the command of Col. Scott Shipp, military commandant, he took part in various military services, notably the battle of New Market, May 15, 1864. In this action the cadets behaved like veterans, advancing against the enemy in the face of a withering fire of artillery and musketry in which it seemed impossible that a living thing could escape, and finally driving the Federal forces in confusion across the river. During the battle it rained almost incessantly, but the brave boys of the institute, wet, hungry, and many of them shoe less, bore their hardships and losses with the heroism of old soldiers. In this brilliant Confederate victory Cadet Faulkner was distinguished for the capture, single-handed, of twenty-two Federal soldiers, whom he took to the rear. While thus occupied he met General Breckinridge, commander of the Confederate forces on this field, who, in recognition of Faulkner's gallantry, appointed him aide-de-camp upon his staff, with the rank of lieutenant. He served with Breckinridge in the valley and through the campaign against Washington, and until the general was appointed secretary of war in February, 1865, when he was transferred to the staff of Gen. Henry A. Wise, in command of a brigade of Anderson's corps. In this latter capacity he served until Appomattox, when he surrendered and was paroled with General Wise. After New Market, Lieutenant Faulkner participated in a considerable number of battles, in all of which he demonstrated soldierly qualities, such as Hatcher's Run, High Bridge, Lexington, and all the fights of his division during the retreat from Richmond. It is illustrative of the devotion of Senator Faulkner and his father to the Confederate cause, as well as of the devastation of war, that before Chambersburg, Pa., was raided, General Hunter issued an order to this effect: "Capt. F. G. Martindale, First New York cavalry, will proceed with the cavalry under his command, to Martinsburg, W. Va., and burn the dwelling-house and out-buildings of Charles J. Faulkner, not permitting anything to be taken therefrom except the family." Returning to his home after hostilities ceased, Senator Faulkner studied law under his father's tutelage, and then entering the university of Virginia, was graduated in law in 1868, and was admitted to the bar in the same year. He soon attained a prominent position among the lawyers of his circuit, and in October, 1880, his abilities as a jurist were recognized by election to the position of judge of the Thirteenth judicial circuit. His record upon the bench was such as to extend his reputation throughout the State as an able lawyer and a self- reliant and honorable public official. Meanwhile he had taken such a part in the stirring political events of his State that he was considered one of the strongest men of the Democratic party. It followed naturally that on May 5, r 887, he was called upon to resign his seat as judge to accept at the hands of the legislature a seat in the senate of the United States. His first election was to succeed J. N. Camden, and pursuant to this he served until 1893, when by re-election he entered upon a second term which expired in 1899. Since the beginning of his service as senator he has been prominent in the politics of the State and nation, and has held the positions of chairman of the Democratic State conventions of 1888 and 1892, and of the Democratic congressional campaign committee in 1894 and 1896. In the senate he served upon some of the most important committees, where his ability for work and clear comprehension of the true functions of government have been invaluable to the country. Among the committees upon which he has been distinguished are claims, pensions, appropriations, district of Columbia, immigration, Pacific railroad, railroads, territories and judiciary. At the session of 1888-89 he framed and secured the passage of a bill to prevent food and drug adulterations, the first general law on that subject. He also prepared and had passed through committee a bill regulating the railroad systems of the district. He was one of the prominent leaders in the great parliamentary contest in which the force bill was defeated, holding the floor at one time continuously for the period of twelve hours. At the same time he has been watchful of the special interests of his own State, in which his popularity has kept pace with his advancement in public life. Senator Faulkner's social qualities are attractive in a degree no less marked than the strength of his intellectual equipments, and he is altogether well adapted for the high position he holds and for still more distinguished service for his State and for the nation. He is a prominent member of the Masonic order, and in 1879 held the chair of grand master of the grand lodge of West Virginia. On November 25, 1869, he was married to Miss Sallie Winn, of Charlottesville, Va., and they have five children. She died the 31st of March, 1891, and he was again married, on the 3d day of January, 1894, to Miss Virginia Fairfax Whiting, of Hampton, Va., by whom he has had one child. He was appointed by the senate in 1898 as a member of the joint commission of the two houses to investigate the receipts and expenditures of the post-office department. He was also appointed by the President, on the 19th of September, 1898, a member of the joint high Anglo-American commission to settle by treaty a number of important questions growing out of the relations of this country with the Dominion of Canada.
E. BOYD FAULKNER, of Martinsburg, W. Va., a son of Charles James Faulkner, United States minister to France at the outbreak of the Confederate war, was born at Martinsburg in July, 1841. He is a grandson of Gen. Elisha Boyd, and kinsman to a number of prominent Virginia families, including the Hunters, Holmes, Tuckers, and Bococks. One of his ancestors, Captain Mackey, commanded a Pennsylvania regiment at the battle of Brandywine. His education was obtained at Georgetown college and the university of Virginia, and during his father's stay at the French court he traveled in Switzerland and Italy, and studied in the French college at Paris. At the age of eighteen years he was acting secretary of legation at Paris. Returning to America in the summer of 1861 he promptly allied himself with the Wise artillery, was wounded at the first battle of Manassas, and was soon afterward appointed aide-de-camp on the staff of Governor Letcher, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel of cavalry in the State service. He was also a member of the Rockbridge artillery, and first lieutenant in Colonel Porter's regiment. On reaching the age of twenty-one years he was commissioned captain in the provisional army of the Confederate States, his rank during the remainder of his service. He participated in a number of noted battles, including Cedar Mountain, Manassas, and Fredericksburg. During the Valley campaign of 1864 he served as assistant adjutant-general of the Second brigade of the army, and was distinguished for gallant service. Col. B. H. Jones, commander of the First brigade, in a report of the battle of Piedmont, refers to Captain Faulkner as "exhibiting a reckless daring." In this battle Captain Faulkner was captured by the enemy, and he was subsequently held in captivity at Johnson's island for more than a year, not being released until June, 1865. He then prepared himself for the practice of law, and being disbarred in his own State at that time on account of the "test oath," he formed a law partnership in 1868 with Judge R. T. Petree, at Hopkinsville, Ky. While in Kentucky he was an assistant elector on the Democratic ticket of 1868. Returning to his old home at Martinsburg in 1872, he has maintained his residence there, and has confined himself to the practice of law, legislative service and the administration of justice. As a lawyer he has displayed remarkable capacity and force, and upon the bench his fidelity to the public interests, his painstaking and conscientious labors, and lucid expositions of the law, have adorned the judicial service of the State. In 1876 he was elected to the West Virginia house of delegates, and in 1878 he was sent to the State senate where he declined the presidency, but rendered important service as chairman of various committees. In 1880, with Judge Dennis, he was appointed on the commission to revise the statutes, and his work was subsequently adopted by the legislature. In 1884 he entered the political arena as a candidate for the Democratic nomination for governor, and in one of the largest conventions ever held in the State was defeated by ten votes, by the combined opposition of other candidates. During President Cleveland's first administration he was tendered the positions of consul-general to Egypt and minister to Persia but declined these offices, as he subsequently declined to become a candidate for the governorship, the court of appeals, and Congress. For a considerable period he was counsel for the Baltimore & Ohio and Cumberland Valley railroads, and other corporations in Berkeley and adjoining counties. His career upon the bench began in 1892, when he was appointed and subsequently elected judge of the Thirteenth judicial circuit, embracing the counties in the eastern pan-handle. In November, 1896, he was re-elected for eight years, the Republican party declining to nominate anyone in opposition. He has also effectively served the public interests in various other capacities. In 1868 he was married to Miss Susan Campbell, of Kentucky, and they have one child living.
LIEUTENANT S. W. N. FEAMSTER, of Greenbrier county, W. Va., of which he is a native, born in 1836, entered the service at the outbreak of the war of the Confederacy as first lieutenant of the Greenbrier cavalry, a company of which he had held the rank of second lieutenant for some time previous to the enlistment. He continued in this rank until the fall of 1861, when the company was disbanded on account of the many deaths and the sickness of its members. In the spring of 1862 another cavalry company was formed, commanded by Capt. M. B. White, in which Feamster served as second lieutenant during the remainder of the war, at the time of the surrender being in command of the company, which had been assigned to the Fourteenth Virginia cavalry as Company A. During the war he participated in many cavalry affairs and battles, including those at Laurel Hill, Martinsburg, Lewisburg, Timberville, Droop Mounulin, South Mountain, Gettysburg, Brandy Station, Monocacy, and Early's battle with Sheridan at Winchester. He was wounded in the shoulder at Charlestown and in the breast at Timberville. Since the war he has been engaged in farming in Greenbrier county.
LIEUTENANT GEORGE S. FEENY, prominently connected with the wholesale trade of Wheeling, W. Va., was born in that city in the year 1841. In the fall of 1861 he entered the Confederate service as a private in Company G. of the Twenty-seventh Virginia regiment, Stonewall brigade. With the battles and campaigns of this command he was identified until just after the arduous campaign against McClellan before Richmond, when he was seized with typhoid fever, and disabled for some time for active duty. About three months after this illness began he was able to accept duty upon the staff of Maj. J. C. Johnson, with the rank of first lieutenant, to which he was promoted in recognition of his gallant and meritorious services. He served in the department of southwest Virginia and east Tennessee during the remainder of the war, was surrendered at the close with the army of General Johnston and was paroled at Augusta, Ga. The prominent battles in which he was engaged were those of Stonewall Jackson's corps in the Shenandoah valley, Kernstown, Port Republic, Cross Keys, Winchester, and Front Royal, and the Seven Days' fighting before Richmond. He was once captured by the enemy near Bristol, Tenn., and was recaptured near Jonesboro within a week. Soon after his parole he returned to Wheeling, where he has resided since, except two years spent at Cincinnati, and is now engaged in the wholesale grocery business. Mr. Feeny is the son of Hugh F. Feeny, born in Ireland in 1797, who came to America in early manhood, settling first at Louisville, Ky., where he engaged in mercantile business. Subsequently residing at Montezuma, Ind., he was elected to the State senate about 1828. He made his home at Wheeling about 1840, served as chief clerk in the postoffice many years, and was appointed postmaster by President Buchanan, after which he served as city clerk until 1872, the year of his death. While a citizen of Kentucky he was appointed in 1821 second lieutenant of militia and in 1824 captain of light artillery by Governor Adair. In 1829 he was commissioned by Gov. James B. Ray lieutenant-colonel of the Fiftieth regiment, Indiana militia.
SYDNOR GILBERT FERGUSON, a distinguished divine of the Methodist Episcopal church South, was in his youth a member of Mosby's cavalry command, and identified with some of the most famous achievements of that daring body of troopers. He was born in Fauquier county, November 12, 1845. and in his eighteenth year, October, 1863, enlisted in the command of Colonel Mosby as a private. He soon afterward participated in the capture of a Federal camp near Warrenton Springs, and in November aided in the capture of a large wagon train and three hundred mules at Brandy station. In a skirmish in Fairfax county, near the Chain bridge, in the same month, he received a severe wound, a bullet piercing his right arm, and on this account was disabled until February, 1864. In the following June Private Ferguson lead in the charge upon a body of Federal cavalry at Centreville, winning complimentary notice of his gallantry. In this action the enemy was defeated and a large number of prisoners were taken. On July 4th he was in the daring charge across the Potomac and the capture of Point of Rocks, on the Maryland side, and two days later he participated in the famous fight with the California battalion, under Major Forbes, near the old Zion church in Fauquier county, which resulted in the wiping out of the Federal battalion and the capture of its commander. In August he took part in the raid at Berryville, when Mosby's men burned a long train of wagons and captured a hundred prisoners, six hundred mules, two hundred and fifty cattle and sixty horses. The affair at Newtown, Frederick county, followed, in which Private Ferguson and his comrades captured a squad of cavalry escorting the mails. Mosby's men, fighting for their homes and animated by the most reckless daring, were practically invincible; but the odds against them were continually growing, and they were constantly called upon for greater daring and sturdier endurance. It is the chief glory of the command that they were always found equal to the emergency. They won new laurels in a terrible fight with the Eighth Illinois regiment about the house of Henry G. Delaney, near Upperville, in the fall of 1864, where Mosby, with about one hundred men, successfully engaged a Federal force of two hundred and fifty. Then came the "Blazer" fight at Myertown, Jefferson county, in which the Federal captain, Blazer, with one hundred men, in pursuit of Mosby's command, met with disaster, twenty-two of his men being killed and only fifteen escaping. In this fight Private Ferguson was distinguished by his capture of Captain Blazer, after pursuring him four miles and knocking him from his horse. In February, 1865, he took part in the action at Mount Carmel, Clarke county, in which forty of Mosby's men charged upon one hundred and twenty-five Federals and recaptured all the prisoners and all but one of the sixty horses the enemy had previously taken. Mr. Ferguson's adventurous service was ended by parole at Winchester, May 9, 1864, and he then returned to his home, and resumed his studies. He determined to enter the ministry, and after receiving private instruction, preached for eighteen months in Loudoun county. In September, 1869, he entered Randolph-Macon college, and studied there two years. In 1873 he was stationed for two years at Newtown, and after this he served one year at Front Royal, one year at Baltimore, four years at Charlestown, two years again at Front Royal, four years at Moorefield, one year in Woodstock county, four years as presiding elder of the Moorefield district, two years as presiding elder of the Lewisburg district, one year as pastor of Trinity church, Roanoke; four years at Fredericksburg, whence he was transferred to Martinsburg, W. Va., in the spring of 1897. In May, 1890, he was a member of the general conference of the church, at St. Louis, Mo. On December 17, 1873, Mr. Ferguson was married to Kate H., daughter of Dr. Hanson Finnelle, of Warren county. He has six children living: Mary Roberta, Kathleen, Hanson, Sadie Carr, Helen Matilda, Bessie V. Cloud, and Margaret Roy Ferguson. Alfred Ferguson, brother of the foregoing, now living at Winchester, Va., served from 1863 until the close of the war as a private in Company I, Twelfth Virginia cavalry, Rosser's brigade.
COLONEL WILLIAM E. FIFE, of Charleston, W. Va., distinguished among the West Virginians who participated in the Confederate war, was born at Charleston, February 7, 1834. He was graduated at the Virginia military institute in 1855, and, after studying law under judge James H. Brown, was admitted to the bar in 1857. Early in 1861 he abandoned a promising career as an attorney to enter the Confederate service as captain of the Buffalo Guards. This volunteer organization afterward became Company A, of the Thirty-sixth Virginia infantry regiment, commanded by Col. John A. McCausland. Captain Fife continued in active service during the entire war, identified throughout with the gallant record of his regiment, and refusing promotion early in his career, that he might remain in charge of his company as he had promised the men and their fathers at the time of enlistment. He was wounded at the battle of Cross Lanes in 1861 and at the engagement at Cedar Creek in the fall of 1864. At the close of the war he was in command of his regiment and his gallant services had been recognized by promotion to brigadier-general, the commission having been signed by President Davis, but not yet confirmed by the senate at the end of the struggle. After the surrender of the army he returned to his native region and made his home thereafter at his farm near Buffalo, in Putnam county, where he was twice elected to the position of county judge. He was prominently identified with the organization of Confederate veterans, and for a considerable time held the position of commander of Patton camp at Charleston. His last association with his comrades, by whom he was greatly beloved, was as marshal of the memorial day exercises in June, 1897. On the following 4th of July he lost his life in a railroad disaster near Charleston.
SAMUEL LIGHTFOOT FLOURNOY, of Charleston, W. Va., distinguished as an attorney and legislator, was born in Chesterfield county, near the Virginia capital, November 25, 1846. He was reared and prepared for college at Richmond, anawas a student at Hampden-Sidney during the earlier part of the Confederate war. Early in 1864 he left college to enter the Confederate service, becoming a private in Otey's battery, with which he served during the remainder of the conflict, finally surrendering at Lynchburg. He was on duty in the trenches before Petersburg during the long siege maintained by Meade's army, and participated in the fighting on the retreat and at Appomattox. Returning to college after the close of hostilities, he was graduated in 1868, taking the speaker's medal in the philanthropic debating society. During the succeeding four years, while teaching school, he carried on the study of law, and was admitted to practice in 1873 at Romney, where he continued in professional work until 1890. While a resident of that place he served as mayor three times, and in 1884 and in 1888 was elected to the State senate. In that body he was a conspicuous member, holding the chairmanship of the judiciary committee during his first term, and other important committee positions. Since 1890 Mr. Flournoy has resided at Charleston, where he has a prominent position at the bar. Three of his brothers also served in Otey's battery during the war; Parke P., Richard W. and James F. Flournoy.
MAJOR PETER FONTAINE, a gallant Confederate soldier, who was identified with the brilliant record of Stuart's cavalry, is now a resident of Charleston, W. Va., and holds an honorable position in the legal profession of that city. He was born in Hanover county, Va., April, 20, 1840, the son of James Fontaine, a native of the same county, whose father was Col. William Fontaine, of the Continental army, a Virginian by birth and of Huguenot descent. He was reared on the farm where his father preferred to live though educated for the bar, and studied at Hanover academy and the university of Virginia, where he was graduated in several of the academic schools in 1859. He entered the service of Virginia in April 1861, as a private in the Hanover troop, a gallant body of men which subsequently was known as Company F of the Fourth Virginia cavalry, under Col. W. C. Wickham. He was promoted corporal, sergeant and second lieutenant previous to the reorganization in 1862, when he returned to the ranks. At the battle of Seven Pines he acted as volunteer aide on the staff of Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, and soon afterward he was appointed adjutant of the Fourth Virginia cavalry, a position he held until Colonel Wickham was promoted brigadier general, when he continued upon his staff as assistant adjutant-general until General Wickham took his seat in the Confederate congress. Subsequently, with the rank of major, he served until the end of the war as assistant adjutant-general on the staff of Maj.-Gen. Thomas L.Rosser, commanding a cavalry division of the army of Northern Virginia. Major Fontaine's military service covered the whole period of the war, and was distinguished for the able and fearless performance of duty in the important positions he occupied. He took part in the first battle of Manassas, the famous raid around McClellan's army in its advance from the Penin- sula, Seven Pines, and the Seven Days' fighting which followed, the campaign of Second Manassas, the Maryland campaign, including the fighting at Boonsboro and Sharpsburg, the cavalry operations preceding Fredericksburg, and the brilliant repulse of the Federal cavalry at Kelly's Ford, March 17, 1863, when Pelham, the famous artilleryman, was killed. In this action Captain Fontaine received a wound in the neck, which disabled him from service until after the Pennsylvania campaign. He shared in the fighting of Stuart's cavalry during the Wilderness and Spottsylvania campaign and was in the battle of Yellow Tavern, where Stuart fell. Subsequently he fought in the Shenandoah valley, at Winchester and Fisher's Hill, and during the retreat in April, 1865, was in action at Amelia Springs, High Bridge and at Appomattox. After returning to his home Major Fontaine engaged in school-teaching until 1872, when he attended the summer law class of Prof. John B. Minor at the university of Virginia. In February, 1873, he made his home at Charleston, where he had previously been a resident as principal of the St. John's school. Here he has since continued in the practice of law. He has held the position of commissioner of the Federal court at Charleston, and of the circuit court of Kanawha county. He was married, in 1879, to Mrs. L. A. Laidley, of Charleston.
LIEUTENANT JAMES WILLIAM ANDREW FORD, of Lewisburg, who held the rank of lieutenant of cavalry in the Confederate volunteer service, and of recent years has served as colonel of the Second regiment, West Virginia national guard, was born in Greenbrier county in 1843. He was educated at Custer's academy, in his native county, and in April, 1861, at the age of eighteen years, enlisted for the defense of Virginia in the Greenbrier Rifles, an organization which was assigned to the Twenty- seventh Virginia infantry as Company E. This regiment, General Echols' old command, was a part of the brigade under Jackson at Harper's Ferry and vicinity, and after participating in engagements at Winchester and Kernstown, moved to reinforce Beauregard and made an immortal record at the first battle of Manassas. In this fight Private Ford was wounded in the side by a ball, which he still carries. He still suffers from the injury, and was incapacitated for active service until the summer of 1862, when he rejoined the Stonewall brigade in the valley of the Shenandoah. On account of his condition he was detailed on special duty during the remainder of 1862, and in the spring of 1863 was honorably discharged. On his return home, however, he organized a cavalry company, mainly in Greenbrier county, of which he was elected first lieutenant. The command was assigned to the cavalry battalion of Maj. H. D. Ruffner, in the brigade of Gen. W. L. Jackson. With his cavalry company he participated in the fights at Droop Mountain, Amherst Court House, Lynchburg, Hanging Rock, and was with Early in the famous march through Maryland upon Washington which created such a panic in the North. In this campaign he took part in the battle of Monocacy, and in an engagement with the Fourth Massachusetts cavalry at Rockville, July 14, 1864, was captured. For nearly a year he was held as a prisoner of war. After he had been at Fort Delaware three weeks he was sent to Morris Island, S. C., one of the six hundred Confederate officers who were placed on that island and held there under fire for about forty days, being guarded by the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts infantry (colored), under command of Colonel Hallowell, of Philadelphia. He was subsequently detained at Fort Pulaski, near Savannah, under guard of the One Hundred and Fifty-seventh New York infantry, and then being transferred to Fort Delaware, was finally paroled June 20, 1865. During his Confederate service he also took part in the action at Dry Creek, while at home on sick furlough, and in January and February, 1864, served on recruiting service in the valley. He is now a prosperous business man at Lewisburg, and a popular and influential citizen. The severe injury which he received during his Confederate service did not cool the liking for military life which was displayed in the course of his gallant career, and in later life we find him (1888) organizing a militia company in Greenbrier county, of which was elected captain. His company was assigned as Company B to the Second regiment, West Virginia national guard, and such was his record for efficiency and discipline that he was soon promoted lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, and on August 15, 1889, was commissioned colonel.
CAPTAIN DeWITT CLINTON GALLAHER, a prominent lawyer at the capital of West Virginia, had at the age of twenty years an honorable record of about two years' service with the cavalry corps of the army of Northern Virginia. Born in Jefferson county, then in Virginia, now in West Virginia, he was reared at Waynesboro, Augusta county, Va., and was a student at Washington college, in Virginia, in 1861-62. In June, 1863, he left his studies, then at Hampden-Sidney college, Virginia, to join the army. He was tendered and accepted a staff appointment with Gen. J. D. Imboden, with the rank of captain. He resigned this position in September, 1863, and joined the ranks of Company E, First Virginia cavalry, Wickham's brigade, Fitz Lee's division, J. E. B. Stuart's corps. He served from November, 1863, until the death of General Stuart in May, 1864, as one of his couriers, when he returned to his company. In the fall of 1864, upon the application of Gen. Thomas L. Rosser, his personal friend, he was transferred to his headquarters, where he served until the close of the war as one of his couriers. He participated in all of the engagements during his service with these respective commands, including the battles of the Wilderness, Cold Harbor, fighting around Richmond and Petersburg, and the battles of the Valley campaign, under General Early; Leetown, Winchester, Cedar Creek and Waynesboro. Just as Richmond was about to be evacuated he was sent to the Shenandoah valley by General Rosser to call in all so1diers on furlough or otherwise, there who could be sent to the front of Genera1 Lee's army, and was engaged in this mission when the surrender at Appomattox occurred. He was paroled at Staunton, Va. He completed his education after the war closed at the university of Virginia and then spent two years at the universities of Berlin and Munich, Germany. In 1872 he located in Charleston, W. Va., where he embarked in the practice of law and has since resided.
WILLIAM WALLACE BEELER GALLAHER, editor of the Free Press, Charlestown, W. Va., was born at that city in 1833, and in June, 1861, entered the Confederate service as a private in Company A, of the Second regiment, Virginia infantry, brigade of Gen. T. J. Jackson. He took part in the gallant action of his brigade at the first battle of Manassas, which won for it the title of "Stonewall" and after going through the subsequent arduous service of the command during the fall and winter of 1861, he participated in the battle of Kernstown, March, 1862. Physical disability prevented his continuing in the field and some months later he was honorably discharged. A1most immediately, in September, 1862, he volunteered in the commissary department, and under Maj. W. J. Hawks, chief of subsistence for the Stonewall brigade, continued on duty until the end. The Free Press, which was founded in 1821 by his uncle, John S. Gallaher, and subsequently controlled by his father, Horatio Nelson Gallaher, had been burned out by the Federals in 1862, but was revived with his assistance in 1865. The paper has been practically under his management ever since, although his father remained the owner until his death, in 1883. Mr. Gallaher was married at Winchester, in 1867, to Isabella, daughter of the late Rev. Norval Wilson.
THOMAS SARGENT GARLAND, a gallant Confederate soldier who has for three terms held the office of mayor of the city of Huntington, where he now resides, was born in Richmond county, Va., August 26, 1846. His father was James V. Garland, in his time a prosperous planter in Richmond county; his grandfather, James V. Garland, a native Virginian, who served in the war of 1812. He attended school at the academy of Kilmonock, in Lancaster county, until in his eighteenth year, in the fall of 1864, he entered the army of Northern Virginia as a private in Company K, of the Ninth Virginia cavalry. He participated in the operations on the Weldon railroad, taking part in several skirmishes, and the battle of Hatcher's Run, after the latter engagement being disabled for further service by an attack of typhoid fever, brought on by the exposure and hardships of the service. At the close of hostilities he was paroled, and he then entered the mercantile business in Richmond county, first as a clerk and then as a partner, until 1870, when he removed to Huntington, which has since that date been his home. First in a partnership with Col. P. C. Buffington, under the title of T. S. Garland & Co., he continued the business alone after his partner's death, and subsequently formed other partnerships which are still maintained. He is a successful and popular business man, and his standing in the community was attested by his election in 1887, 1888 and 1890 as mayor of the city. He was married, in November, 1873, to Jennie, daughter of David D. Geiger, of Boyd, Ashland county, Ky., and they have six children.
JACOB GASSMAN, of Berkeley county, W. Va., a gallant veteran of the Seventh Virginia cavalry, was born at Hagerstown, Md., in 1842. His parents removing during his infancy to Cumberland, Md., he was reared and educated there, until the fall of 1861, when he joined the Confederate forces at Romney, Va., and enlisted as a private in Company F, of the Seventh Virginia cavalry, with which he served during the remainder of the war. He participated in the Valley campaign with Jackson, fighting at Buffalo Mountain, Kernstown and Winchester, Front Royal, Cross Keys, and Port Republic, and then joining Stuart's command, took part in the battles of Second Manassas and Sharpsburg and the third day of the battle of Gettysburg. In that fierce cavalry engagement he was shot through the neck, and after falling his collar-bone was broken by his horse. Thus disabled he was captured and held as a prisoner until October, 1863. He subsequently participated in the cavalry fighting at the Wilderness and Spottsylvania Court House, at Ashland, Jack's Shop, Hawe's Shop, Nance's Shop, and Yellow Tavern. He also took part as a volunteer in the raid of Captain McNeill against Crook and Kelley at Cumberland, in February, 1864. In the disaster at Moorefield, W. Va., in November, 1864, he received two severe wounds, in the left shoulder and leg, which rendered him unfit for service until the end of the war, just before which, however, he sought to rejoin his command. Since then he has been mainly engaged in mercantile pursuits, first finding employment with a hardware house at Baltimore, then conducting a branch of the establishment at Harrisonburg, Va., until 1879, and after that doing business at Martinsburg until 1888, when he sold out and retired to the management of his farm. In 1875 Mr. Gassman was married to Ella C. Paul, daughter of Isaac Paul, of Harrisonburg, and they have nine children living: Paul, Elizabeth H., George L., Isaac P., Harry W., Mary L., Joseph, Eloise and Bessie P.
LIEUTENANT A. C. L. GATEWOOD, of Linwood, W. Va., adjutant-general and chief-of-staff of the West Virginia division, United Confederate Veterans, is a native of Bath county, Va. At the age of sixteen years he entered the Virginia military institute, and remained there until April 21, 1861, when the cadet corps was ordered to Richmond by the governor, under command of Prof. T. J. Jackson, the immortal "Stonewall." On the next day after reaching Richmond the cadets passed in review before President Davis, Governor Letcher and General Lee, on the Capitol square, and were then sent to Camp Lee, a mile north of the city, where they were engaged in drilling troops for the Confederate army for a month or more. On July 1, 1861, at the earnest solicitation of Gen. R. S. Garnett, Cadet Gatewood, in command of a detachment of cadets, was ordered to Laurel Hill, Randolph county, to drill the men of the army of Western Virginia in Garnett's command. There he remained until McClellan advanced and overpowered the forces under Colonel Pegram, at Rich Mountain, when Garnett was compelled to retreat by way of Carrick's ford on the Cheat river. On the retreat Garnett was killed and the command devolved upon Colonel Ramsey, of the First Georgia regiment, who moved on with his command by way of the Red house, in Alleghany county, Md., and Greenland gap, to Petersburg, Hardy county, where the troops, after a long and tiresome march, rested one day, and were abundantly supplied with provisions by the good and patriotic people of that county. Then the march was continued up the south branch of the Potomac to Monterey, Highland county, where the force united with the command of Gen. Henry R. Jackson, of Georgia, who had been ordered to the support of General Garnett. In March, 1862, Cadet Gatewood joined and was elected a lieutenant in the famous Bath squadron, subsequently Company F, of the Eleventh Virginia cavalry regiment, Rosser's brigade, Hampton's division, Stuart's cavalry corps, army of Northern Virginia. He participated in all the principal battles of the cavalry up to the surrender at Appomattox. He was severely wounded by a sabre cut in the head in a hand-to-hand fight at Bunker's Hill, near Winchester, September 6, 1862, and was again severely wounded by a shot through the neck at the battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864. In June, 1866, Lieutenant Gatewood was elected and commissioned colonel of the Eighty-first regiment Virginia militia. In 1876 he made his home at Linwood, Pocahontas county, and engaged in farming and grazing. In October, 1894, he was active in organizing a camp of United Confederate Veterans, known as Pocahontas camp, No. 873, of which he was elected commander. On May 4, 1897, when a division organization of this patriotic order was formed in West Virginia, he was appointed adjutant-general on the staff. of Maj.-Gen. Robert White. He has been very active in forming organizations in his county, where there are now four Confederate camps, forming a regiment, one camp of Sons of Confederate Veterans, and three chapters of the Daughters of the Confederacy.
CAPTAIN EUSTACE GIBSON, C. S. A., now a resident of Huntington, W. Va., and distinguished in public life, was born in Culpeper county, Va., October 4, 1843. He was reared and educated in that county, and was admitted to the practice of law in 1860. Then removing to Pearisburg, Giles county, he embarked in professional life, which was soon interrupted by the threatened invasion of the State by the Federal armies. He entered the military service in April, 1861, as lieutenant of a company organized in Giles county, which was afterward assigned to the Seventh Virginia as Company D. With this regiment, under command of Colonel Kemper, he shared the fighting of Early's brigade at First Manassas and continued in the rank of lieutenant until the organization in the spring of 1862, when he joined French's battery of light artillery, organized in Giles county, as a private. As an artilleryman he fought through the Seven Days' campaign against McClellan until, at General Pickett's farm, seven miles below Richmond, in a fight with gunboats below Drewry's bluff, he was hit by a thirty-two pound cannon ball, which caused a frightful wound in the abdomen, from which it seemed impossible that he should recover. However, he made a gallant and successful fight for life, and while in the hospital his bravery as a soldier was rewarded by promotion to the rank of captain in the regular army, at the same time being placed on the retired list. About nine months later, chafing under inaction, he secured from General Cooper a detail to Pegram's brigade, and was assigned as regimental quartermaster to the Forty-ninth Virginia regiment. He continued in this duty until after the battle of Spottsylvania Court House. He was then assigned to duty as post quartermaster at Gordonsville, and later in Montgomery county, Va., where he remained until the war came to an end. While on sick furlough he participated as a volunteer in a fight at Giles Court House, in addition to the other engagements named. He was paroled in June, 1865, at Charlottesville, Va., and afterward practiced law at Pearisburg until 1869, in the meantime representing his county and Pulaski in the "Black Crook" reconstruction convention. He subsequently resided two years at Fincastle and Culpeper, and then made his home at Huntington, where, since 1871, he has been very successfully engaged in the legal profession. He has also been prominent in public life as a member of the legislature and speaker of the house in 1876, as one of the State electors on the Hancock ticket, and as a member of the United States Congress, representing the fourth district of West Virginia. To this office he was elected in 1883 and re-elected in 1884. He was able and efficient as a congressman, and his professional life is distinguished for energy and the depth of his legal acquirements.
COLONEL JOHN THOMAS GIBSON, of Charlestown, W. Va., was born at Romney in 1835, the son of James Gibson, who was born in Pennsylvania in 1773, but was reared in Virginia, served as captain of the Twelfth Virginia regiment in the war of 1813, represented Frederick county in the legislature, and died in 1847. Colonel Gibson was graduated at Jefferson college, Cannonsburg, Pa., in 1848, subsequently studied law at the university of Virginia, and was admitted to the practice, which he carried on at Charlestown until the outbreak of war; in 1852 and in 1859-60 serving in the Virginia legislature as representative of Jefferson county. He entered the service as a member of the Rockbridge artillery, with which he continued until the fall of 1861, when he was ordered to resume command of the Fifty-fifth Virginia regiment of volunteer infantry, of which he had held the rank of colonel for several years previous to the war. As colonel of this regiment he served until the reorganization in the spring of 1863, after which he was not in the field until January, 1864, when he re-entered the army as sergeant in the First regiment of engineer troops. In this service he took part in the Wilderness and Spottsylvania campaigns, the defense of Petersburg, and the battles of Five Forks, Sailor's Creek and Appomattox. In an action at Stannard's Mills he was slightly wounded in the leg. Since the war he has resided at Charlestown, and having retired from professional work, has given his attention to farming.
CAPTAIN ARCHIBALD GRAHAM, of Lewisburg, W. Va., distinguished in Confederate annals as commander of the famous Rockbridge artillery, was born in Lexington, Va., in 1840. He is the son of Dr. Archibald Graham, a native of Rockbridge county, who died in 188o, at the age of seventy-six years; and the grandson of Edward Graham, a member of the faculty of Washington college. His great-grandfather, Michael Graham, a native of Ireland, was the first of his family in America. In 1855 Captain Graham was appointed to the naval academy at Annapolis, where he remained as a cadet for three years. Then retiring from that institution he engaged in mercantile employment at Richmond, and subsequently returned to Lexington and entered upon the study of medicine with his brother, Dr. Edward L. Graham. This occupation he abandoned in the spring of 1861 to enlist as a private in the Rockbridge artillery. When the company left Lexington for active service he held the rank of third sergeant. Soon afterward he was promoted lieutenant, and after the division of the company he became first lieutenant of the battery commanded by Capt. W. T. Poague, whom he succeeded as captain. In these various capacities he was identified with the gallant record of his battery throughout the Confederate war. In the organization of the artillery preceding the Pennsylvania campaign Captain Graham was assigned to Hardaway's battalion of the artillery of the Second corps, commanded by Colonel Crutchfield, and later by Gen. A. L. Long, with which he was connected until Appomattox. He participated in the first battle of Manassas, Jackson's campaign in the valley of the Shenandoah, including the battles of Winchester, Cross Keys and Port Republic; the Peninsular campaign, specially at Malvern Hill; the great battles of 1862, at Cedar Run, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg, and Fredericksburg; rendered effective service on the left of the line during the great artillery duel at Gettysburg, and in 1864 and 1865 was distinguished for devoted and intrepid service, particularly at Spottsylvania Court House and in the fight at High Bridge on the retreat to Appomattox. He was frequently commended for ability and bravery in the reports of his superior officers. After the close of hostilities Captain Graham engaged in farming in Henrico county for two years, and then conducted a drug store at Lexington until 1874, after which he was engaged for several months in Tennessee with a surveying party for the Cincinnati Southern railroad. Since then he has given his attention entirely to farming, in Rockbridge county until 1883, and subsequently in Greenbrier county, W. Va. He was married, November 27, 1883, to Elizabeth, daughter of the late Joseph L. Fry.
SAMUEL SLAUGHTER GREEN, since 1873 a prominent attorney at Charleston, W. Va., made a gallant record in the artillery of the army of Northern Virginia, and has been active since the war in the organization of the Confederate Veterans, serving as commander of Stonewall camp at Charleston, and lately as brigadier-general, commanding the Second brigade, department of West Virginia. He was born December 7, 1841, in Culpeper county, Va., where his ancestors settled early in the colonial period. Of his family were Col. John Green, of Revolutionary fame, and John W. Green, soldier of the war of 1812 and judge of the court of appeals. His father, Daniel S. Green, was fleet surgeon of Commodore Perry's expedition to Japan, and later was connected with the Confederate navy. He left the university of Virginia in April, 1861, to join the Second Howitzers, of Richmond, with which he served on the Yorktown lines twenty days against McClellan, and participated in the battle of Seven Pines, the night attack on McClellan's camp at Coggin's Point, the skirmish with Hancock at Charlestown, W. Va., and the battle of Fredericksburg. He was then, in January, 1863, transferred to the Morris artillery, under Capt. R. C. M. Page, then with Hill's division, and subsequently attached to Rodes' division of the Second army corps. Beginning as second gun sergeant he was soon made first gun sergeant, and served in this position until the end of the war. With Page's battery he participated in the battles of Chancellorsville, Winchester, Gettysburg, Summerville Ford on the Rapidan, Mine Run, the Wilderness, and Spottsylvania, May 12th and 18th. On the latter field all the guns of the battery were lost but one, and this one, under the command of Sergeant Green, was assigned to Fry's battery. He subsequently took part in the actions with Federal gunboats on the James river, the battle of Cedar Creek in the fall of 1864, and served on the Petersburg lines at Fort Clifton from February 15th until the evacuation. Being ordered to collect horses in Hanover county, he perforn1ed that duty and was on his way to join the army and nine miles from Appomattox when the surrender occurred. He was paroled at Richmond in May, 1865, and subsequently engaged in farming for six years in his native county, after which he studied law, and established himself in the profession at Charleston, W. Va.
THOMAS CLAIBORNE GREEN, deceased, a distinguished jurist of Jefferson county, who was conspicuous for patriotic devotion to the cause of Virginia, was born at Fredericksburg in 1830, the son of Judge John W. Green, who went on the bench of the court of appeals of Virginia in 1822. In 1843 he was licensed to practice law. Subsequently he married a daughter of Col. Angus McDonald, and established himself in the practice of his profession at Charlestown. During the rebellion he served as a private in the Baltimore Grays, in the "Stonewall" brigade, for two years, and was then appointed chief collector of the Confederate tax for Virginia, a position he retained during the continuance of the government. During his connection with the Confederacy he also served two terms in the Virginia legislature. After the war he was appointed by Governor Jacob, and twice elected, a judge of the Supreme court of appeals of West Virginia.
CAPTAIN MARTIN F. de GRUYTER, a respected citizen of the West Virginia capital, was born July S, 1833, in Veulo-on-the-Meuse, in Holland, and was reared and educated in Germany. Coming to America in 1854, he made his home in Kanawha county, at Clifton, now known as Dego, where he resided during the period preceding the war. Inspired by a sympathy with the movement for Southern independence he enlisted in April, 1861, with the Nicholas Blues, as a private, but very soon after this received the appointment of assistant commissary for Wise's legion. His services were performed with such ability and good judgment that three months later he was appointed captain commissary of the Fiftieth Virginia regiment. After a month's service in this capacity he was given the duties of division commissary during the absence of Major McDonald in Virginia. This important place was filled by Captain de Gruyter, much to the satisfaction of his command, for a period of about one year, during which he participated in the Kentucky campaign and the battle of Fort Donelson. Subsequently he continued in his position as captain quartermaster with the Fiftieth regiment until that office was abolished, when he was appointed assistant quartermaster at Dublin Depot. Here he remained until near the end of the war, when he was taken with a severe illness which continued until after the close of hostilities. He subsequently made his home at Charleston, W. Va., but not long afterward removed to Covington, Ky., where he resided for five years, meanwhile carrying on a commission business in Cincinnati. Returning to Charleston in 1872, he has since made his home at that city, where he is highly esteemed by the community. In 1857 he was married in Kanawha county, to Julia, daughter of the late John B. Crockett, a native of Kentucky and a relative of the famous Davy Crockett. They have three children: Josephine, wife of L. E. Fuller, of Charleston; Ferdinand J., and Julius Albert, mayor of Charleston.
CAPTAIN WILLIAM RICHMOND GUNN, of Point Pleasant, W. Va., a gallant soldier of the Eighth Virginia cavalry throughout the war, was born in Ohio county in 1832, but at the age of five years removed with his parents to Mason county, his subsequent home. He entered the Confederate service in June, 1861, as a private in the Eighth Virginia cavalry, and subsequently organized a company for the same regiment, of which he was appointed captain. In this rank he served until the close of the war, at the time of the surrender of the army being stationed on outpost duty at Lynchburg. His career as a soldier was active and continuous, beginning with the early battle at Scary creek. Other engagements in which he participated upon West Virginia soil were those at Carnifex Ferry, in the fall of 1861; actions at Beverly, Loop creek and Guyandotte, and the engagements at Hurricane bridge and Point Pleasant, during the raid under General Jenkins, in March, 1863. He participated in the siege of Knoxville, Tenn., in the brigade of Gen. W. E. J ones, also the affairs at Rogersville and Powder Spring Gap, in the same State. In the latter encounter he was captured by the enemy, and was subsequently sent to Louisville, Ky., and thence was started under guard for Johnson's island. But he made a daring escape while passing through Indiana, and after an exciting and romantic experience, succeeded in rejoining his command. He afterward took part in the operations against Hunter near Lynchburg, and participated in the important battles of Winchester and Fisher's Hill, in the army under General Early. After an experience in many campaigns and affrays with the enemy, such as characterize the career of a cavalry soldier, he returned to Mason county, and in 1872 entered upon the practice of law, having been admitted to the bar in 1859. He has taken an active part in political affairs, as a Democratic leader, and in 1879 was elected to the legislature.
JOHN WARING HAMPTON, a distinguished minister of the Methodist Episcopal church South, of West Virginia, was a gallant soldier of the Confederacy from 1861 to 1865. He was born at Catlettsburg, Ky., in 1842, the great-grandson of Harry Hampton, of Virginia, who served in the Revolutionary war. He was in attendance at the Emory and Henry college in Washington county, Ga., when the crisis of 1861 arrived, and in September of that year he returned to Kentucky and joined the camp of Col. John S. Williams, at Prestonburg, remaining several months as a volunteer, but not enlisting. He then went to Mercer county, W. Va., and enlisted in Company K of the Eighth Virginia cavalry, under the command of Gen. A. G. Jenkins. He served about eighteen months in the cavalry, participating in the engagements at Lewisburg and Point Pleasant, making the raid to the latter place on foot, and then obtained a transfer to a battery of horse artillery organized as auxiliary to Jenkins' cavalry brigade, in which he received the rank of sergeant. With his battery he participated in the Pennsylvania campaign, and took part in the second day's fight at Gettysburg; was in the engagements at Shepherdstown, aided in the defeat of Sigel at New Market, was engaged at Droop mountain and covered the retreat with his battery; fought at Hanover Junction and Cold Harbor against Grant's army, took part in the repulse of Hunter at Lynchburg, and at the outset of Early's raid upon Washington, D. C., while serving as number two at the gun in the fight at North Mountain depot, received a gunshot wound in the face that disabled him from July 3d to October 15, 1864. From that date he continued on duty until May, 1865, when he was paroled at Louisa, Ky. Subsequently he entered upon the study of law with Milton J. Ferguson, of Louisa, Ky., late colonel of the Sixteenth Virginia cavalry, and was graduated by the law school of the university of Kentucky. He practiced law at Catlettshurg from 1868 to 1871, and later at Ashland until June, 1883, meanwhile serving one term as commonwealth's attorney of Boyd county, Ky. At the latter date he entered the ministry of the Methodist church as pastor at Charleston, W. Va., and served there until 1886. He then served three years at the First church, Ashland, Ky., after which he removed to Texas for the benefit of his health, and acted as pastor at Abilene and Fort Worth. Returning four years later he was stationed two years at Huntington, W. Va., and in September, 1895, was assigned to the pastorate of the Dickinson Memorial Methodist church at Charleston. He was married July 4, 1871, to Louisa V., daughter of the late W. C. Ireland, of Ashland, Ky., and they have two children: William Ireland, a prominent young attorney at Fort Worth, Texas, and Pamelia D. George S. Hampton, an elder brother of Mr. Hampton, served in General Price's army of the West, and now resides in Howard county, Mo.
CARROLL MORRIS HANSFORD, of St. Albans, a veteran of the Kanawha Riflemen, was born in Kanawha county in 1836, of Norman-French descent, his family name having originally been D'Eynsford. He entered the service of the Old Dominion in April, 1861, as a private in the Kanawha Riflemen, which was assigned as Company H to the Twenty-second Virginia infantry. He served with this regiment until August 27, 1863, when he was transferred to Company I of the Twenty-sixth battalion, as corporal. Soon afterward he was promoted orderly-sergeant, the rank in which the remainder of his service in the field was rendered. Sergeant Hansford was thoroughly identified with the military operations in the Kanawha valley, participating in the engagements at Scary, Cross Lanes, Carnifex ferry, Fayetteville, Charleston and Lewisburg. In the summer and fall of 1863 he fought at Dry creek and Droop mountain, and in May, 1864, he participated in the brilliant Confederate victory at New Market, in the valley of the Shenandoah. Then joining the army of Lee, he fought at the battle of Cold Harbor, in June, 1864, and was captured by the enemy. As a prisoner of war he was sent to Point Lookout, and a month later was transferred to Elmira, N. Y., where he was detained until March 2, 1865. After the close of his military service, which was distinguished by faithful and heroic performance of duty, he returned to his native county of Kanawha, where he has subsequently resided.
BENJAMIN F. HARLOW, of Lewisburg, W. Va., prominent in journalism and the political affairs of West Virginia, was born near Monticello, in Albemarle county, Va., July 20, 1835, the son of Henry Martin and Mary Elizabeth (Hawley) Harlow. He began his newspaper career as a printer's assistant at the age of sixteen years, and two years later he became one of the editors of the Fanner's Friend, a weekly published at Union, Monroe county. In 1855 he took charge of the Greenbrier Era, at Lewisburg, which he edited until late in J 858, after which for a year he was associated with a journal at Memphis, Tenn. Then returning to Lewisburg he was engaged In the practice of law until the outbreak of the war, having been admitted to the bar at Memphis. Early in 1861 he enlisted as a private in the Greenbrier cavalry, and going into active service had the misfortune to be the first prisoner captured by the Federal forces in Greenbrier county. He was held as a prisoner of war at Charleston, Wheeling and Camp Chase, Ohio, until exchanged at Vicksburg, Miss., in the latter part of 1862. Then returning to his regiment he continued on duty until the close of hostilities, participating in a number of engagements. Subsequently he was for a few months connected with the Lynchburg Daily News, after which he returned to his old home, and, debarred by the test oath from the practice of law, in 1866 established the Greenbrier Independent, which he edited and published with marked success for a period of twenty-two years. Since 1887 he has given his attention to farming and sheep raising, conducting a farm of twelve hundred acres. Mr. Harlow was a delegate-at-large to the Democratic national convention of 1880, and again in 1884. In 1888 he was a delegate from his district to the St. Louis convention, and subsequently served upon the committee which officially notified Messrs. Cleveland and Thurman of the choice of the convention. In 1884 he was appointed to the staff of Gov. E. W. Wilson, with the rank of colonel, in which capacity he attended the centennial celebration of the adoption of the constitution at Philadelphia in 1887, the reunion of the army of West Virginia in 1889, and the Washington centennial at New York. Colonel Harlow has also served as mayor of Lewisburg eight years, which position he now fills. In all positions he has displayed a capacity for public affairs equal to all demands. In addition to his editorial labors, he is the author of a legal work, entitled "Delinquent and Forfeited Lands," which is an authority. Colonel Harlow is now one of the representatives of Greenbrier county in the house of delegates of West Virginia, and is a member of the judiciary committee of that body. At the last session of the legislature he was appointed by the speaker one of the members of the joint commission to revise the constitution of the State. In politics he has always been a Jeffersonian Democrat.
THOMAS A. HARRIS, of Parkersburg, W. Va., a highly-esteemed medical practitioner of that city, served throughout the Confederate war under commission as a surgeon in the army of Northern Virginia, and gained favorable attention for the skillful discharge of arduous duties. He was born in Bedford county, Va., in 1830, and was reared in his native county and prepared for collegiate studies. In 1851 he was graduated at the Virginia military institute, with such a creditable standing that he was called from 1852 to 1853 to hold the position of professor of Latin at that institution. It was during this period that Thomas J. Jackson, afterward famous as "Stonewall," began his service as a professor at the institute, and the two young men roomed together during Dr. Harris' professorship. Meanwhile he pursued the study of medicine, and after one year's study at the university of Virginia was graduated in that profession. He then passed one year in further study and clinical work in the New York and Philadelphia hospitals, and in 1855 made his home at Bristol, Va., where he embarked in the professional work which has since that time occupied his time and talents. Two years later he removed to Hampton and was at that place when the war was inaugurated. He at once offered his services to the State, and they were accepted, but during the first year of the war he was not assigned to duty, but remained upon waiting orders until May 15, 1862, when he received a commission as surgeon in the provisional army of the Confederate States, from Secretary of War Randolph, and was assigned to duty with the Twenty-third Georgia infantry. With this command he served throughout the Peninsular campaign, in the field, including the battles of Seven Pines, Cold Harbor and Malvern Hill. This campaign was a severe test for the young surgeon, but he was unflinching in the performance of duty, though it called him into perilous situations. At Seven Pines his horse was shot in the midst of the action. After the close of this campaign Surgeon Harris was ordered to Richmond with orders to organize the medical department of the local defenses of the city, and subsequently was assigned to duty under the following order:
Medical Director's Office, Richmond, November 4. 1862.
Special Order No. 164.
Surgeon T. A. Harris, P. A. C. S., is assigned to duty as senior surgeon in chief, Col. T. S. Rhett's command, and will, without delay, report at this office. -- E. S. GAILLARD, Medical Director.
By command Maj.-Gen. G. W. Smith.
Dr. Harris remained at Richmond in the discharge of his professional duties, which kept him busily occupied until the evacuation of the city. Meanwhile he accompanied the troops at Richmond in various expeditions to combat the demonstrations of the enemy, and was under fire during Sheridan's raid near Richmond, and during Kilpatrick'g raid. When the army left the city he accompanied it, and was paroled at Farmville, Va., in May, 1865. Then returning to Richmond he resumed the practice of his profession in civil life, but left the city in February, 1866, to make his home at Parkersburg, where he has since resided. He has been continuously engaged in the practice, has achieved high rank in professional circles, and a warm place in the hearts of his people. In 1886 he was awarded the high honor at the hands of his professional brethren of president of the West Virginia State medical society, and from 1884 to 1888 he held the important position of secretary of the State board of health.
JUDGE THOMAS HOPE HARVEY, of Huntington, W. Va., a brave Confederate soldier, now honored as a prominent citizen and able jurist, was born at Buffalo, Putnam county, in 1844. He was educated at the Buffalo academy until the outbreak of war separated the citizens of the Kanawha valley and called the young and adventurous to arms. Identifying himself with the cause of Southern independence, he was early in 1861 a soldier in the Confederate army. In 1859 a volunteer company had been organized in Putnam county, and armed and equipped, for the purpose of defending the State from invasion, and as corporal of this company, which became Company A of the Thirty-sixth Virginia regiment, he joined the forces gathered at Charleston under Colonel McCausland. He took part in the Kanawha Valley campaign under Generals Wise and Floyd, including the battles at Cross Lanes and Carnifex Ferry, and in the fall went with Floyd's command to Bowling Green, Ky., to reinforce Albert Sidney Johnston. He was among those who fought heroically before Fort Donelson, where the battle was for a time a glorious one for the Confederate cause. Here he was distinguished as one of the six who volunteered as guard for the colors of the gallant Thirty-sixth regiment. Five of these men were killed or wounded within two hours on February 15,1862, the last day of the battle, and Corporal Harvey was one of those who suffered. He received two severe wounds, one bullet piercing his left shoulder and another striking the elbow of the same arm, injuries which utterly disabled him for further field service, and rendered his arm useless for life. About a year after this battle he re-entered the service, however, with unabated fidelity to the cause for which he had enlisted, and became connected with the quartermaster's department at Dublin, Va., where he remained, performing the duties of transportation clerk mainly, until just before he surrender of Lee's army, when he was sent with money and stores to Lynchburg. Meanwhile, while stationed at Dublin, he joined in an expedition to Cross Lanes, Nicholas county, which resulted in the capture of fifty or sixty Yankee soldiers. His military career, distinguished for devoted gallantry while yet able to fight in the field, and afterward for faithful service in whatever line of work for which he was physically qualified in his crippled condition, was ended by his parole in June, 1865, at Charleston. He then, having but reached his majority, entered Washington college, at Lexington, Va., for the study of law, in which he was graduated with the class of 1868. Making his home at Winfield, he embarked in professional work, and speedily won recognition for his earnestness and capacity as a young and rising lawyer. In 1872 he was elected prosecuting attorney for Putnam county. In January, 1874, he made his home at the promising young city of Huntington, where he was elected to the legislature in 1879, and soon became widely known as a lawyer and able public official. In 1888 he was honored by election to the bench as judge of the Eighth judicial circuit of the State, for a term of eight years. In 1896 he received the nomination for Congress in the Fourth congressional district, but with the remainder of the Democratic ticket, was defeated. He is one of the young veterans of the Confederate armies, to whom, it is hoped, there remain many years of useful service for their communities and the whole united country.
BALDWIN L. HOGE, now a prominent citizen of Summers county, W. Va., and a native of Giles county, Va., served in his youth as one of the gallant fighters of Kemper's brigade, Pickett's division, army of Northern Virginia. Born in 1845, he was reared and educated in his native county until the spring of 1862, when he enlisted in Company D, Seventh Virginia infantry, as a private. Throughout the remainder of the war he was identified with the distinguished service of his command, participating with unfailing devotion and bravery in most of the great conflicts of the army. Among the engagements in which he served may be mentioned First Manassas, Williamsburg, Seven Pines, the Seven Days' battle, Second Manassas, Boonsboro, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, Plymouth, N. C., Drewry's Bluff and Second Cold Harbor. He was shot in the thigh at Williamsburg, but escaped injury in the famous charge of Pickett's division at Gettysburg, in which he was a participant. He was paroled at Harrisonburg, Va., in the summer of 1865, at the age of twenty years, and then returned to his home in Giles county. In 1870 he removed to Princeton, Mercer county, W. Va., and served there as deputy clerk of the court. Five years later he made his home at Hinton, where he has since resided. He was elected clerk of the circuit court of Summers County in 1878, and being twice re-elected, served eighteen years continuously in this responsible position, where he was distinguished for courtesy and efficiency as a public official. He was married in 1875 to Kate, daughter of I. G. and Mahala Young, of Summers county, and they have six children living: Roy R., Effie S., Harry P., Lucy W., Frank P., and Fred L. A brother of Mr. Hoge, Thomas W. Hoge, now residing at Covington, Va., served in the Nineteenth Tennessee infantry, Confederate States army.
LIEUTENANT FRANCIS L. HOGE, of Wheeling, W. Va., distinguished in the naval service of the Confederate States, was born in Marshall county, Va., in 1841. Destined in youth for a naval career, he was educated at the Annapolis academy, and graduated with appointment as midshipman in the United States navy in 1860. His first service was on a cruise in the Mediterranean, on board the sloop-of-war Susquehanna, returning from which he resigned his commission in order to offer his services to his native State. He resigned June 4th, and on June 24th entered the navy of the Confederate States, being assigned to the Patrick Henry as a midshipman. Later he was promoted master, and in February, 1862, was commissioned second lieutenant. He served on the lower James river until March, 1862, when he participated in the naval battle on Hampton Roads, commanding the after division of the Patrick Henry in that combat. Subsequently, when Norfolk was being evacuated he ran the blockade carrying stores. At Drewry's bluff, when the Federal fleet attempted to ascend the river, the Patrick Henry was dismantled and the guns mounted on the bluff, when in the action of May 15, 1862, he served with distinction in command of the naval gun that was nearest the enemy. He remained at Drewry's bluff for some time, and in August, 1863, was detailed to select men for the daring expedition against the Federal gun-boats Satellite and Reliance at the mouth of the Rappahannock river. Under Col. John Taylor Wood he was second in command, having charge of two of the four small boats which constituted the attacking squadron. He led the attack upon the Reliance and was the first on board, and fighting his way forward with great gallantry, was struck in the neck by a pistol ball, and fell upon the dock. The expedition was successful, but the dangerous wound which Lieutenant Hoge had received disabled him until October, 1863. Before leaving Drewry's bluff he served upon the naval examining board, and immediately after being detached from that station he acted for six or eight months as second lieutenant of the ironclad Richmond, under Captain Pegram. His next duty was the torpedo service on the Chowan and Roanoke rivers, and while in this field he participated in another famous expedition under Colonel Wood, the capture of the large Federal gunboat Underwriter, which had taken a conspicuous part in the operations along the North Carolina coast. The attack was made in rowboats, on the Neuse river, under the guns of Fort Stevens, and subject to a direct and heavy fire from the enemy before the boats could grapple. Lieutenant Hoge was one of the first on board, and took an efficient part in the successful action, which was recognized by the Confederate Congress in a joint resolution of thanks. It was the intention of the Confederate party to get the vessel off, and to this end Lieutenant Hoge's duty was to open the magazine and man the guns. Upon doing this, he reported ready for action to Colonel Wood, but when the cable of the Underwriter was slipped (a duty assigned to Lieut. W. A. Kerr, of North Carolina, who was slightly wounded), her bow swung ashore, consequently the vessel was abandoned. But as they were leaving, Captain Wood, thinking she was not on fire, sent Hoge back to make sure of her destruction. He and the cockswain of his boat were the on1y ones who went aboard, each with a canteen of camphene. The ship was ablaze before they had got twenty boats' lengths away. Soon after this exploit, in February, 1864, Lieutenant Hoge was assigned to the Confederate ironclad Neuse, at Kinston, N. C., as executive officer, and he served in this capacity until the evacuation of Kinston, in March, 1865. On May 11, 1865, he was paroled at Macon, Ga., and he then made his home at Halifax, Nova Scotia, during a period of five years. Returning to Virginia in 1870, he came to Wheeling, which has been his home since that date. In 1881 he was elected city engineer, an office he held continuously until 1895, except during the year 1883, when he served by appointment of Governor Matthews as a member of the commission to settle the boundary between Pennsylvania and West Virginia. He is widely known as an accomplished civil engineer.
ABNER C. HOPKINS, a well-known minister of the Presbyterian church who rendered faithful service during the War of the Confederacy, was born in Powhatan County, October 24, 1835. He received his education at Amelia academy and Hampden-Sidney college, being graduated at the latter institution in 1855. After teaching school two years he entered the Union theological seminary, in Prince Edward county, where he completed a course of study preparatory for the ministry, in 1860. He was first called to the church at Martinsburg, Berkeley county, but he left this frontier post in February, 1862, to become chaplain of the Second regiment, Virginia infantry, of the Stonewall brigade. This position he held, nominally, until the fall of 1864. He was with the regiment, actively participating in its campaigns, until after the battle of Spottsylvania Court House, in the spring of 1864, when he was detached by order of General Ewell, and left to care for the wounded soldiers. This duty occupied him until early in October, 1864, when he went to Richmond, and after serving in the intrenchments one week, was ordered to report to General Gordon, at Fisher's Hill. He remained attached to General Gordon's headquarters, acting also as a staff officer, during the siege of Richmond and the retreat to Appomattox, where he was surrendered with the army. Gen. Clement A. Evans, who commanded one division of Gordon's corps, refers to Dr. Hopkins as one of the most gallant, faithful and serviceable officers in the army. With the conclusion of hostilities Mr. Hopkins returned to his ministerial work, and in October, 1866, accepted the pastorate at Charlestown, W. Va., where his services have since been most acceptably rendered. The ardent devotion to principle and the earnest willingness to obey the call of duty which were illustrated in his military career, have been no less prominent in his subsequent life. Warren M. Hopkins, brother of the foregoing, was in the Confederate service, first as aide-de-camp on the staff of Gen. W. E. Jones, and later as commander of a cavalry regiment in northwestern Virginia. He died in 1875.
THOMAS D. HOUSTON, a prominent attorney at the West Virginia capital, is of a family distinguished for devotion to the Confederate cause, being one of six brothers who served in the army of Northern Virginia, four of whom were wounded at Gettysburg. He was born in Rockbridge county, Va., in 1842, and previous to the war received a classical education at Washington college. In the spring of 1861 he was teaching school in Marengo county, Ala., where he promptly enlisted as a private in the Marion light infantry, which became Company G of the Fourth Alabama regiment. With this regiment he was mustered into the service at Lynchburg, Va., May 7th, and sent to Harper's Ferry, and thence to the field of the battle of First Manassas, where the regiment, in the brigade of General Bee, lost over one-third its numbers in killed and wounded. At the reorganization at Yorktown in the spring of 1862, Private Houston joined the Eleventh Virginia regiment, and was elected second lieutenant three days later, and promoted first lieutenant after he had participated in the battle of Williamsburg. He took part with Kemper's brigade, Pickett's division, in the battle of Seven Pines, the Seven Days' battles, Second Manassas, Fredericksburg, the siege of Suffolk and the battle of Gettysburg. At Second Manassas he was shot in the left breast and disabled for several weeks, and at Gettysburg, participating in the assault by Pickett's division, he was wounded in the hip and fell among the enemy's guns at the crest of Cemetery hill. Thus coming into the hands of the enemy, he lay in hospital at Gettysburg two months, and then for some time at Baltimore, after which he was confined at Johnson's island, Ohio, until March, 1865. With him, three of his brothers fell at Gettysburg: T. G. Houston, captain of Company D, Eleventh regiment, killed in the battle; Andrew Houston, captain of Company K, who received wounds from which he died after the war, and Edward M. Houston, of the same regiment, who was wounded, and died in 1872. Two brothers were in other commands, J. R. Houston, of the Rockbridge artillery, who died in 1867, and William W. Houston, who was assistant quartermaster in the Stonewall brigade. After his release from military prison, Mr. Houston went to Texas and taught school at Waverly seven months, then returning to his native county and completing a course of law in Washington-Lee university, with graduation in 1867. He embarked in the practice at Fincastle, where he remained until 1880, meanwhile being elected judge of Botetourt county, a position he resigned to become a candidate for nomination to Congress, a contest in which Randolph Tucker was successful. He also served four years as commonwealth attorney of the county, declining re-election. He continued in the practice of his profession at Wheeling after 1880 until the State capital was removed to Charleston, of which city he is now a resident.
COLONEL GEORGE JACKSON, brother of Gen. William L. Jackson, was born at Clarksburg, Va., January 35, 1833. He was graduated at West Point in 1856, and as a lieutenant of dragoons, took part in the expedition under Albert Sidney Johnston against the Mormons. He was subsequently on active duty in the West until the secession of Virginia, when he promptly resigned and reported for duty at Richmond. He was commissioned major of cavalry, and ordered to report to General Garnett at Laurel Hill, where he organized and commanded the cavalry. He was conspicuous for gallantry in the engagement at Laurel Hill, and in the rear-guard fighting during the retreat of Garnett's forces. He was then stationed at Franklin, Va., to protect the flank of the Confederate forces in the Greenbrier region, in which duty he had several successful skirmishes with the enemy. Later he was persuaded by General Whiting to accept a cavalry command in North Carolina, where he did faithful service, but had little opportunity for distinction. He was, however, promoted colonel, and a commission of brigadier-general had been ordered for him just before the close of the war. After the close of hostilities he resided at Parkersburg, W. Va., and became prominently connected with the mineral oil industry. His death occurred May 37, 1883.
BRIGADIER-GENERAL WILLIAM LOWTHER JACKSON was born at Clarksburg, Va., February 3, 1835. He was educated for the legal profession and was admitted to the bar in 1847, soon afterward being elected to the office of commonwealth attorney for his native county. His career as a jurist and public official during the ante-war period was prominent and distinguished. He was twice elected to the Virginia house of delegates, served twice as second auditor of the State, and superintendent of the State library fund; held the office of lieutenant-governor one term, and in 1860 was elected judge of the Nineteenth judicial circuit of the State. He left the bench early in 1861 to enlist in the Virginia forces as a private, and was rapidly promoted. In May, 1861, Major Boykin, writing from Grafton, recommended that General Lee appoint Judge Jackson to military command at Parkersburg, as "a gentleman of great personal popularity, not only with his own party, but with those opposed to him politically, and devoted to the interests of Virginia, to the last extremity." With the rank of lieutenant-colonel, Virginia volunteers, he reported for duty to Colonel Porterfield, in Randolph county, in June. Out of the companies collected at Huttonsville, two regiments were organized, and one, the Thirty-first, was put under his command, with which, after General Garnett's arrival June 14th, he took possession of the pass at Laurel mountain. After the disastrous close of the West Virginia operations, Colonel Jackson became the volunteer aide of his cousin, Gen. Stonewall Jackson, in the Valley campaign, and his services were gratefully mentioned in the official report of the battle of Port Republic. He continued in this capacity with Jackson through the campaign before Richmond, the Second Manassas campaign, and the Maryland campaign, including the battles of Harper's Ferry and Sharpsburg. On February 17, 1863, he was authorized by the war department to raise a regiment for the provisional army within the lines of the enemy in West Virginia. Early in April he had his regiment, the Nineteenth Virginia cavalry, organized, and was elected colonel. His command was brigaded under Gen. A. G. Jenkins, in the army of Western Virginia, under Gen. Sam Jones. He joined in the expedition against the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, in April, under General Imboden, and secured 300 or 400 recruits. In July he commanded a second expedition to Beverly, where and at Huttonsville he was engaged with Averell's Federal force. He continued in the department of Western Virginia, frequently opposing Federal incursions, his command increasing to the dimensions of a small brigade of cavalry, during the remainder of 1863. In the spring of 1864 he was stationed at Warm Springs, and in the organization under Breckinridge he was given command of a brigade of several cavalry regiments. In May he was engaged against Crook's expedition; in June he took part in the defense of Lynchburg, and in July he participated in command of his brigade in the expedition through Maryland to the defenses of Washington. On the retreat, defending the rear, he repulsed a Federal attack at Rockville, Md. He was promoted brigadier-general, and in the Valley, after this, he was engaged in almost continuous movements and engagements, and participated in the battles of Winchester, Cedar Creek, Fisher's Hill, Port Republic and other affairs, in command of a brigade of Lomax's division. The spring of 1865 found him still in the field, but on April 15th he disbanded his brigade. Soon afterward he removed to Louisville, Ky., where he resumed the practice of law. A few years later he was appointed circuit judge, and by subsequent elections was continued in that office until his death, March 24, 1890. His judicial career was distinguished by high moral courage, as well as professional ability, and he was regarded as one of the leading jurists of the State. He was a descendant of John Jackson, an Irishman who settled in Maryland about 1748, and twenty years later removed to the Buckhannon river region, western Virginia. His son Edward was the grandfather of Judge William L. Jackson, also of Gen. Stonewall Jackson. His elder son, George, member of Congress, was the ancestor of John G. Jackson, M. C., Gen. John J. Jackson, U. S. A., a famous Whig leader, and Jacob J. Jackson, governor of West Virginia. The younger son of the original settler was Edward, whose son, Col. William L. Jackson, married Harriet Wilson, and became the father of Judge William L. Jackson. Jonathan, another son of Edward, was the father of the immortal Stonewall Jackson.
BRIGADIER-GENERAL ALBERT GALLATIN JENKINS was born in Cabell county, Va., November 10, 1830, and was educated at the Virginia military institute and Jefferson college, Pa., being graduated at the latter institution in 1848. He then entered upon the study of law at Harvard college, and in 1850 was admitted to the bar, but never practiced the profession, returning instead to his extensive plantation. But he did not entirely devote himself to agriculture, taking an active and influential part in public affairs. He was a delegate to the National Democratic convention of 1856, and was then elected to the United States Congress, serving in the Thirty-fifth and Thirty-sixth Congresses, from 1857 to 1861. Upon the secession of Virginia he heartily supported his State, and while a soldier was elected as one of the representatives of Virginia in the first congress of the Confederate States, which met at Richmond, February, 1862. Here he creditably performed his duties, but it was mainly as a daring and chivalrous cavalry officer that he is remembered. He organized a company of mounted men at the beginning of hostilities, and soon gained the general attention by raiding Point Pleasant, in the latter part of June, and making prisoners of a number of prominent gentlemen who were conspicuous in the movement for the separation of the State. In the battle of Scary Creek, July 18th, he saved the day at a critical moment; soon had the command of a colonel, became lieutenant-colonel of the Eighth cavalry regiment, and was recognized as one of the leaders in the military occupation of the Kanawha valley by the Virginia forces. After Wise and Floyd had retired to Greenbrier county he remained in the Guyandotte valley, fighting for his home and the Old Dominion. He was promoted brigadier-general August 5, 1862, and in the latter part of August and the first of September made a daring raid, through western Virginia, and was the first to unfurl the flag of the Confederate States in Ohio. In his report of this achievement General Loring wrote: "That brilliant and enterprising general executed the plan with such success that in his march of 500 miles he captured 300 prisoners, destroyed many garrisons of home guards and the records of the Wheeling and Federal governments in many counties, and after arming his command completely with captured arms, destroyed at least 5,000 stand of small-arms and immense stores. Prosecuting at least 20 miles of his march in the State of Ohio, he exhibited, as he did elsewhere in his march, a policy of such clemency as won us many friends, and tended greatly to mitigate the ferocity which had characterized the war in this section. The conduct of his officers and men has received my unqualified approbation, and deserves the notice and thanks of the government." In March, 1863, Jenkins made another brilliant raid to the Ohio river, and three months later he was on the Susquehanna, before the capital of Pennsylvania. In May he was ordered into the Shenandoah valley, in command of the cavalry, with headquarters at Staunton, and in June was ordered northward to report to General Ewell, with whom he co-operated in the defeat of Milroy at Winchester. He fought at Bunker Hill, and at Martinsburg led the advance guard of the army to Chambersburg and made a reconnoissance to Harrisburg. He was wounded on the second day of the Gettysburg battle, but his men, under the command of Colonel Ferguson, won approval in the cavalry fight of July 3d, and during the retreat to Virginia, especially at Williamsport, under the eye of Stuart. In the fall General Jenkins returned to the department of Western Virginia, and in the spring of 1864 was stationed at the narrows of New river. Falling back before Gen. George Crook he collected a force at Cloyd's mountain, where a gallant fight was made, on May 9th. In the heat of the conflict General Jenkins fell, seriously wounded, and was captured and paroled by the enemy. A Federal surgeon amputated his arm at the shoulder, but he was unable to withstand the shock and died soon afterward.
DAVID E. JOHNSTON, of Bluefield, W. Va., a prominent lawyer of Mercer county, and a veteran of Pickett's division of the army of Northern Virginia, was born in Giles county, Va., in 1845. Though but about sixteen years of age at the outbreak of the war, he entered the military service of the State in April, 1861, as a private in the Giles volunteers, commanded by Capt. James H. French, which was assigned as Company D to the Seventh Virginia infantry, under Col. James L. Kemper. In the spring of 1862 Private Johnston was promoted fifth sergeant, and in November following he became sergeant-major of the regiment, his rank during the remainder of the war. He was identified with the gallant record of Kemper's brigade and Pickett's division from the beginning until the close of hostilities, and was distinguished for brave and faithful service in all the campaigns and most of the important battles of the army. He was first in battle at Blackburn's Ford, July 18, 1861, shared the fighting of Early's brigade in the first battle of Manassas, and in the spring and summer of 1862, though slightly wounded at Williamsburg, participated in the engagements at Seven Pines, Gaines' Mill, Frayser's farm and Malvern Hill. With Longstreet's corps he took part in the second battle of Manassas, and after sharing the perils and valorous deeds of the rear guard at Turner's Gap, Md., did a soldier's duty upon the bloody field of Sharpsburg. After the battle of Fredericksburg, he accompanied Longstreet's corps in the Suffolk campaign, fighting at Plymouth and Suffolk in April and May, 1863. He shared the glorious work of Pickett's men at Gettysburg, on the third day, and fell in the charge with a very severe wound in the left side, caused by a fragment of shell, which disabled him until October, 1863. In the spring of 1864 he was in the action at New Bern, N. C., and then fought against the Federal advance south of the James at Drewry's bluff, the Howlett house and Milford's Station, after which he participated in the engagement at the North Anna Bridge and the battle of Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. After participating in the engagement at Clay's house, between Richmond and Petersburg, he served with his brigade on the Bermuda Hundred line from June 17th to March, 1865, when he was sent with his command against Sheridan, fighting at Dinwiddie Court House and Five Forks. Upon the retreat he took part in the battle of Sailor's Creek, and was among those captured at that time. Subsequently he was held at Point Lookout until June 28, 1865. Then this heroic veteran, at the age of twenty years, resumed his school duties in his native county, subsequently taught school and read law, and in June, 1867, was admitted to the bar. He made Princeton, W. Va., his home from 1870 until 1893, when he removed to Bluefield. He has been prominent as a jurist and influential as a citizen. In 1879 he was a member of the State senate, and resigning this office was elected judge of the Ninth judicial circuit for a term of eight years. Declining re-election to the bench, he has since then been actively engaged in the practice of law.
CAPTAIN JAMES W. JOHNSTON, of Greenbrier county, W. Va., prominently identified with the worthy record of the Sixteenth regiment, Virginia infantry, was born in Greenbrier county in the year 1832, and was there reared and educated. His father was a prosperous farmer, and he left a comfortable home in May, 1861, with a company organized in that county, to join the Third regiment of Wise's legion. This command was afterward known as the Sixtieth Virginia infantry, of which his company was Company B. He entered the service as orderly-sergeant, and in the spring of 1862, at the reorganization of the army, was elected captain by his company, in which he served during the remainder of the war. At the battle of New Hope he was wounded by a rifle shot through the left leg, which disabled him about two months; and at the battle of Winchester he was captured and thence sent to Fort Delaware, but was fortunately exchanged a month later, when he immediately rejoined his command. This gallant and faithful soldier, since the war has been engaged in farming at his old home, meeting with the success deserved by his unfaltering service to his State.
REMOND S. KINCHELOE, for a number of years past engaged in business at Wheeling, W. Va., is a native of Fairfax county, Va., born in 1845. In the same county his father was born, Daniel Kincheloe, a farmer by occupation, and a soldier of the war of 1812, who died in the year 1860. In the spring of 1861 young Kincheloe, then but about sixteen years of age, enlisted as a private in Company G of the Eighth Virginia infantry, commanded by Col. Eppa Hunton. With the well-known and gallant record of this command he was identified until the summer of 1862, when, on account of ill health and his youth, he resigned from the service. Soon afterward, however, in the fall of the same year, he re-entered the army as an independent scout, the capacity in which he continued until the close of the war, being principally associated with an independent command under his cousin, James C. Kincheloe, which operated between the Orange & Alexandria railroad and the Potomac river. Mr. Kincheloe was also closely identified with many of thc operations of Mosby's command. In these daring forays and frequent skirmishes with the Federal forces, the success of which demanded the utmost nerve and personal courage, he was among the most active and untiring. During his service with the Eighth regiment he shared the fighting of Cocke's brigade at First Manassas, took part in the battle of Ball's Bluff, and during the Peninsular campaign fought in Pickett's brigade at Williamsburg, Seven Pines and through the Seven Days' campaign. He was once captured, while at his home in Fairfax, in the fall of 1862, and was sent to Centreville, but was paroled two weeks later. After being finally paroled at Winchester, in April, 1865, he returned to his native county and engaged in farming. A year later he entered mercantile life at Orange Court House, and continued in business in Fauquier county and Clarksburg and Moundsville, W. Va., until 1878, when he made his home at Wheeling, where he is now successfully conducting a wholesale fruit business. In 1879 Mr. Kincheloe was married in Orange county, Va., to Mary O., daughter of the late Dr. L. T. Dade, and niece of Gen. Langhorne Dade, who lost his life in the Seminole war.
CAPTAIN JAMES KNIGHT, of Lewisburg, W. Va., a member of the staff of Gen. W. W. Loring during the latter's campaign in West Virginia, was born in Greenbrier county in 1837. Reared and educated in his native county he engaged there in farming and stock raising previous to 1861. In June of the latter year, sharing that feeling of loyalty and devotion to the State which was prevalent in that region, he enlisted as a private in Company A of the Fourteenth Virginia cavalry. After serving in this station about a year, he was transferred to the staff of Gen. W. W. Loring, then commanding the department of Western Virginia. With the rank of captain he served on General Loring's staff during the campaign of September, 1862, when a large Confederate force marched down the Kanawha valley, driving out the Federals and causing the destruction of large quantities of their military stores. During this campaign Captain Knight participated in the battles at Fayetteville, Gayley mountain and Charleston. In November, 1862, when General Loring was transferred to Louisiana, Captain Knight was assigned to the commissary department at Dublin Depot, where he remained on duty until the close of the war. He was paroled at Lewisburg, and from that time continued in his business of stock raising until he was elected in 1871 to the position of county sheriff. In this position his services were so satisfactory that he was retained on duty by the public for the period of fourteen years. Since his retirement from office he has resumed his former pursuits, in which he has met with marked success. In February, 1883, he was married to Kate D., daughter of the late James D. Kincaid, and they have two daughters: J. Pearl and Mabel Kate.
J. HARVEY LEACH, of Keenan, Monroe county, W. Va., was during the period of 1861-65 associated with the gallant record of the Twenty-second Virginia infantry. He was born in Monroe county in 1842, and in June, 1861, entered the Confederate service as a member of the Rocky Point Grays, afterward Company F of the Twenty-second regiment. Soon after his enlistment he was chosen corporal, and in 1863 he was promoted sergeant. He participated in the West Virginia battles of Seary, Cross Lanes, Carnifex Ferry, Fayetteville, Lewisburg, Dry Creek, Droop Mountain, Beverly and Bull Town. In a fight at Winchester, Va., in 1863, he was slightly wounded in the hand. Early in 1864 he took part in the fight with Crook's expedition at Pearisburg, and in the performance of duty on the field shot three times at Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, commanding a Federal brigade, whose life was spared from the well-directed efforts of Private Leach, he subsequently becoming president of the United States. Sergeant Leach soon afterward fought at New Market against Sigel, at Hupp's Bottom, Darkesville and Newtown; took part in the battle of Cold Harbor, before Richmond, with the army of Northern Virginia, aided in driving Hunter from before Lynchburg, and went with Early in the Maryland campaign, fighting at Frederick City, Hagerstown and Cumberland, Md., and taking part in the daring attack upon Washington, D. C. During the campaign against Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley, in 1864, he fought at Fisher's Hill and Winchester, in the latter battle his company losing 18 killed and captured out of 22 that went into action. Since the close of the was this worthy soldier has been residing in quiet and comfort upon his farm in Monroe county. He ha served one term as assessor of his county. In 1865 he was married to Florence, daughter of Levi Johnson, and they have nine children: Willie Gordon, Samuel Burton, James Homer, Maggie Drusilla, Arthur J., Cora Belle, Ashby Gray, Everett Park and Grady.
JOSEPH LEVY, a prominent business man of Huntington, W. Va., is a native of Germany, born in 1840. Coming to America in 1853, he first made his home at New York city, but left there in 1859 to settle at Norfolk, where he resided until 1860, when he removed to Richmond. On May 21, 1861, attracted by the principles of home rule embodied in the Confederate movement, he entered the service of the State, becoming a private in the Richmond Light Infantry Blues, which was mustered in as Company E of the First Virginia regiment. This company was at once detached from the regiment to which it had been assigned, and was detailed for duty as sharpshooters with the brigade of General Wise. In this service Private Levy continued until the end of the four years' war, frequently being engaged in dangerous and important duty, and taking part in many skirmishes, but in no pitched battles. While on duty at the Howlett house before Richmond, he received a shot through the leg which caused his disability for a period of four months. After he became convalescent he was assigned to police duty between Richmond and Danville, and he was thus engaged, and stationed at Amelia Court House, when the army of Northern Virginia was surrendered. He was soon arrested by a party of Federal soldiers, and taken to Richmond, where he was paroled soon afterward. After the close of hostilities he engaged in business at Richmond, and two years later removed to Bowling Green, and resided there two years. Returning then to Richmond, he continued in business there for six years, after which he went to West Virginia, and made his home at Huntington in 1879. There he has since remained and has carried on a successful and lucrative business. He is highly regarded as a business man, and is held in esteem by his comrades of the old army.
CHARLES CAMERON LEWIS, now one of the leading businessmen of Charleston, W. Va., experienced military service in the year 1861, as one of the members of the Kanawha Riflemen, the well-known organization of spirited young Virginians who answered the call of the Old Dominion. He was a native of Kanawha county, born April 15, 1839, and was reared there and educated in the private schools and Mercer academy. His father was John D. Lewis, who was born in Bath county in 1800, was reared in Mason county, and resided during the greater part of his life near the mouth of Campbell's creek, on the Kanawha river, where he owned large tracts of coal and salt land, and was a pioneer in salt manufacture. His mother was a daughter of Col. William Dickinson. He became a member of the Kanawha Riflemen in 1859, as a private, and with the company entered the service of Virginia in the spring of 1861, becoming a part of the Twenty-second Virginia regiment. He took part in the engagement at Scary creek, July 17, 1861, and in a skirmish at Ripley. After the Confederate troops were withdrawn by General Wise to Kanawha Falls, Mr. Lewis was granted an honorable discharge, upon the request of his father, whose elder son, Joel S. Lewis, was also a member of the Riflemen. The latter continued in the service with the Twenty-second regiment during the war, with the exception of a period of cavalry service, at which time he was held as a prisoner of war at Camp Chase, Ohio. After the war he engaged in farming, and died in 1894 in Raleigh county. Charles C. Lewis engaged in the salt industry with his father until 1869 and in 1871 became president of the Kanawha Valley bank, a position he filled for fifteen years. In 1883 he took part in the organization of the wholesale grocery house of P. H. Noyes & Co., in which he still retains a half interest. The management of the large estate left by his father at his death in 1882, and other financial interests, have occupied his attention, but he has also served several terms as treasurer of his city. In 1864 he was married to Miss Elizabeth Wilson, and they have five children living.
DANIEL BEDINGER LUCAS, LL. D., of West Virginia, presiding justice of the Supreme court of appeals of West Virginia, presiding judge of the Supreme court of appeals of West Virginia, and distinguished alike as a jurist, orator and poet, was at the outbreak of the war of the Confederacy a young barrister at Richmond, and entered heartily into the movement for Southern independence. Inspired by the illustrious services rendered by his ancestors in the cause of Virginia, he enlisted, and was appointed aide-de-camp on the staff of Gen. H. A. Wise, with whom he rendered active and devoted service during the campaign in the Kanawha valley, which ended in October, 1861. On January 1, 1865, he left Richmond, and after crossing the Potomac where it was nine miles wide, cutting his way through the ice in a small skiff, made his way to Canada, in order to assist in the defense of his college friend, Capt. John Yates Beall, who was tried by court-martial at Governor's island, New York, and executed February 24, 1865. Not being permitted by General Dix to assist in the defense of Beall, he remained in Canada for some months, and there wrote, shortly after the surrender at Appomattox, the famous poem, "The Land Where We Were Dreaming," and published a memoir of Beall and the official report of his trial. Judge Lucas was born at Charlestown, Va., March 16, 1836, a descendant of the prominent Virginian families of Bedinger and Lucas, for several generations identified with the history of the colony and State, during the Indian wars, the Revolutionary period and the Confederate era. He was graduated in the university of Virginia in 1856, and was valedictorian of the Jefferson society of the university. Entering the law school of Judge J. W. Brockenbrough at Lexington, he was graduated there in 1858, and was admitted to practice at Charlestown in 1859. Early in 1860 he removed to Richmond, but soon after the close of the war again made his home at Charlestown, where he resumed the practice of law, upon the repeal of the restrictive legislation in 1870. He formed a partnership with Judge Thomas C. Green, and soon attained high rank in his profession, also taking a leading part in political affairs as an uncompromising champion of Jeffersonian democracy. He represented his district on the electoral tickets of 1872 and 1876, and in 1884 was elector-at-large on the Cleveland ticket. Elected to the legislature in 1884 and 1886, he was prominent in the advocacy of reform in taxation, and opposition to the domination of railroad corporation. When, after an exciting contest, the legislature adjourned February 25, 1887, without the election of a successor to Senator Camden, Mr. Lucas was appointed senator ad interim, the vacancy being finally filled by the election of Senator Faulkner. Upon the death, in 1889, of his former partner, Judge Green, Mr. Lucas was appointed as his successor on the Supreme bench, and in 1890 he was elected by an overwhelming majority of the popular vote. Since January 1, 1891, he has held the office of president of the court. This position fitly crowns his distinguished career as a jurist. He has also served eight years as a regent of the State university. The demands of his law practice compelled him in 1876 to decline election as professor of law in that institution, and in the same year he was also compelled to decline the office of circuit judge tendered him by Governor Matthews. The literary career of Judge Lucas remains to be briefly mentioned. In 1869-70 he was connected as co-editor with the Southern Metropolis, an able literary journal published at Baltimore. He has published several volumes of poems, including "The Wreath of Eglantine," 1869; "Ballads and Madrigals," 1884. and "The Maid of Northumberland, a Drama of the Civil War," 1879, and has been called upon to prepare commemorative poems for several notable events, among them the dedication of the Confederate cemetery at Winchester, 1865; the semi-centennial of the university of Virginia, 1879; the unveiling of the Confederate monument at Charlestown, 1882, and the banquet of the New York Southern society in 1888. His lectures upon Daniel McConnell, John Brown, John Randolph and Henry Clay are admirable examples of American learning and eloquence. In appropriate recognition of his prominence as a scholar and historical critic, the degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by the university of West Virginia in 1884. In 1869 Judge Lucas was married to Lena T., daughter of Henry L. Brooke, of Richmond, Va., and a great-niece of John Randolph of Roanoke and Gov. Robert Brooke. They have one child, Virginia Lucas.
CAPTAIN CHARLES C. MARTIN, a prominent business man of Parkersburg, W. Va., identified with the wholesale trade of that city, was born in New Martinsville, Wetzel county, in the year 1840. He was reared in his native county and educated at West Liberty academy and at Marietta college, Ohio. When the issue of war divided the sentiment of his State, he found himself thoroughly in sympathy with the cause of the Confederate States, and consequently in June, 1862, he left school and making his way across the State, enlisted in Pocahontas county as a private in the Forty-sixth Virginia battalion of cavalry, which, about eighteen months later, was consolidated with the Twenty-sixth Virginia cavalry. With this command Mr. Martin was identified until the close of the war, but a portion of his period of service was passed in Federal prisoner. In the summer of 1862, not long after his enlistment, he was captured in Tyler county and sent to the Atheneum Prison at Wheeling for thirty days, and thence to Camp Chase, Ohio, where he was held until December 24, 1862. He was then under parole until March, 1863, when he was exchanged at City Point, after passing a week at the Old Capitol prison, at Washington, D.C. Now at last free to enter the Confederate service, he joined his command. In the latter part of the following summer he was again unfortunately captured at Fairmont, W. Va., and forwarded under guard to the Atheneum prison, and on the next day started to Camp Chase, but about four miles from Bridgeport he made a daring escape from the window of the toilet room of the railway car, and rejoined the army in safety. On November 6, 1863, he participated in the battle of Droop Mountain, and soon afterward he was promoted to the rank of second Lieutenant of Company E of the Twenty-sixth cavalry. Meanwhile, from June, 1863, during his presence with his command, he had discharged the duties of regimental quartermaster, filling the place of Capt. J. T. Arnold, who was disabled by illness, and in the summer of 1864 he was appointed captain and commissary of the regiment. This position he resigned after two months' service, and was finally paroled as lieutenant of his company, near Staunton, in April, 1865. He participated in the numerous severe engagements of the cavalry in the Shenandoah valley in 1864, with notable courage and fortitude. Among the battles in which he took part may be named Martinsburg and Shepherdstown, August 1864; Monocacy, Md., July 9th; Front Royal, August 16th; the fighting against Hunter before Lynchburg, the pursuit of the Federals down the valley, and the campaign through Maryland against Washington, including the battles at Winchester and Front Royal in August, the famous battle of September 19th at Winchester; Liberty Mills, October 15th; the skirmish on Orange plank road, 5 miles from Madison Court House, December 21, 1864, and Gordonsville, December 23, 1864. On March 28, 1865, he received a fifteen day furlough, and he was on his way back to his regiment when the army of Northern Virginia was surrendered. After making his home at New Martinsville for a time, he removed in December, 1865, to Parkersburg, where he has subsequently been engaged in business. For several years he conducted a retail grocery business, and in 1872 entered the wholesale trade, which he has since continued with notable success. He has been prominent in municipal and general politics, serving one term on the city council and for many years acting as a member of the Democratic executive committee of the Fourth congressional district.
COLONEL CLAIBORNE R. MASON, a pioneer in railroad construction in Virginia, and in later life conspicuous for valuable service to the Confederate armies, was born near Troy, N. Y., where his parents were temporarily residing, in the year 1800. Three years later he was brought by his parents back to Chesterfield county, Va., the family home, where he was rearcd, and at an early age left home for an independent career. At first obtaining employment in the coal fields of the county, he was soon afterward engaged as bridge contractor on the first railroad in Virginia, and probably the first in America, the Clover Hill & Coal Pit road, from the coal mines to Richmond, Va. This was the beginning of an active career as a contractor, in the course of which he was identified with the building of nearly every railroad in Virginia and many prominent lines in other States. Without the elaborate scholastic training and command of capital which gave an apparent advantage to others in his field of work, he outstripped them by reason of his genius. His remarkable facility in mathematics, splendid business capacity, power of rapid judgment and prompt execution were displayed in all his enterprises, and were the foundation of his great success in life. This success was not the achieving of a gigantic fortune, though he became prosperous, and was always able to command adequate financial stlpport, but by the supreme test of usefulness, great and noble deeds, and effective work for the improvement of the conditions of human welfare, he stood among the foremost of his time. After being associated with the building of short lines in eastern Virginia, Co1onel Mason constructed, with great credit to himself and satisfaction to the company, a part of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad near Harper's Ferry. As a contractor he threw the first shovelful of earth on the Louisa road from Hanover Junction to Frederick's Hall, the initial link of the great line destined to stretch from the Chesapeake beyond the Ohio. The last spike in this completed line was also driven by the same hand that broke the ground for the Louisa road. Colonel Mason acted as superintendent of this short line until the old Virginia Central was chartered, and he was invited to a wider field of enterprise in the construction of that road. Upon this, and its connection, the Covington & Ohio, he was engaged until the outbreak of the war, not alone in construction, but in properly presenting the enterprise before the legislatures of the State, and obtaining subscriptions from counties along the line, a department of work in which his great tact and power of commanding confidence and financial trust were peculiarly valuable. Mr. Mason was past sixty years of age when the crisis of 1860-61 came upon the State and put an end for the time to its commercial and industrial development. But his energetic life had not impaired his strength and vitality. On the contrary, he appeared to be in his prime, and the danger which confronted the State only inspired him to still more arduous labors for the common good. Entirely devoted to Virginia, and eager to follow where she led, he immediately abandoned his engineering operation to enter the Confederate service. After organizing the commissary department at Staunton, though without military experience, he devoted his rare influence over men to the organization of a company which afterward was attached to the Fifty-second Virginia infantry regiment, he holding the rank of captain. Very soon afterward, however, he was called to duty more suited to his talents, and more useful to the army. During the operations of Gen. Edward Johnson's command in the Alleghany region in the winter of 1861-62, traversing in many places a region little better than a wilderness, Captain Mason was put in charge of the pioneer corps, with the duty of repairing old and constructing new roads, and making a way for the troops. Though compelled to contend with the most unfavorable weather, his energy and judgment were so successfully displayed that he was appointed to the staff of Gen. Stonewall Jackson, as chief of sappers and miners, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel of engineers. When Jackson returned from McDowell, and reached Bridgewater on the march to Front Royal, North river was found swollen and the bridge destroyed, and Captain Mason promptly mastered the situation by improvising a bridge for the infantry by laying plank upon wagons placed in the stream. He continued with Jackson throughout the remainder of the campaign in the valley, and then went east to participate in the flank movement upon McClellan, where his services were invaluable amid the swamps of the Chickahominy. His untiring energy, quick intuition and swift performance were strikingly illustrated when Jackson, ordered by Lee to cross the Chickahominy, found the bridges all destroyed. The general instructed his engineers to prepare plans for new bridges, and directed Colonel Mason to be ready to perform the work as soon as the plans were perfected. But realizing the emergency, he went to the river, selected suitable sites for his foundations, set his force to work, and in a few hours had a bridge completed. Then returning to the general's tent, where he found the engineers busily engaged in explaining their plans, he stepped into the group and exclaimed: "Never mind the pictures, General, the bridge is ready." Service of this kind no one could appreciate more highly than Jackson, whose rapid marches in the valley had just excited the amazement of the North and the admiration of the South. At the close of the war Colonel Mason, though his fortune was seriously impaired, and his physical strength considerably taxed by military service, resumed his former business pursuits, and was engaged upon extensive and important contracts up to the time of his decease in Augusta county, in the year 1885. His son, Silas B. Mason, now a resident of Lewisburg, W. Va., was born at Hanover junction in 1847, but passed his childhood and youth mainly in Staunton, and was educated at the Virginia military academy. He served with the corps of cadets from this institute in front of Richmond from September until December 15, 1864, and in February, 1865, enlisted as a private at Staunton, in Thompson's battery, with which he served until the company was disbanded. After the war he attended Washington and Lee university four years, graduating in several courses and then entered the service of the Chesapeake & Ohio railroad as civil engineer. A year later, however, he abandoned this work to engage in railroad contracting, in which he has since been engaged. He is also extensive1y engaged in farming and stock raising at his home in Greenbrier county. In 1873 Mr. Mason was married at Lewisburg to Elizabeth M., daughter of the late William M. Montgomery, of the Confederate service, and they have seven children: Ruth, William H., James M., Dora Tate, Elizabeth M., Winifred B. and Char1otte E.
LIEUTENANT JONATHAN MAYS, of Lewisburg, clerk of the circuit court of Greenbrier county, was one of three brothers who gave their allegiance to the cause of Virginia at the juncture when she severed her relations with the old Union and united with the Confederate States. Their father, Jesse Mays, was a native of Bedford county, Va., died in 1859, aged about seventy years. Jonathan Mays was born in Greenbrier county in 1828, and in 1849 began a commercial career, first as a clerk, and becoming proprietor of a store in 1858. This business he abandoned in may, 1861, to become first lieutenant of a company of infantry organized in Greenbrier county, which was first assigned to Wise's 1egion and later to the Sixtieth Virginia infantry regiment. Lieutenant Mays served in the Kanawha valley campaign of 1861, and continued on duty until the fall of that year, when he was taken sick. On account of physical disability he was honorably discharged at Richmond, but earnest1y desiring to continue in the service, and hoping that his health might improve, he followed his regiment into South Carolina, and joined his command at Coosawhatchie. Soon afterward, however, it became apparent that he could not endure the life of a soldier, and returning home he accepted in the spring of 1862 the position of collector of tax-in-kind, in which he served in Greenbrier county during the remainder of the struggle for independence. From 1868 until 1872 he was employed in mercantile business, and then was elected to the office of c1erk of the circuit court, which he has he1d during the past quarter of a century, discharging the duties of the place with notable efficiency and courtesy in his relations to the public. His brothers in the service were Joseph M. Mays, who served as a private throughout the war and died in 1874, and William H. Mays, also a private, who was captured at Cloyd's Mountain, held for a long time as a prisoner at Camp Morton, and released a short time before his death.
BRIGADIER-GENERAL JOHN McCAUSLAND, one of the most conspicuous figures in the warfare in the valley of the Shenandoah and on the borders of Virginia, held important Confederate commands, and gained a national reputation as a brilliant leader and persistent fighter. He is the son of John McCausland, a native of county Tyrone, Ireland, who came to America when about twenty-one years of age, and first made his home at Lynchburg, with David Kyle, whose daughter Harriet he subsequently married. He became a prominent merchant and finally resided at St. Louis, where he rendered valuable service as commissioner of taxation. His son, John McCausland, was born at St. Louis, September 13, 1837, and in 1849 went with his brother to Point Pleasant, Mason county, where he received a preparatory education. He was graduated with first honors in the class of 1857 at the Virginia military institute, and subsequently acted as assistant professor in that institution until 1861. Upon the secession of Virginia he organized the famous Rockbridge artillery, of which he was elected commander; but leaving Dr. Pendleton in charge of that company, he made his headquarters at Charleston in the Kanawha valley, under commission from Governor Letcher, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, for the organization of troops in the military department of Western Virginia. He gathered about 6,000 men for the commands of Generals Wise and Floyd, who subsequently operated in that region, and formed the Thirty-sixth regiment, Virginia infantry, of which he took command, with a commission as colonel. This regiment, made up of the best blood of the western Virginia counties, was distinguished under his leadership in the campaign of Floyd's brigade in West Virginia, and in the latter part of 1861 moved to Bowling Green, Ky., to unite with the army of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston. At Fort Donelson, Colonel McCausland commanded a brigade of Floyd's division, and after bearing a conspicuous part in the gallant and really successful battle before the fort, brought away his Virginians before the surrender. After reorganizing at Nashville, he remained at Chattanooga with his command until after the battle of Shiloh, when he moved to Wytheville, Va. During 1862 and 1863 he was engaged in the campaigns in southwestern and western Virginia and the Shenandoah valley, under Generals Loring, Echols and Sam Jones, taking a conspicuous part in the battle at Charleston, September, 1862. Early in May, 1864, he was ordered by Gen. A. G. Jenkins to move his brigade from Dublin to meet the Federal force advancing under General Crook from the Kanawha valley. He took position on Cloyd's farm, where he was reinforced by General Jenkins, and attacked by the enemy May 9th. After several hours' fighting, Jenkins was mortally wounded and the Confederate line was broken by the superior strength of the enemy. Colonel McCausland assumed command and made a gallant fight, forming two new lines successive1y, and finally retired in good order, repulsing the attacks of the Federal cava1ry, and carrying with him 200 prisoners. In this battle the Federals outnumbered the Confederates three to one. By his subsequent active movements, General McCaus1and delayed the contemplated juncture of Crook and Hunter and rendered the Federal movement upon Dublin a practical failure. He was immediate1y promoted brigadier-general and assigned to the command of Jenkins' cavalry brigade. After the battle at Port Republic, June 5th, he stubborn1y contested the advance of the Federals under Hunter and Crook, all the way to Lynchburg, his command of about 1,800 men being the only organized force in the front of the enemy. His tenacious contest saved the city, and in recognition of his services the citizens presented him an address of congratulation, accompanied by a handsome cavalry officer's outfit, horse, sword and spurs. Early arrived from Cold Harbor in time to relieve McCausland from the pressure of the Federa1 troops, and McCausland and his troopers were soon upon their heels, intercepting Hunter at Falling Rock, and capturing his artillery and wagon train. Sweeping on down the valley, he was a conspicuous figure in the July raid through Maryland, levying $25,000 tribute from Hagerstown, winning a handsome cavalry fight at Frederick City, and made the first attack at the ford of the Monocacy across which Gordon moved to strike the Federal flank at the defeat of Wallace. Joining in the demonstration against Washington, D. C., the daring commander actually penetrated into the town of Georgetown, but was compelled to retire before the Federal reinforcements. He returned with Early's army to the Shenandoah valley, and soon afterward was ordered to make a raid upon Chambersburg, Pa., and destroy it in retaliation for the destruction which attended the operations of the Federals in the valley. This duty he faithfully performed. In command of a brigade of Lomax's cavalry division he participated in the Valley campaign against Sheridan, and subsequently, attached to Rosser's division, fought before Petersburg, made a gallant struggle at the decisive battle of Five Forks, during the retreat was engaged in continuous fighting, and finally cutting his way through the Federal lines at Appomattox, brought a number of his men to Lynchburg, where he once more saved the city from rapine by repressing the efforts of the stragglers that infested the suburbs. After the close of hostilities he spent a year or two in Europe and Mexico, and then returned to Mason county, where he has ever since resided in quiet upon his farm at Grimm's landing.
JAMES Z. McCHESNEY, since 1869 a valued citizen of Charleston, W. Va., is a native of Rockbridge county, Va., born in 1843. After attending one session at Washington college, he entered the Virginia military institute in January, 1862, and in May following accompanied the corps of cadets to the battlefield of McDowell, where they participated in the fight, attached to the Stonewall brigade. Returning to the Institute, he left there in July and just before the Second battle of Manassas enlisted s a private in the Seventeenth battalion of Virginia cavalry, afterward the Eleventh cavalry regiment, Rosser's brigade. In August, 1863, he was transferred to the Fourteenth Virginia cavalry, in the brigade of Gen. A. G. Jenkins. Among the battles in which he participated in the course of his military career were Second Manassas, Gettysburg, Monocacy, the skirmish before Washington, D. C., Hagerstown, Brandy Station, Moorefield, Fairmount, Petersburg, North Mountain Station, and the operations against the Lynchburg raid of Hunter. With the latter engagements were begun a period of constant fighting which lasted until October, 1864, when, in an exhausted condition, he was seized with typhoid fever, which put an end to his service. Though gallantly participating in many engagements he was never wounded, but had two horses killed under him. In the summer of 1865 he was paroled at Staunton, and he then returned to his home in Rockbridge county and was engaged in farming until his removal to Charleston.
JOHN G. McCLUER, a prominent attorney of Parkersburg, W. Va., was born in Rockbridge county, Va., April 8, 1844, the son of John S. McCluer, a native of the Old Dominion. While a student at Washington college at the age of seventeen years he enlisted in the Rockbridge artillery as a private, and went to the front for the defense of the State from invasion. In this command he participated in the first battle of Manassas. In the spring of 1862 he re-enlisted as a private in Company B of the Twelfth Virginia cavalry, with which he served gallantly and faithfully until called upon by the fortunes of war to maintain his loyalty to principle as an inmate of the Northern prison camps. Among the many cavalry fights in which he participated may be mentioned those at Williamsport, Romney, Hancock, Barton's Mill, the battles of Jackson's Valley campaign, McDowell, Winchester, Port Republic, Cross Keys, Martinsburg, Fisher's Hill, Harrisonburg, then the campaign of Second Manassas, including the capture of the headquarters of General Pope at Catlett's Station, and afterward all the battles of his command under Rosser, Fitz Lee, Hampton and Stuart, until the summer of 1864, when he was detailed as a scout before Petersburg. While on this dangerous duty he was captured, September 13, 1864, near the Proctor house, and thence was sent to Point Lookout, and held until the latter part of February, 1865. Then being returned to Richmond on parole, he was unable to secure exchange bore the war came to an end. He then entered upon the study of law at Lexington, was admitted to the bar in 1868, and in 1873 began the practice of his profession at Parkersburg, in which he has since continued with much success. In 1880 he was elected prosecuting attorney for Wood county, and being re-elected in 1884, served in all over seven years, then resigning to accept the appointment as judge of the circuit court of the Fifth judicial circuit, made by Gov. E. W. Wilson. After Judge McCluer had filled the unexpired term of Judge J. M. Jackson, resigned, he was nominated for the office by the Democrats of his district, and in the election which followed he materially reduced the normal Republican majority. In 1892 he was offered, but declined, the nomination of his party for Congress. In 1888 he was presidential elector for his district chosen upon the Democratic ticket. Judge McCluer is a valued member of Jenkins camp, United Confederate Veterans.
CAPTAIN ALPHEUS P. McCLUNG, of Lewisburg, W. Va., born in Greenbrier county in 1840, entered the Confederate service in August, 1861, as a private in Company K of the Fourteenth Virginia cavalry. On March 23, 1863, he was elected captain, the rank he held during the remainder of the war, as senior captain also commanding his regiment during a large part of the campaigns of 1864-65. He rendered gallant service with General McCausland's command in many raids and engagements. Among the battles in which he took part were Cedarville, Orange Court House, Fredericksburg, Charlestown, Fayetteville, Droop Mountain, Covington, Panther Gap, Staunton, Brownstown, Lexington, New London, Lynchburg, Gordonsville, Monocacy Junction, Washington, D. C., the Chambersburg raid, Cumberland, New Creek and Moorefield. He was once, while on duty in Greenbrier county, knocked from his horse by the concussion of a cannon ball; was hit by a spent ball at Gordonsville, severely wounded at Droop mountain, and badly wounded at Moorefiled, after which he was on furlough until October, 1864. Since the war he has resided in Greenbrier county, where he served as deputy sheriff from 1877 to 1881 and from 1885 to 1889. Two of his brothers were in the Confederate service: Samuel K., who was a private of the Fourteenth cavalry from 1861 to 1865, and died in 1886; and Cyrus H., a private in the same regiment form April to August, 1861, when he received an honorable discharge on account of physical disability.
LIEUTENANT ANGUS W. McDONALD, of Charlestown, W. Va., son of Col. Angus W. McDonald, a conspicuous figure in the early days of the Confederate movement in northern Virginia, was one of six brothers who rendered services of great value to the cause. He was born at Romney, Hampshire county, in 1829. In 1848, 1849 and 1850 he attended the university of Virginia, and subsequently studying law at Romney with Judge T. C. Green, was admitted to the bar in 1852. He was engaged in the practice of his profession in his native county until he abandoned this occupation early in 1861 to enlist as a private in the Confederate service. In April he took part in the organization of a company of infantry at Romney, of which he was elected first lieutenant. Soon afterward the volunteers provided themselves with horses and became Company F of the Seventh Virginia cavalry, first commanded by Col. A. W. McDonald, and later by the lamented Turner Ashby. Of this regiment Lieutenant McDonald acted as adjutant from July, 1861, until December, meantime participating in an engagement at Romney. Then, having been elected a member of the Virginia legislature, he entered upon a term of two years' service in that capacity, on the conclusion of which, in April, 1863, he was appointed commissary agent for the Confederate government, with the duty of obtaining supplies in Hardy, Hampshire, and other counties within the lines of the enemy. In the following May, while on duty in Hardy county, and engaged in a skirmish with the First New York regiment, his horse was shot and he fell into the hands of the enemy. He was held as a prisoner until the fall of 1863, when he was paroled and specially exchanged for an inmate of Libby prison. Subsequently he continued in the commissary service until the end of the war, when he made his home in Clarke county and followed farming. In 1870 he resumed his law practice in Berryville, and since 1890 he has been a prominent member of the Charlestown bar. While a resident of Clarke county, he held for several years the position of mayor of Berryville, and since his removal to Charlestown has represented in the West Virginia legislature, from 1894 to 1896, the delegate district composed of the counties of Berkeley, Jefferson and Morgan. Of the five brothers of Lieutenant McDonald who served the Confederate States, the youngest, Harry, entered the army as a private in 1865. Marshall McDonald, late United States fish commissioner, held the rank of captain of engineers, and was surrendered at the capture of Vicksburg. Craig W. McDonald served on the staff of General Elzey, and was killed in the battle of Gaines' Mill in June, 1862. William N. McDonald was captain of ordnance on the staff of General Mahone at the close of the war, and Edward H. McDonald was major of the Eleventh Virginia cavalry, and just before the surrender at Appomattox was promoted to lieutenant-colonel. Col. Angus W. McDonald, father of this patriotic family, was born at Winchester, Va., in 1799, the son of Maj. Angus McDonald, U. S. A., who died in service during the war of 1813. Col. A. W. McDonald was appointed to West Point from Virginia, served in garrison at Mobile bay and other points in the South, gained the rank of first lieutenant of infantry, and resigned from the army in 1819. Subsequently he was engaged as a fur trader of the Missouri company upon the Yellowstone river until 1825, when he came to Romney to study and engage in the practice of law. On June 4, 1861, he was commissioned colonel, C. S. A., and ordered by President Davis to report to General Johnson at Harper's Ferry, and with the cavalry there, and such as he could collect, to obstruct and disable the Baltimore & Ohio railroad in order to check the transportation of troops to Washington. He could find no force available for this work, and immediately set about the organization of a cavalry command. By the middle of June, Capt. Turner Ashby reported to him at Winchester with his company. Soon afterward he was joined by Captain Gaither's company from Maryland. Other mounted troops steadily gathered under his standard at Romney, including Sheetz' company from Hampshire, Myers' company from Shenandoah, Jordan's from Page, Bowen's from Warren, Wingfield's, Harper's and Shand's from Rockingham, besides detached volunteers from Hardy county, and from Alabama, Kentucky, and Maryland. These troops he organized into the Seventh Virginia cavalry, of which Turner Ashby became the lieutenant-colonel and Dr. O. R. Funsten major. In 1864 Colonel McDonald, then in command of the military post at Lexington was captured near there by Col. Timothy Quinn, of the First New York cavalry, of General Hunter's command. His young son, Harry, and two others were encamped in the woods, where they were discovered by a company from Hunter's command. After a sharp fight Colonel McDonald and his party being protected by a fence, Hunter's men were finally driven off. In this fight Colonel McDonald was slightly wounded, and on the next day surrendered to Colonel Quinn, who with his regiment had been sent in search of him. Harry made his escape on the second night after capture. His father was carried, at the age of sixty-five, in an ordinary ordnance wagon, across the mountains to the Ohio river, was subsequently confined as a prisoner at Wheeling, and finally exchanged, through the active intervention of General Hitchcock, U. S. A., who had been an intimate friend and fellow cadet at West Point, in November, 1864. He never rallied from the effect of his ride across the mountains of West Virginia and of his imprisonment, and died shortly after his exchange, in Richmond, January 4, 1865. Besides his six sons he had two sons-in-law in the Confederate army, James W. Green of Culpeper, Va., one of the ablest lawyers in the State, and Thomas C. Green, who died while a member of the supreme court of appeals of West Virginia, and who was universally recognized during his many years of service by the bench and bar of the State, as easily among the ablest members of that court.
COLONEL EDWARD HITCHCOCK McDONALD, of Jefferson county, W. Va., a distinguished cavalry soldier of the Confederate service, was born in Romney in 1832. At the age of fourteen he went to Hannibal, Mo., and resided two years, and then returning to Romney, two years later became connected with a wholesale mercantile house in Baltimore. Subsequently he was engaged in the lumber trade and merchandise at Keyser, until the secession of Virginia. He at that time held the rank of colonel of the Seventy-seventh regiment of Virginia militia, but accompanied Gen. William Harper to Harper's Ferry, in April, as volunteer aide. While on this duty he was selected to convey to Baltimore the arms furnished by Virginia to the Maryland volunteers, which he delivered to Colonel King at their destination. After Col. T. J. Jackson took command at Harper's Ferry, Colonel McDonald was ordered into Hampshire county to collect the forces there and bring them to Jackson's rendezvous, and he then volunteered in the ranks of Capt. John B. Sherrard's company, later Company K of the Thirteenth Virginia infantry, with which he served at Harper's Ferry and in the expedition to Romney, until General Johnston began his movement to Manassas, when the general, learning of McDonald's former rank, detailed him to collect his militia regiment and assist in guarding the border. He gathered a body of men and operated about Romney and Winchester until the spring of 1862, when he organized a cavalry company in Hampshire and Hardy counties, of which he was elected captain. At first under the command of his father, Col. Angus W. McDonald, he was stationed at Blue's Gap, at Hanging Rocks, near Romney, where, with 27 men, he repulsed the advance of two Federal infantry regiments and a squadron of cavalry, first firing a volley, and then throwing and rolling down rocks upon the enemy until they retreated. He was later assigned to the command of General Ashby, his company finally becoming Company D of the Eleventh Virginia cavalry. Of this regiment he was promoted major in the summer of 1863, for gallantry in repulsing an attack on a wagon train at Williamsport, and early in 1865 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, but his commission failed to reach him. He participated in the early cavalry skirmishes in the valley under Ashby, and in the action where the latter fell, Captain McDonald's company led the charge which resulted in the capture of Col. Percy Wyndham, the Federal commander, and his colors. He took part in the battles of Cross Keys, Port Republic and Strasburg, and afterward joining the cavalry division under General Stuart, he was identified with its glorious record until the close of the war, only being absent thirty days following the retreat from Gettysburg, when he was disabled by typhoid fever. In all he took part in 101 engagements. He was wounded in the face at Farmville, and slightly wounded at Buckhannon, W. Va. At the battle of Cedar Creek, against Sheridan, he rendered conspicuous service in command of his regiment, then but 67 men, making a gallant resistance to Sheridan's advance.
CAPTAIN ROBERT McELDOWNEY, of New Martinsville, W. Va., as a member of the famous Stonewall brigade of the army of Northern Virginia, had a long and distinguished career in the Confederate war. He was born at Martinsville in 1837, and was educated at the Moundsville academy and Marietta college, leaving the latter institution in the midst of his course to enlist in the Virginia troops. He became a member of the Shriver Grays, organized in the Panhandle district, and subsequently assigned as Company G to the Twenty-seventh Virginia infantry regiment, and the brigade of Gen. T. J. Jackson. Three or four months after his enlistment Private McEldowney was promoted orderly-sergeant; in March, 1862, he was made first lieutenant, any in less than a year became captain of his company, the rank in which he served during the remainder of the war, though in the latter two years of his service he was frequently in command of his regiment. After first joining the command of General Jackson in the Shenandoah valley he participated in the Bath-Romney expedition in January, 1862, and in the following spring shared the fatigues and hard fighting of the famous Valley campaign, taking part in the opening engagement at Kernstown, and the following battles of McDowell, Front Royal, Winchester and Port Republic. Then, transferred to the scene of war before Richmond, he was in the actions at Gaines' Mill, White Oak swamp and Malvern Hill, against McClellan. Subsequently in the northward movement of Jackson's corps, he fought at Cedar mountain, and in the battle of Second Manassas received a severe wound in the right foot, which, though it did not prevent him from taking part in the action at Chantilly, caused his subsequent disability until September 17, 1862, when he rejoined his company in time to participate in the battle of Sharpsburg, Md. He fought with Jackson's corps at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville,and then under Ewell, participated in the defeat of Milroy at Winchester and the campaign in Pennsylvania. On the third day of the battle of Gettysburg a rifle ball struck the rim of a buckskin purse in his pocket, inflicting a contused wound, which disabled him for several weeks. He took part in the battle of Mine Run, in the fall of 1863, and in the following May went into the campaign against Grant, receiving a wound in the right arm on the first day at the Wilderness, but continuing in the field, and fighting subsequently at Spottsylvania Court House and Bethesda church. After the army reached Cold Harbor, he went with the remnant of his division, under command of General Terry, to the valley of Virginia, took part in the repulse of the Federals from Lynchburg, and joined in Early's expedition against Washington, fighting at the Monocacy and skirmishing under the guns of the United States capital defenses. Returning from this arduous work he was compelled to take a sick furlough of two weeks, but was with his men again in the battle of Winchester, September 19th, and the fights at Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek. Again with the main army on the Petersburg lines he took part in the battle of Hatcher's Run, February, 1865, and was one of the heroic men who made the sally against Fort Steadman on March 25th. While inside the Federal works and crossing the second traverse he received a wound in the left leg which prevented further active service during the few days which the war continued. In this fight he commanded his regiment, which was reduced to 58 men. He remained at Stuart hospital, Richmond, until the month of June, when he was paroled, and returned via Washington to his home. Going to Philadelphia he found employment in a wholesale house for three, years, and after this, at Wheeling, he served three years as ticket agent of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. Meantime he prepared himself for the practice of law, and since making his home at New Martinsville again in 1871, he has continued in that profession; also, since 1879, conducting the Democrat newspaper, at that town. In 1874-75 he represented Wetzel county in the State legislature. Captain McEldowney was married in 1884 to Anna L. Smith, of Pittsburg, and they have one child, Geraldine.
CAPTAIN J. W. McSHERRY, of Martinsburg, W. Va., who held the rank of captain in the Confederate service, was born in Martinsburg in 1833. He was graduated at St. Mary's college, now theological seminary, at Baltimore in 1850, and then entering upon the study of medicine, was graduated in 1855 at the medical university of Maryland. Then returning to his native city he embarked in the practice of his profession, and continued it in Boone county from 1856 until the beginning of hostilities in 1861. Meanwhilw he served as surgeon in the State militia under commission from Gov. H. A. Wise, and at the outbreak of war he enlisted in the Confederate service as captain of Company B of the Thirty-sixth Virginia regiment of infantry. He held this rank during the war, also serving upon the staff of Gen. John McCausland, and at times on medical duty. In the course of his service he participated in the West Virginia battles of Charleston, Carnifex Ferry, Dry Wood Gap, Fayetteville, Big Sewell Mountain, Cotton Hill, Piney Creek and Raleigh. Going into Kentucky and Tennessee with General Floyd's command, he took part in the battles of Fort Donelson, Chattanooga and Knoxville. He was wounded in the side at Carnifex Forry, and received a slight wound in the leg at Fort Donelson. On November 19, 1864, while on duty in Kanawha county, he was captured by the enemy, and was subsequently held in confinement at Fort Delaware until the close of hostilities. Then, after practicing medicine at Baltimore for a few months, he returned to Martinsburg, where he has subsequently resided, meeting with notable success in his professional labors. He is a valued and influential citizen, and has rendered substantial service to the community during an official career of seven terms upon the city council and two terms as mayor. During his incumbency of the latter office he was instrumental in relieving the city of a large part of its indebtedness, and greatly reducing the interest rate of the remainder.
JAMES E. MIDDLETON, a prominent attorney of Charleston, W. Va., was born at Fredericksburg, Va., in 1832, son of Henry O. and Mildred (Crutchfield) Middleton, of Fredericksburg, Va. His grandfather, Theodore Middleton, a native of Prince George county, Md., served with the rank of major in the Revolutionary war. After the death of his mother, in 1838, he was taken to Georgetown, D. C., where, and at Fredericksburg, and in a private school near Bladensburg, Md, he received his early education. He attended Georgetown college 1847-50, and then he returned to Fredcrickburg and began the study of law under Judge R. C. L. Moncure. Removing to Lewisburg in 1852, he was admitted to the bar in 1854, and practiced there a few years, in the meantime being married, January 14, 1858, to Betty F., daughter of the late Felix G. Hansford, of Kanawha county. In 1859 he removed to Buckhannon, Upshur county, where his father, Henry O. Middleton, was engaged in the practice of law, and here engaged in the organization and became a member of the Upshur Grays, for the Confederate service. But desiring to remove his wife and children to her father's home for safety, he resigned from this company and proceeded to Kanawha county. Here he notified Captain Lewis of his intention to join the latter's cavalry company, then in camp near St. Alban's, and purchasing a horse he started on Monday preceding the battle of Scary Creek, to enlist in Lewis' command. But when near the Red house, north of Charleston, his horse became unmanageable and threw him upon the ground and in such a position that a heavy knife he was carrying inflicted a severe wound in the right arm, cutting the tendons, and entirely disabling him from ever using a gun or sword. It was about a year before he recovered sufficiently to render any service, and in the meantime, in the late fall of 1861, he was captured at home by a Federal force, in retaliation, and sent to Wheeling, where he was confined for three or four months and finally released on account of poor health. After his return home, General Loring entered the valley and Mr. Middleton at once applied for duty, and was assigned to the quartermaster's department at Raleigh Court House. He was on duty here and with General Loring's brigade until the winter of 1863-64, when he was ordered to Bainbridge, Ga., where he entered the service under Major Hines, collector of tax-in-kind. In this department he continued until the close of the war. Mr. Middleton is now one of the prominent men of the West Virginia capital, and has a high professional standing. He has four children living: Henry O., also engaged in the practice of law at Charleston; Sallie, wife of Dr. John S. Burdette, of Charleston; Edward M., of Greenville, Miss., and Ellen, widow of A. E. Hill, late of Richmond county, Va.
MAJOR JOHN WHITE MITCHELL, a brilliant soldier of West Virginia, was born at Wheeling, December 31, 1838. He was educated at Mount Olive, New Jersey, and in the Episcopal academy at Alexandria, Va., and studied law at Lexington, Va., gaining admission to practice in 1860. At the same time he was a member of the Shriver Grays, a local military company to which many of the young men of the best families in that region belonged. As first lieutenant of this organization he went into the Confederate service in the spring of 1861, and soon became distinguished for his gallantry among his comrades of the Twenty-seventh regiment and Stonewall brigade. He participated in the campaigns and battles of Jackson's corps until the death of that great leader at Chancellorsville, and continued in the fight until the end of the war, winning promotion to the rank of major. For some time he served upon the staff of Brig.-Gen. John Echols, who commanded the departments of southwest Virginia and the Trans-Allegheny during the latter part of the struggle. After the close of hostilities he served for a few years as deputy sheriff at Wheeling, and in 1883 became clerk of the circuit court, a position he held until his death July 30, 1896. As a soldier he manifested the noblest qualities of the patriot volunteer and in civil life it was said of him that he had more personal friends than any other man of his county. He was descended from a pioneer family, his grandfather, Alexander Mitchell, having been distinguished in the early settlement of the upper Ohio valley and the contests with the Indians during that period.
GEORGE H. MOFFATT, of Parkersburg, W. Va., is a descendant of an Augusta county family of worth and patriotic renown, which was founded by John Moffatt, an immigrant from the north of Ireland in 1732, who settled in that county, on Moffatt's Creek. George Moffatt, the great-grandfather of Mr. Muffatt, served as captain of a volunteer company in the Indian wars, in the war of the Revolution was lieutenant-colonel of a Virginia regiment commanded by his brother-in-law, Col. Samuel McDowell, serving under Gen. Nathaniel Greene at King's Mountain, Cowpens, etc., and was for many years president of the county court and colonel of militia for Augusta county, which then extended from the Blue Ridge to the Mississippi. Mr. Moffatt was born at Huntersville, March 3, 1845, and was educated at Washington college, which he left in April, 1861, as a private in the Liberty Hall volunteers, a company subsequently assigned to the Fourth Virginia regiment, Stonewall brigade. With this command he participated in the first battle of Manassas, and afterward was transferred to the Bath squadron of the Eleventh Virginia cavalry. He was promoted sergeant in 1863, and sergeant-major in 1863. With the cavalry he participated in a great many battles, including McDowell, the Seven Days' campaign, Cedar Mountain, Second Manassas, Harper's Ferry, Sharpsburg, Cheat River, Fairmount, Bridgeport, Brandy Station, Gettysburg, Hagerstown and other fights on the retreat through Maryland, Jack's Shop, Bristoe Station, Droop Mountain and Salem. He was slightly wounded at First Manassas and again at Jack's Shop. On December 21, 1863, he was captured on the Greenbrier river, by Averell's troops, and from that time until long after the surrender at Appomattox was held as a prisoner, at Camp Chase and Fort Delaware, finally being released June 20, 1865. After this he farmed, taught school and studied law in Pocahontas county, and completing his reading under the late Governor Price at Lewisburg, was admitted to the bar in 1868. After practicing law at Huntersville until 1875, he removed to Wheeling and purchased an interest in the Wheeling Register, which he edited until the fall of 1884. He then accepted the editorial management of the St. Paul Globe, resigning in 1891 to become general manager of the Telegram at Portland, Oregon. During 1895-96 he was a traveling correspondent of the Cincinnati Enquirer, with headquarters at Washington. He then took the position of associate counsel and claim agent of the Ohio River railroad, with headquarters at Parkersburg. He was a member of the West Virginia constitutional convention of 1872; served from 1879 to 1883 in the legislature of that State, in the session of 1879-80 as speaker of the house; was a delegate to the Democratic National convention of 1884, and was chosen a delegate in 1888 from St. Paul; was a delegate in 1889 from Minnesota, and in 1893 from Oregon to the Trans-Mississippi Congress; and in 1892 was chairman of the committee selected by the city of Portland which visited the Federal capital and secured the approval of plans for a bridge over the Willamette river, which had been refused the sanction of the government engineers.
LIEUTENANT CLEON MOORE, of Charlestown, W. Va., a veteran of Stonewall Jackson's brigade, was born at Charlestown, November 24, 1840. On April 28, 1861, as a private in Botts' Grays, afterward Company K of the Second Virginia infantry regiment, he entered the Confederate service. In the following summer he was made sergeant, and at the reorganization in 1862 he was promoted second lieutenant. During the latter part of the war he was often in command of his company. He was in many of the important battles in which his brigade participated, including Hainesville, W. Va.; First Manassas, Kernstown, two engagements at Winchester, McDowell, Port Republic (was on detached duty at Brown's Gap during the Peninsular campaign), Cedar Mountain, Second Manassas, Romney, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Mine Run, the Wilderness and Spottsylvania campaign, Monocacy, Winchester (September 19, 1864), Fisher's Hill, Petersburg and Appomattox. He was paroled with the army, and then returned to his horne, where, after teaching school for a time, he entered upon the study of law. He began the practice in 1870, and has since attained a creditable position in his profession. From 1881 to 1885 he was prosecuting attorney for Jefferson county.
JOHN W. MORRIS, of Lewisburg, who occupies an honorable position among the attorneys of the Greenbrier region of West Virginia, was born in Albemarle county, Va., in the year 1840. In 1859 he entered the university of Virginia, and sharing the martial and patriotic enthusiasm which inspired the students in the crisis of 1861, became a member of a volunteer company organized at the university. Early in July, 1861, he left the school as orderly-sergeant of his company, and served with Wise's legion and later with the Fifty-ninth regiment Virginia infantry, until late in the year, when the company was disbanded for the purpose of utilizing the members in other positions for which they were fitted by military training and education. Early in the spring of 1863 Mr. Morris volunteered as a private in Company C of the Nineteenth Virginia infantry, under Col. John B. Strange, with which he shared the operations of Pickett's brigade of Longstreet's division during the Peninsular campaign against McClellan, fighting at Williamsburg and in several minor affairs. At the close of this arduous campaign his physical condition was such that he received an honorable discharge. Still desiring to render such service as possible to the cause of his State he obtained a position in the commissary department, and was assigned as purchasing agent at Scottsville, where he remained on duty during the rest of the war. Subsequently he made his home in Greenbrier county, W. Va., and entering upon the study of the law was admitted to practice. Since then Lewisburg has been his residence and the theatre of his professional career. As a representative man of his congressional district he was chosen as a presidential elector on the Democratic ticket in 1884. He has served one term, from 1873 to 1877, as prosecuting attorney for the county.
LIEUTENANT JOHN D. MYERS, M. D., past commander of Garnett camp, United Confederate Veterans, at Huntington, W. Va., was born at Lewisburg, Va., September 4, 1841. He is the son of John H. Myers, of Loudoun county, Virginia, who became a prominent citizen of Lexington, founding the first bank of issue, and serving as mayor and treasurer of Washington college. John D. Myers was reared at Lexington from his ninth year and was educated at Washington college and William and Mary college, being graduated at the latter institution in 1861. He entered the military service of Virginia in March of that year, serving with the engineer corps on the peninsula. In May he entered the Virginia military institute for a six weeks' course in tactics and fortifications, as one of a class of one hundred and twenty who were formed into a battalion. In June he was ordered to report to General Garnett, with whom he acted as drill-master and assistant aide-de-camp with the rank of second lieutenant during the Confederate occupation of Laurel Hill, and the fighting at Carrick's Ford and other points on the retreat. He was then stationed as a drillmaster at Camp Harman, near Manassas, from September served for a time on the peninsula in the quartermaster and later in the ordnance department, and acted as drill-master on Jamestown island until the reorganization in 1862, when he resigned his commission and enlisted as a private in the Liberty Hall volunteers, or Company I, Fourth Virginia infantry, Stonewall brigade. With this command he took part in the battle of Front Royal, and the chase of Banks across the Potomac, Port Republic, Gaines' Mill, in the Seven Days' campaign, Fort Magruder, Cedar Run, Second Manassas and the capture of Harper's Ferry. Then, just before the battle of Sharpsburg, he was transferred to Company C, of the First Virginia cavalry, and his subsequent military career was under the gallant Stuart and Fitzhugh Lee. As a cavalryman he participated in many spirited affairs, including the fights at Fredericksburg, skirmishes in Fauquier county, Brandy Station, Yellow Tavern, Todd's Tavern, the Stoneman raid, the battle with Sheridan at Winchester, and the fights before Petersburg. He was slightly wounded in the face at Cedar Run, and more seriously at Todd's Tavern in the shoulder, and was finally paroled at Columbia, Va., in June, 1865. Turning at once to the duties of civil life, he was graduated in medicine after one session's study at the university of Virginia, and then entered upon the practice at various localities, at Christiansburg, Lexington, in hospital at New York city, in Rockbridge county, at Boonville, Mo.; again in Rockbridge county, then at Capertown, W. Va., finally establishing himself at Huntington in 1886, at the same time accepting the position of district surgeon of the Chesapeake & Ohio railroad. He served a few months after the war as councilman of Lexington, but with that exception has devoted himself to the work of his profession. He was first vice-president of the Central State medical society of Missouri, has served as vice-president of the West Virginia medical society and president of the Huntington medical society, and is a member of the International association of railway surgeons.
R. T. ONEY, of Bluefield, W. Va., a Confederate veteran who before he had reached the age of eighteen years had served with gallantry on several famous battlefields of the Army of Northern Virginia, and suffered an experience of eleven months in Northern hospitals and prison camps, was born in Bedford county, Virginia, in the year 1845. In the spring of 1861 he enlisted in the Bedford light artillery, under Capl T. C. Jordan, as a private, and subsequently participated in the operations of that command until the fall of 1862. Stationed on the peninsula resisting the advance of McClellan he took part in an artillery duel at Gwynn's Mill which continued for nearly two weeks, day and night; was on duty during the retreat from Yorktown, participated in the Seven Days' battles, and subsequently fought with his battery at Second Manassas and in the Maryland campaign. At the battle of Sharpsburg the Bedford artillery, in the battalion commanded by Col. (afterward Lieut.-Gen.) Stephen D. Lee, was distinguished for effective work. In this fight Private Oney was disabled and captured. He was subsequently held as a prisoner in the hospitals at Sharpsburg, Smoketown, and Frederick City, and thence taken to Baltimore. At Forts McHenry and Norfolk he passed the remainder of his eleven months' imprisonment. On being released he reported for duty and was assigned to the command of Maj. W. R. Richards at Gordonsville, where he served as transportation clerk in the railroad service. His subsequent service was rendered under the orders of Gen. L. F. Smith, as a collector of tax-in-kind; in the quartermaster-general's office at Richmond; in the Confederate States clothing bureau at Richmond; under Maj. A. J. Vaughn at Bedford City; and under Maj. A. B. Garland, commissary officer for Bedford and Franklin counties. After the close of hostilities he remained at Bedford until 1868, engaged in mercantile business and as deputy clerk of the county court, and subsequently resided at Charleston, W. Va serving as bookkeeper of the Kanawha Valley bank, until 1873. He then became cashier of the Bank of Huntington, West Virginia, remained in that position until 1883, returned to Charleston and held the position of cashier and manager of the Valley bank until 1896, when he made his home at Bluefield. The skillfulness and strict integrity which have characterized his discharge of important trusts have given him a wide reputation as a business man.
ALFRED SPICER PATRICK, M. D., of Charleston, W. Va., a medical officer of the Confederate service, was born at Charleston in 1831. In 1849 he was graduated at the Marietta college, and in 1853 he received the degree of doctor of medicine from the Ohio medical college. After practicing several years in Mason county, West Virginia, he returned to Charleston in 1860, and in the spring of 1861 was the first private to be mustered into the Confederate service in the Kanawha valley. He enlisted May 8, 1861, in the Kanawha riflemen, and with this company, as a part of the Twenty-second regiment of Virginia infantry, served six or seven months as a private until he was detailed for the duties of assistant surgeon. In the winter of 1863-64 he was commissioned surgeon of the regiment, and in this capacity he served during the remainder of the war. He took part in the battle of Scary as a private in the ranks, and subsequently until November, 1861, was in charge as assistant surgeon of the hospital at White Sulpher Springs. Then rejoining his command under General Floyd, he passed the following winter at Lewisburg. He shared the active operations of the regiment thereafter, and was with the command in the battles of Lewisburg, New Market, Opequan, Second Cold Harbor, Lynchburg, Kernstown, the Maryland expedition under General Early, the Winchester battle with Sheridan, and many other engagements, until he was paroled at Lewisburg in May, 1865. After the close of hostilities he practiced his profession at Charleston until 1872, and then at Lewisburg until 1889, since when he has again been a resident of Charleston, and one of its prominent physicians. He is a member of the Greenbrier county and Charleston medical and surgical societies, and the medical society of West Virginia. In 1862 Dr. Patrick was married at Lewisburg, to Virginia A., daughter of the late Mason M. Mathews.
COLONEL GEORGE S. PATTON was a son of John M. Patton, of Richmond. After graduating with distinction at the Virginia military institute, he moved in 1856 to Charleston, Kanawha county, and there practiced the profession of law until the outbreak of the war. In 1859 he organized the volunteer company known as the Kanawha riflemen, a fine body of men, including fifteen members of the bar and other prominent men of the town. He devoted himself with much enthusiasm to the drilling of this organization, and when it enlisted in the Confederate service on May 8, 1861, it was one of the best drilled and equipped companies of that period. Being commander of the first company to enlist in the region, Captain Patton naturally became an important figure in the rallying of sentiment favorable to the Confederacy, and was soon promoted lieutenant-colonel of the Twenty-second regiment, to which the riflemen had been assigned. He was stationed by General Wise with nine hundred men near Scary Creek, where, on July 17th, he had a combat with a Federal force which finally resulted in favor of the Confederates, though Lieutenant-Colonel Patton was wounded severely and made prisoner. Upon his recovery and exchange he was unanimously elected colonel of the regiment, previously commanded by Col. C. Q. Tompkins. In this rank he served during the remainder of the war, though for a large part of the time in brigade command. In April, 1862, he was again badly wounded in Giles county, Virginia, and in September following he participated, in command of his regiment, in General Loring's campaign in the Kanawha valley. In August, 1863, he had a brigade command in the battle fought near the Greenbrier White Sulphur Springs, winning much military distinction. In May, 1864, he commanded a brigade in the division of General Breckinridge in the battles of Cold Harbor and New Market, and subsequently had brigade command during the expedition of Early's corps through Maryland against Washington, returning thence to participate in the final defense of the valley, in the course of which he was for the third time wounded in the sanguinary battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864. From the effects of this wound he died within the same month.
LIEUTENANT ERASTUS HENRY PECK, of Hinton, W. Va. born in Monroe county in 1839, was one of six brothers who served with devotion for the cause of the Old Dominion and the Confederate States. He entered the service June 8, 1861, as a private in Lowry's battery, was appointed quartermaster sergeant two months later, resigned that position in the following December, was appointed orderly-sergeant in the spring of 1862; on June 16, 1864, was elected lieutenant, and soon afterward was assigned to duty as adjutant of McLaughlin's battalion of artillery in which capacity he served until the close of hostilities. He participated in the battles of Kernstown, Cross Keys, Port Republic, Pearisburg, Lewisburg, Rodgersville, Tenn.; Carter's Station, Tenn.; Lynchburg, Monocacy, Md., and the engagements at Winchester and Cedar Creek in 1864. At the latter fight he was wounded, and was granted leave of absence for one hundred days, after which he rejoined his command. During the earlier years after the close of the war he resided in Mercer County, but since 1872 has been a citizen of Summers county, where he has served by successive re-elections for twenty-four years as county clerk. The five brothers in the service were: Pembroke P. Peck. of Edgar's battalion, now living at Hinton; Jacob A. Peck, lieutenant Eighth Virginia cavalry, now living in Mercer county; Charles L. Peck, of Wise's legion and later of the cavalry, now residing in Summers county; James H. Peck, of Salem, captain in Edgar's battalion; and Benjamin W. Peck, private in the Twenty-fourth Virginia infantry, who was killed at Gettysburg.
LIEUTENANT-COLONEL JOSEPH HENRY PENDLETON was born at Whitehall, Louisa county, Va., January 16, 1827. His father, Dr. Joseph Winston Pendleton, was a planter and physician and a man of high standing. His mother, Elizabeth Hawes (Godwin) Pendleton, who claimed her descent from Earl Godwin, father of King Harold, was a woman of unusual ability. He graduated in 1846 at Bethany college, then presided over by the noted reformer, Alexander Campbell, whose granddaughter Colonel Pendleton afterward married: studied law under Judge Lucas Thompson of Staunton; settled in Wheeling in 1852, and was soon at the head of the bar. Favoring secession he was defeated as a candidate for delegate to the convention that met at Richmond in the spring of 1861. When war was begun he gave up a lucrative practice, moved his family to his father's home in Virginia and joined the Confederate forces. As major of Colonel Taliaferro's regiment, the Twenty-third infantry, he was with Garnett at Laurel Hill and on the retreat through the mountains, and received a scalp wound during the rear-guard fighting in which the general was killed. He was commended by Colonel Taliaferro for his courage and gallantry in the fight at Carrick's Ford. In 1862 he was with Jackson in the brilliant campaign in the valley, and in the following winter accepted the position of quarter-master of Colston's brigade, Trimble's division, Second army corps. In the autumn of 1863, having resigned from the army, in which he gained the rank of brevet lieutenant-colonel, he was elected to the Virginia house of delegates from Ohio county, and in this body was one of the most influential members until the close of the war. He returned to Wheeling in 1871 and resided there until his death, February 2, 1881. He married in October, 1848, at Bethany, Margaret Campbell Ewing, of Nashville, Tenn., daughter of Albert Gallatin and Jane (Campbell) Ewing. Seven children survived him: Joseph Minor; John Overton, member of congress, 1889-1895; Henry Harwood, consul to Southampton, 1887-89 and assistant attorney-general of West Virginia, 1895-97; Elizabeth Winston, Ida Ewing, Virginia Campbell, and Margaret Josephine.
LIEUTENANT GEORGE WILLIAM PETERKIN, D. D., LL. D., first bishop of the Protestant Episcopal church of the diocese of West Virginia, was born at Clear Spring, Md., March 21, 1841. He was the son of Rev. Joshua Peterkin, who subsequently had charge of the Episcopal churches at Frederick City and Urbana, Md.; Berryville, Va.; Princeton, N. J., and became rector of St, James church, Richmond, in 1855. George W. Peterkin was educated at the Episcopal high school near Alexandria, and at the university of Virginia, and subsequently while teaching school in Fauquier county and at Richmond became a candidate for the ministry. While studying theology with his father he became a member of Company F, First regiment Virginia troops, in January, 1861, and with this command on April 17, 1861, was mustered into active service. The company was assigned to the Twenty-first Virginia regiment, and in July, 1861, was sent upon the campaign in western Virginia under Gen. R. E. Lee. After recovering from a severe attack of typhoid fever in the fall, Private Peterkin rejoined the regiment, then in Gen. Stonewall Jackson's command in the valley of the Shenandoah, and participated in the Bath and Romney expedition, during which he was promoted corporal. Soon afterward he became sergeant, and after participating in the battle of Kernstown he was promoted second lieutenant of his company. He took part in the battles of McDowell, Front Royal and Winchester, and earned promotion to the rank of adjutant of the regiment, May 28, 1862. Then joining in the movement of Jackson's command against McClellan, he was promoted lieutenant and assigned June 3d to the position of aide-de-camp on the staff of Gen. W. N. Pendleton, chief of artillery. In this capacity he served through the Seven Days' campaign, and throughout the remainder of the war, including notably the great battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, the defense of Petersburg, and the retreat to Appomattox, where he was surrendered and paroled. Then resuming his theological studies he was graduated at the seminary near Alexandria in 1868, and at the same time ordained deacon by Bishop Johns. He passed the deaconate with his father, and in 1869, being ordained priest, he became rector of St. Stephen's church, Culpeper, Va., and rector of the Memorial church, Baltimore, in 1873. May 30, 1878, he was consecrated bishop of West Virginia, at Wheeling. His episcopal seat and residence is at Parkersburg. His life is one of great devotion and incessant activity. In addition to his regular work the demand upon him for work without his own field, such as sermons and addresses and labors connected with the general missionary operations of the church, is such as to compel him to travel annually many thousands of miles. Extremely popular in his church, he also enjoys the comradeship and high esteem of Confederate veterans everywhere on account of his faithful service in the cause of the South. He received the degree of doctor of divinity from Kenyon college, Ohio, and from Washington and Lee university, in 1878, and the degree of LL. D. from the latter institution in 1892. In 1868 he was married to Constance Gardner, daughter of Cassius F. Lee, of Alexandria, Va. She died in Balthnore in 1877. In June, 1884, he married Marion McIntosh, daughter of John Stewart, of Brook Hill, Va.
NOAH C. PETIT, of Huntington, W. Va., was born in Clarke county, Va., in 1844, whence he removed with his parents at the age of eleven years to that portion of the State now West Virginia. After a year in Wood county, they settled in Cabell county, where he was educated and passed his youth until the fall of 1861, when the Federal occupation compelled him to seek refuge in Monroe county. There, in November, 1861, at the age of seventeen years, he entered the Confederate service as a teamster in the brigade of General Williams, and was soon promoted to the position of wagon-master. In the fall of 1863, on account of an order requiring all persons in the army to be regularly enlisted, he became a regular member of Captain Payne's company of couriers, an independent cavalry company engaged principally in carrying dispatches for the division of Gen. John C. Breckinridge. He was at once detailed to the quarter-master's department in the field as wagon-master, a position in which his services had become invaluable, and he continued to serve in that capacity and frequently also as commissary sergeant, and as a collector of tax-in-kind in the valley of Virginia, until October, 1864, when he was ordered to rejoin his company. This with other companies was formed into a battalion commanded by Gen. John Wicter. With this command he served until the close of hostilities, at the end being stationed at Blacksburg, Va. The company was disbanded April 12, 1865, and in the following July Mr. Petit was paroled at Charleston. He returned to Cabell county and farmed until 1870, and then went into business at Huntington, first as a carpenter and contractor, subsequently in the coal and ice trade until 1897, when he became the owner of the St. Nicholas hotel. He has served as councilman of the city three years, as city assessor two years, and one year as secretary of the board of health, and is regarded as an influential and valuable citizen. He is fraternally associated with the Masonic order. In 1873 he was married at Huntington to Marietta, daughter of the late Jacob Simpson, and they have one daughter, Ethel Louise.
LIEUTENANT-COLONEL CHARLES S. PEYTON, in the Confederate service conspicuous among the gallant officers of Pickett's division of the army of Northern Virginia, and now a resident of Ronceverte, W. Va., was born in Albemarle county in 1841. He was a cadet in the military school of Col. John B. Strange, at Charlottesville, at the time of the passage of the ordinance of secession, and on May 10th following he entered the service as captain of the Piedmont guards, an organization which had been formed in the previous year. This was assigned as Company E to Colonel Strange's regiment, the Nineteenth Virginia, and in the Fifth brigade of the army of the Potomac, commanded by General Cocke, participated in the first battle of Manassas. At the opening of the Peninsular campaign in 1862 he fought at Williamsburg, under the brigade command of General Pickett, and shared the operations of that brigade against McClellan, including the battle of Seven Pines. At the second battle of Manassas he received a severe wound in the left arm which necessitated its amputation upon the field, and this injury compelled him to be absent from his command until April, 1863. Meanwhile he was promoted major immediately after the Manassas battle and in this rank resumed duty with his regiment near Richmond. In the latter part of June he received an order from General Lee to report to Col. J. C. Shields, in command of the conscription camp near Richmond; but preferring in spite of his crippled condition to again see active service, he accompanied Longstreet's corps northward to take part in the Pennsylvania campaign. On the morning of the third day of the battle at Gettysburg, he stood under a tree with a group of fellow officers awaiting the order for the assault upon Cemetery Ridge, now historic for the valor of its execution and the terrible sacrifice of life which resulted. His comrades urged him not to go into the fight, on account of the wound he had already received, and reminding him that he had in his pocket a detail which would justify him in honorably retiring, but he would only promise that if he survived he would then retire from field duty. Each of the officers requested that if he were hurt he would call on them for assistance, and so they parted to go into the storm of fire from which not one of the group returned but Major Peyton himself. He escaped with a flesh wound in the leg, which caused him great suffering, but in this condition was the only field officer of his brigade able for duty. As ranking officer of Garnett's brigade, he commanded the remnant of three hundred or four hundred men and conveyed over three thousand Federal prisoners to Winchester, Va., on the retreat, and turned them over to General Imboden. On reaching Williamsburg he made the official report of the action of his brigade at Gettysburg, which is now a part of the official records of the war, and contains a graphic description of the magnificent assault made by his brigade, which swept away the first line of the enemy, and in the face of a terrific fire of musketry and cannon, planted the Confederate colors on the stone wal1, which some of the command surmounted to fight the enemy in his own trenches. After the return to Virginia he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, and with this rank he reported at Camp Lee and was assigned to the recruiting service at Lynchburg, in charge of Amherst and Campbel1 counties. He continued in this duty, forwarding able-bodied conscripts to Camp Lee, until the close of the war, serving after February, 1864, at Staunton, and from the fal1 of 1864 at Charlottesvil1e, in charge of that congressional district. At the latter station he was captured March 5, 1865, and soon afterward paroled. He is now one of the influential citizens of the Greenbrier district of West Virginia, and in 1897 was elected mayor of his town of Ronceverte. Colonel Peyton was married in Albemarle county, in 1867, to Sallie E., daughter of Nimrod and Sarah (Goss) Bramham, and they have five children living: William L. Pickett, Henry Bramham, James Goss, Lucy F., and Charles Gunther Peyton.
COLONEL GEORGE A. PORTERFIELD, a distinguished leader in the early attempt to hold western Virginia with the Old Dominion, was a descendant of a family of Scotch origin, who settled in the lower Shenandoah val1ey prior to the war of the Revolution, in which some of the family took part. He was graduated at the Virginia military institute, 1844, and being in Richmond in May, 1846, he assisted in organizing and became first lieutenant of the first company raised in Virginia for the Mexican war. Soon after his arrival in Mexico he became adjutant of the Virginia regiment, and a few months later was appointed assistant adjutant-general for the division stationed at Buena Vista. When Virginia seceded in 1861, he was occupied in farming in Jefferson county, and promptly offered his services to the State. He was commissioned colonel of volunteers, and on May 4th was ordered by General Lee to repair to Grafton and select a position for the troops called into the service of the State in that region, so as to hold both branches of the railroad. The orders assumed that he would find five regiments for this duty, and he was authorized to enlist that many. He reached Grafton on May 14th, and at once discovered that the officers directed to report to him were not present, neither were any forces at hand. A large part of the militia companies was more likely to enlist against the State than for it, and guns and ammunition had been seized by the enemies of Virginia. He was able to get together but a few men, when vastly superior forces advanced against him and compelled his retreat to Philippi. There on the morning of June 3, 1861, he was surprised by the enemy, but withdrew his forces with inconsiderable loss from an attack of superior numbers which was intended to effect his capture. This being one of the first affairs of the war, Colonel Porterfield was subjected to unjust criticism, but the court of inquiry, which he demanded, found no cause for censure except the carelessness of picketing, and reported that Porterfield "exhibited upon the occasion decided coolness, self-possession, and personal courage, and exerted himself, as far as possible, to effect a retreat in good order. He retired to Beverly, where he was relieved by General Garnett, but disasters continued to attend the Confederate cause. Colonel Porterfield subsequently served upon the staff of General Loring, and commanded the Twenty-fifth regiment, and in April, 1862, was assigned to command of one of the brigades of the army of the Northwest. Upon the reorganization of the army he retired from service. In June, 1862, he was arrested and paroled by order of General Banks. A fter the close of hostilities he was a resident of Jefferson county, and was one of the founders of the bank of Charlestown.
LIEUTENANT JAMES N. POTTS, a gallant soldier in the Confederate army and now inspector-general of the United Confederate Veterans of his State, was born at Big Spring, Pocahontas county, Va. (now West Virginia), on the fourteenth day of September, 1838, but in 1847 moved into Randolph county, where he was reared and educated. He volunteered as a private and was elected junior second lieutenant of Company of the Thirty-first Virginia infantry, ou the 24th of May, 1861; saw his first service under General Garnett in his engagement with a detachment of General McClellan's army in Barbour county, was in that memorable retreat from Laurel Hill to Monterey, lasting nine days and nights from July 11, 1861, with scarcely more than one day's rations. It was on this retreat that General Garnett was killed on the thirteenth day of July in the engagement at Carrick's ford on Cheat river, being the first officer to lay down his life for the cause. In September, 1861, Company F was detached from the regiment to act as scouts for Lee's army, then encamped at Valley mountain, in Randolph, their native county, and when General Lee moved upon the works of the Yankee general, Reynolds, at Elkwater, Lieutenant Potts acted as pilot for the right wing of his army under General Donelson. On the 12th of December, 1861, he was detailed to act as post commissary for the forces in winter quarters at Huntersville. He remained on this detached duty until after his company had reorganized in May, 1862, and then re-enlisted in the cavalry arm of the service, becoming a private in Company G, Eighteenth Virginia cavalry, but was speedily made orderly-sergeant of the company, in which capacity he served, being present with the company in every raid, skirmish and engagement until December, 1862, when he was unanimously elected to the office of lieutenant, to fill a vacancy. He always enjoyed the confidence and respect of his superior officers, and was often called upon to command detachments where unquestioned courage and mature judgment were required. Lieutenant Potts served with distinction in that fearful campaign in the Shenandoah valley during the summer and fall of 1864, in which fighting was almost a daily occurrence, with an enemy of superior force. Although he so often heard the bullets whistle, yet he never was captured or wounded, which seems remarkable in the face of the fact that in addition to having five horses shot under him, he had bullet holes in his hat, his coat and his trousers, besides having the toe of his boot shot off. During the fall of 1864 he was detailed at General Imboden's headquarters as acting adjutant of his regiment, in which capacity he acted until cold weather closed the active campaign, when, at his own request, he was allowed to return to his company, with which he served until the close of the war. He was in the battle at New Market, at Gettysburg, at Winchester, at Fisher's Hill, at Piedmont, in the fighting around Lynchburg, at Williamsport and at Cedar creek, besides many other engagements. In the splendid defense that General Lomax made at Gordonsville, Va., against the Federal general, Powell, on the 23d of December, 1864, Lieutenant Potts commanded three companies and received the compliments of his colonel, who was very seriously wounded. The only other fight of importance in which he was engaged was with some Federal guerrillas known as "Swamp Dragons," on the South branch of the Potomac, on the sixth day of February, 1865. Though not in command in this engagement, it was through Lieutenant Potts' timely suggestion to the commanding officer that the entire detachment avoided almost certain slaughter, and gained a splendid victory without anyone being hurt on the Confederate side. He was paroled at Staunton, Va., on the twenty-fourth day of May, 1865, being exactly four years from the date of his enlistment. In the fall of 1865 he accepted a clerkship in a store of general merchandise at Huntersville, W. Va., and the following year became a partner in the business, under the firm name of Barlow & Potts. In 1868 he closed out his interest at Huntersville and opened up a store of general merchandise in his own name at Williamsville, Va. In October, 1871, he moved with his family to the new city of Huntington, W. Va., and engaged in mercantile pursuits until the year 1890, since which time he has been engaged in the insurance and real estate business. He has been prominent in the municipal affairs of the city of Huntington, having been twice elected as a member of the common council, four times as city clerk, and twice as judge of the police court of the city. For twenty-six years he has been a deacon in the Fifth avenue Baptist church, and has been superintendent of its Sunday school for more than fifteen years. He has been unanimously elected president of the Guyandotte Sunday school convention, for eighteen consecutive years, and for the last three years has been moderator of the Guyandotte district association. He has taken a prominent part in the movement to re-unite the veterans of the South for fraternal association, serving as treasurer of Camp Garnett, and inspector-general of the United Confederate Veterans of West Virginia. He has written and published in the local papers of his city, a series of articles entitled "Personal Recollections of the War." On the 27th of June, 1867, he was married at Warm Springs, Va., to Miss Margaret Ann Stewart, and they have raised two children, Harry S. and Emma M. Mrs. Potts has for a number of years edited the "Little Gleaner" column in the Baptist Banner, and is known and loved by the children all over the State as "Cousin Maggie."
JOHN A. PRESTON, a prominent lawyer and influential citizen of Lewisburg, W. Va., is one of three Virginian brothers who served with gallantry and devotion in the Confederate cause. He is a native of Greenbrier county born in 1847, and passed there his childhood and youth, until his eighteenth year, he entered the Confederate military service. On January 2, 1865, he became a private in the Fourteenth Virginia cavalry, which was a part of the division of Gen. W. H. F. Lee in the cavalry corps of Fitzhugh Lee. With this command he participated in the cavalry operations of the spring of 1865, fighting in the engagements at Dinwiddie Court House, Five Forks, Sailor's creek and Appomattox. Before the surrender he escaped with the main body of the cavalry through the Federal lines which were drawn about the remnant of the army of Northern Virginia. After the conclusion of hostilities he returned to his home and attended the Washington college at Lexington, receiving an academic education. He then took up the study of law at Lewisburg, and was admitted to the bar in 1873, beginning a career as a lawyer which has ever since continued and has been marked by honorable success. He served as prosecuting attorney of Greenbrier county from January, 1877, until October, 1896, when he resigned upon request of the national Democratic committee on account of his having received the honor of nomination as a presidential elector. Immediately after the presidential election he again became prosecuting attorney, and yet holds that office. A brother of Mr. Preston, who was in the Confederate service, was Walter C. Preston, who enlisted in June, 1861, with the Virginia university volunteers, with whom he served until their disbandment in the following December. He then entered the Charlottesville artillery, with whose record he was identified until at the "bloody angle," during the battle of May 12, 1864, at Spottsylvania, he was severely wounded, losing his right arm, and was captured by the Federals. He was sent to hospital at Washington, and in the fall of 1864, transferred to the military prison at Elmira, N. Y., the hardships of which he endured until the end of the war. He is now a resident of Orange Court House, Va. The other brother, Thomas C. Preston, enlisted in June, 1861, in the Third regiment of Wise's legion, or the Sixtieth Virginia infantry. He served as orderly-sergeant of Company B until January, 1863, when he was honorably discharged on account of physical disability. In the following September he became orderly-sergeant of Company C of the Fourteenth Virginia cavalry, and was in command of his company when he was killed at the battle of Monocacy, July 9, 1864.
CHARLES TAYLOR RICHARDSON, M. D., of Charlestown, W. Va., former assistant surgeon of the Twenty-eighth regiment, Virginia infantry, Pickett's brigade, is a native of Roanoke county, born in 1839. He was reared mainly in southwestern Virginia, in Botetourt and Wythe counties, and was educated at Roanoke college and the university of Virginia. He had been a student in the latter institution but a portion of a year when he joined the university volunteers in April, 1861, and went with them to the rendezvous at Harper's Ferry. Ten days later he resigned from that company and enlisted in a volunteer company formed in Botetourt county, which was subsequently assigned to the Twenty-eighth regiment. Dr. Richardson remained with this command one year, during which he participated in the battle of First Manassas, in Cocke's brigade, and during the Peninsular campaign was under fire at Yorktown, took part in the battle of Williamsburg and the two days' conflict at Seven Pines. He was then detailed as hospital steward and assigned to duty in the hospital at Richmond. While a student at the university he had pursued medical studies, and these he continued while connected with the hospital, and was graduated by the medical college of Virginia in March, 1863. He then passed the examination by the medical board of the army, and was commissioned assistant surgeon. In this capacity he returned to his regiment, the Twenty-eighth infantry, and shared its service until June, 1864, when he was assigned to duty at the General hospital at Staunton. He was on duty there until March, 1865, and subsequently at the Lynchburg hospital until the close of the war. While stationed at Staunton, he was captured during the Federal occupation, but was at once paroled and left in the discharge of his duties. Since the war he has continued in the practice of medicine, residing during the first year after the close of hostilities at Christians- burg, and since then at Charlestown, where he is prominent, both professionally and socially. His skillful and devoted services to the Confederate sick and wounded are warmly remembered by the veterans, among whom he has many close friends. From 1881 to 1890 Dr. Richardson was a member of the State board of health of West Virginia, and during 1888 and 1889 he was president of that body. He was married at Staunton, in January, 1865, to Jennie L., daughter of the late Samuel Forrest, paymaster in the United States navy.
CAPTAIN JOHN V. L. RODGERS, a well-known business man of Wheeling, W. Va., who served in various important capacities in the Confederate army, was born in Brooke county, in the "Panhandle," in the year 1836. He was reared and educated in his native county until 1855, when he went west and resided in Kansas until the outbreak of the war. Then, desiring to serve in defense of his State, he made his way to Richmond, and there entered the Confederate service in September, 1861, in the department of the quartermaster-general. Soon afterward, in the month of November, he was ordered to Salisbury, N. C., to superintend the erection of a military prison, at which he was engaged until May, 1862, when, at the organization of the Forty-second North Carolina regiment of infantry, he was appointed captain and commissary of that command. He served with the regiment in the field until June, 1864, when he was detailed for duty at Greensboro, N. C., as assistant inspector of field transportation, the capacity in which he served during the remainder of the struggle and until he was surrendered with the army of Gen. J. E. Johnston. During his service he actively participated in a considerable number of engagements, was in the battle of Seven Pines, receiving a severe wound in the right hip which disabled him for several months, and took part in the engagements at Drewry's bluff, Hamilton, Williamston, New Bern, N. C., and at Washington, Wilmington, and Smithfield in the same State. In a fight near Tarboro, N. C., he was slightly wounded in the ankle. In 1862, at Lynchburg, Va., he had charge for some time of 5,000 Federal prisoners, captured by Stonewall Jackson from Banks', Shields' and Fremont's divisions, and was in charge later of another body of about 7,000 at Danville. After the war he remained at Greensboro, N. C., until October 1, 1865, when he returned to Wheeling, his home since that date. He is at present quite successfully engaged in the insurance business.
ANDREW L. RUFFNER, of Charleston, W. Va., a veteran of the Twenty-second Virginia infantry and the Eighth Virginia cavalry, was born in Kanawha county in 1842. He was educated in Marietta college, Ohio, and in May, 1861, entered the Confederate service. As a private in the Twenty-second regiment of infantry he served two years, and was then transferred to the Eighth Virginia cavalry, which had an adventurous career throughout 1863 and 1864. At the close of the war he held the rank of sergeant-major of this cavalry command. He participated with the bravery of a true soldier in a large number of battles and skirmishes, among them Scary Creek, Cross Lanes, Carnifex Ferry, Giles Court House, Fayetteville, Charleston, Lewisburg and Moorefield, W. Va., participated in the expedition through Maryland against Washington, D, C., and in all the engagements of that movement, and took part in General McCausland's raid upon Chambersburg, Pa. In the Tennessee campaign under General Longstreet he participated in the siege of Knoxville, and the engagements at Jonesville, Rogersville and Morristown; and in the Shenandoah Valley campaign under Early he fought at Fisher's Hill, Middletown and Bunker Hill, at the latter battle receiving a wound in the shoulder which prevented his service in the Winchester battle of September 19th. He took part in the engagements about Lynchburg, and in the spring of 1865 was in the final battles of the army of Northern Virginia at Five Forks and Sailor's Creek. Since the restoration of peace he has resided at Charleston, where he is now engaged in the wholesale grocery trade.
MEREDITH PAYSON RUFFNER, of Charleston, W. Va., was born at Red House, Putnam county, in 1844. During his infancy his family removed to Charleston, where he was reared and educated. In May, 1861, he joined the Kanawha Riflemen, a company which went into the Confederate service as Company H of the Twenty-second Virginia infantry. With this regiment Mr. Ruffner served as a private until about the month of August, 1863. when he was transferred to the battalion of Col. T. B. Swann, with which he remained about six months as a non-commissioned officer, then being compelled to resign on account of physical disability. He participated in the fight of July 17, 1861, at Scary creek, in the engagements at Cross Lanes and Carnifex ferry, and at Pearisburg, Va., and took part in the movement down the Kanawha valley under General Loring in September, 1862, receiving a wound in the fight at Fayetteville on the 9th. His military record also embraced a number of skirmishes, and was marked throughout by faithfulness and devotion to duty. After his return to Charleston he embarked upon a business career as a clerk, in 1865, and in 1868 opened a dry goods store which he conducted until 1873. He then entered the grocery trade, and in 1876, in partnership with his brother, Andrew L. Ruffner, established a wholesale grocery business, in which he has since that date been successfully engaged.
ANDREW JACKSON SAMUEL, a worthy veteran of the famous light division of A. P. Hill, army of Northern Virginia, was born in Essex county, Va., in the year 1838. There he was reared and educated and made his home until he enlisted in the Confederate military service. He became a private in Company A of the Fifty-fifth regiment, Virginia infantry, under Col. Francis Mallory, in March, 1862, in time to participate in the first of the great campaigns of the army under the leadership of Gen. Robert E. Lee. In Field's brigade of Hill's division, he took part in the Seven Days' campaign, resulting in the repulse of McClellan from before the Confederate capital, and subsequently shared the fighting of Jackson's corps at Cedar Run and Second Manassas, at Fredericksburg, in December, 1863, and at Chancellorsville on the 1st of May, 1863. Going into the Pennsylvania campaign in the brigade of Col. J. M. Brockenbrough, in Heth's division of Hill's corps, he took part in the initial fight of the battle of Gettysburg on July 1st, in which his brigade was distinguished for desperate fighting, and on the third day of the battle was in the famous charge upon Cemetery ridge made by Pettigrew's, Pickett's and a part of Trimble's divisions. During the retreat which followed he was captured between Hagerstown and Falling Waters, and sent as a prisoner of war to Old Capitol prison, and thence to Point Lookout, where he was held until March, 1864. Then being exchanged he rejoined his command and participated in the fighting on the We1don railroad and on the Petersburg lines. Though in the heat of the fight on several hotly-contested fields, he escaped without injury except a slight wound received at the Second battle of Manassas. After his parole at Bowling Green, Caroline county, Va., in May, 1865, he returned to the duties of civil life and was a prosperous merchant and influential citizen of Bluefield, Mercer county, until his death, October 23, 1898. Two brothers of Mr. Samuel also served in the Fifty-fifth regiment, as privates - William Samuel, who died in 1885, and George W. Samuel, now residing in Essex county, who was captured at Gettysburg and held at Fort Delaware as a prisoner until the close of the war.
LIEUTENANT JAMES D. SEDINGER, of Guyandotte, Cabell county, W. Va., a veteran of the cavalry of the Confederate armies, was born in Monroe county, Ohio, in the year 1837. He entered the Confederate service on May 1, 1861, as a corporal in the Border Rangers, a body of volunteer cavalry which became Company E, of the Eighth Virginia cavalry. In this command Corporal Sedinger's gallantry and efficient service soon brought about his promotion to orderly-sergeant and then to second lieutenant, the rank he held at the close of the war. His record was an active and honorable one, and he did gallant service throughout a wide field, embracing Virginia, West Virginia,Tennessee and north Georgia. During the West Virginia campaigns he fought in the engagements at Scary creek, Carnifex ferry, Cross Lanes, Lewisburg, Guyandotte, Princeton, Raleigh and Fayetteville. In Virginia he participated in the Seven Days' fighting before Richmond in the spring of 1862, was in the affairs at Salt Springs, Jonesville and Lynchburg, the battle of Brandy Station, and several engagements at Winchester; and during the Shenandoah Valley campaign of 1864, fought in Imboden's brigade at Winchester, Waynesboro, Harrisonburg, Strasburg, Fisher's Hill and Kernstown. He was with the troops from the army of Northern Virginia which went to the assistance of Bragg at Chattanooga in the fall of 1863, and took part in the bloody battle of Chickamauga, and shared the hardships of the winter campaign against Knoxville under General Longstreet, fighting at that place and at Cumberland Gap, Rogersville and Wyerman's Mills, Tenn. In a fight at Powder Springs gap he was wounded in the foot; at Oldtown, Md., he received a wound in the leg, and early in his military career, at Cross Lanes, he received the first of his three wounds. At the battle of Fisher's Hill, in the fall of 1864, he was captured by the enemy, and for five months afterward was a prisoner of war at Point Lookout, Md.
SNELLING M. SMITH, of Charleston, W. Va., was born in 1819 in Kanawha county, where he was reared and educated, and where his family had long resided. His great-grandfather, William Smith, and the son of the latter, who bore the same name, came to America from Germany prior to the Revolutionary war, in which they both participated in defense of American liberties. These two ancestors also took part in the battle of Point Pleasant, memorable in West Virginia history. The son of the second William Smith, and father of the subject of this notice, Coonrod Smith, was born in Kanawha county in 1794, and lived in that county to the age of eighty-eight years. At an early age Snelling Smith became a steamboat engineer, and subsequently acted as overseer at the Union coal oil company at Cannelton. In November, 1862, he entered the service of the Confederate States government in the commissary department, and was stationed at Dublin Depot until November, 1863, when he was transferred to Saltville, where he was engaged in the manufacture of salt, under the command of Col. John N. Clarkson, until the close of the war. During this service, of such importance that the territory in which he was stationed was often the object of raids and sanguinary engagements, he was faithful and untiring in the Confederate cause. After peace was restored he returned to Kanawha county, where he was busily engaged for a number of years, in brick manufacturing, salt making, contracting and building, and steamboating, successively, until he established his present extensive brick manufacturing business, in which he has been notably successful. He is esteemed as one of Charleston's worthy and valuable citizens. In 1854 he was married in Fayette county to Elizabeth Stockton Trimble, and they have one daughter, Nannie T., wife of E. L. Wood, of Charleston.
CAPTAIN ADAM C. SNYDER, deceased, a distinguished West Virginian who went into the Confederate service from Greenbrier county, was born in Highland county, Va., March 26, 1834. He studied at academic institutions in Virginia and Pennsylvania, and at Washington college, Lexington, and entered the law school of Judge J. W. Brockenbrough in 1858. In the following year, having been licensed to practice, he made his home at Lewisburg, and began a career in the legal profession which continued until his death and was full of honor and distinction. He enlisted in the spring of 1861 in a company which was assigned to the Twenty-seventh Virginia infantry, Stonewall brigade. He became adjutant of this regiment, and shared its gallant service until captured by the enemy in 1863. Subsequently he experienced the privations of military prison life at the old Atheneum at Wheeling until 1865. Resuming his practice at the close of hostilities, he was elected prosecuting attorney of Highland county. In April, 1882, he was appointed to fill the unexpired term of Judge James F. Patton, deceased, on the bench of the West Virginia court of appeals, and he was continued in this position by the vote of the people of the State.
JOSEPH H. SPENCE, of Parkersburg, W. Va., was during the war of the Confederacy connected with the famous band of cavalrymen known as McNeill's scouts. He was born in Queen Anne county, Md., in 1842, and is a grandson of John T. Spence, who came to America from England prior to the Revolutionary war, in which he participated. He was reared in his native county, and at the age of seventeen became a licensed exhorter in the Methodist church. In the fall of 1861 he made his way through the Federal lines to Richmond, where, in the spring of 1862, he enlisted as a private in Captain McNeill's command, and served as acting chaplain until the close of the war. He participated in innumerable skirmishes along the border, which was the special service of his command, but escaped without injury, though his horse was killed under him in a skirmish in Pendleton county, until the battle of New Market, in the spring of 1864, when he was twice wounded, in the right leg and in the left hand and side. The latter injury was a contused wound, the ball having been stopped by a Testament in his pocket. These injuries disabled him about five months. After his parole at Moorefield, in June, 1865, he was engaged in business at various localities until 1871, when he made his home at Parkersburg. Here he conducted a mercantile business from 1872 to 1889, but meanwhile pursued the study of theology, having been licensed as a preacher in the United Brethren church in 1871. In the clerical work he has served as an evangelist under Rev. Dr. Warner, as presiding elder, and in various capacities has been active in this cause.
COLONEL ABRAHAM SPENGLER, a leader among the Virginia patriots of Hardy county in 1861, was a native of the Shenandoah valley, and removed to the vicinity of Moorefield about the year 1850. He was a carpenter by trade and followed that occupation until the outbreak of the war. Upon the organization of the Hardy Grays he became captain, and in that rank entered the Confederate service at Harper's Ferry early in 1861. The Grays became Company F, Thirty-third regiment Virginia infantry, Jackson's brigade, and participated under Spengler's command in the gallant conduct of the Stonewall brigade at First Manassas, where his company lost heavily. He was subsequently with Jackson in the Valley campaign of 1862. In an action on May 24th, near Newtown, he was specially distinguished for bravery. Colonel Neff, in his official report, expressed his high appreciation of the gallant manner in which Captain Spengler behaved in this affair, "as he had invariably done in frequent engagements." He continued to render gallant and faithful service, and received promotion to major, lieutenant-colonel and colonel of the Thirty-third regiment. He commanded the regiment at Chancellorsville, where his men were conspicuous in driving the enemy from his intrenchments and lost heavily. he shared all the campaigns of the Stonewall brigade, and after the disaster of May 12, 1864, at the "bloody angle," was for much of the time not only in command of his own regiment but of all the remnant of the brigade, which ended its service in Evans' division of Gordon's corps. After Appomattox he returned to Hardy county and resided there until his death.
DANIEL E. STALNAKER, a citizen of Wheeling, W. Va., prominent in business and public affairs, served throughout the war of 1861-65 as a Confederate soldier in a considerable number of important campaigns and engagements. He was born in Union, Monroe county, in 1839, and was reared and educated at Lewisburg, Greenbrier county. In April, 1861, he was among the first in that region to answer the call of the State for soldiers to combat the threatened invasion of the State, and joined the Confederate forces at Harper's Ferry, where he became a private in Company B of the Twenty-seventh Virginia infantry regiment. He took part in the famous battle of Manassas and the rout of McDowell's troops in July, 1861, and in the spring of 1862 was with the force under "Stonewall" Jackson which resisted the Federal advance into the Shenandoah valley. In the first engagement of this campaign, at Kernstown, March 23d, he was captured by the enemy. He was sent to Baltimore by his captors, and thence was transported to Fort Delaware, where he was held as a prisoner of war until the following August. On the first of that month he was exchanged at Aiken's Landing, and two days later he reached Richmond, afflicted with a bad case of scurvy contracted in the Northern prison pen. The effects of his illness were so serious that he was compelled to return to his home for recuperation, and it was not until considerably later in the war that he was able to rejoin the army as a private in the Fourteenth Virginia cavalry. He participated in the battles of Sharpsburg and Monocacy and numerous other cavalry engagements, until the close of hostilities, when he returned to Lewisburg and resumed the occupations of civil life. After residing at Columbia, S. C., a year, he made his home at Wheeling in 1876. Here he has been engaged in the real estate business, and is active and influential in various channels. From 1892 until 1896 he served as a director of the penitentiary of West Virginia.
RANDOLPH STALNAKER, conspicuous in the industrial activity of Wheeling, W. Va., as well as in the official and political affairs of his State, was born at Lewisburg, Va., June 8, 1847, and was educated at the academies at Lewisburg and Union, Monroe county. While yet in school he felt it his duty to enlist in the Confederate army, but was rejected on account of his youth. Early in 1863 he volunteered a second time, being in his sixteenth year, and was accepted and assigned to the staff of Brig.-Gen. A. W. Reynolds, of Virginia, who commanded a brigade in the army of Tennessee. He participated in the defense of Vicksburg during the siege and twenty-seven days' bombardment by Grant's army, and after the capitulation returned to Virginia and was appointed adjutant of Col. D. S. Hounshell's battalion of cavalry. In this capacity he served until the close of the war, actively engaged in many important campaigns and battles, among them the affairs at Dry Creek and Snicker's Gap, Va.; the second and third days of the great contest at Gettysburg, Pa.; the fight with Wallace at the Monocacy, Md., and the famous battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864, between the armies of Early and Sheridan. He was paroled in May, 1865, at Lewisburg, W. Va., and then engaged in business there. When Governor Matthews was inaugurated as governor at Wheeling, in March, 1877, Major Stalnaker was appointed private secretary to the governor, a duty he performed until March, 1881, when he was installed as secretary of state of West Virginia, an office to which he had been elected in the preceding fall. On retiring from this office in 1885, he engaged in manufacturing at Wheeling, and subsequently was officially connected with the West Virginia china company. He is now interested in real estate and insurance, is connected with the legal department of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, and is committeeman for his State of the National Democratic party.
LIEUTENANT WILLIAM STEELE, a prominent citizen of Monroe county, was identified during the Confederate period with the military service of the Monroe Guards and Bryan's Battery, two western Virginia organizations that were noted for their efficiency. He was born in Monroe county in 1838, the son of Benjamin F. Steele, a native of the same county, who was a soldier of the war of 1812, served two terms as sheriff of the county, and died in 1873 at the age of seventy-three years. Mr. Steele was educated at the high school near Alexandria, and at Georgetown college, D. C. Becoming a member of the Monroe Guards, an organization formed in 1859, he went with his company to Harper's Ferry in April, 1861, and was assigned to the Twenty-seventh regiment of infantry, of which the Guards became Company D. With this regiment, under the brigade command of Gen. T. J. Jackson, he participated in the brilliant service of the Stonewall Brigade at the first battle of Manassas, and remained on duty until several months later, when he was honorably discharged on account of physical disability. He was out of the service only about two months, however, when, beginning to regain his health, he set about the enlistment of a company of cavalry. Before this was completed he united his men with those enlisted by Capt. T. A. Bryan for an artillery company, and together the two officers organized Bryan's battery, of which Steele was elected first lieutenant. In this rank he served during the remainder of the war, participating in the campaigns in West Virginia, the Shenandoah valley, and in Maryland under Early. He fought at Fayetteville, Charleston, Cloyd's farm, New River bridge, Lynchburg, Piedmont, Harper's Ferry, Monocacy, the demonstration against Washington, D. C., and in the battalion of Col. Floyd King, participated in the campaign against Sheridan in 1864, including the battle of Winchester. Since the conclusion of hostilities he has been engaged in farming in Monroe county, near Union, with the exception of the time given to official duties. He served about three years as sheriff of Monroe county. by appointment to fill a vacancy, and during the first administration of President Cleveland held the position of deputy collector of internal revenue of the West Virginia district. On April 6, 1865, he was married in Pulaski county, Va., to Anna McFarland, and they have two children, Mary A. and Lawrence C.
CAPTAIN JAMES S. SUTPHIN, an influential citizen of Huntington, W. Va., was born in Halifax county, W. Va., in the year 1841. He entered the Confederate service from that county in the spring of 1861, as a private in Company K of the Fourteenth Virginia infantry. He was very soon promoted sergeant, and in this rank he served through the battles of Hampton, Seven Pines, Frayser's Farm and Malvern Hill. Such was his efficiency and bravery as a soldier that in September, 1862, he was promoted captain of his company, the rank he held during the remainder of his service. He participated in the Maryland campaign, including a fight at Monocacy bridge, the capture of Harper's Ferry and the battle of Sharpsburg, after which he was for some time disabled by sickness. Returning to the field he fought at Fredericksburg, and went into the Pennsylvania campaign. At the battle of Gettysburg he received a severe wound in the ankle that compelled him to use crutches for a year, and of course put an end during that time to his military service, though before returning to his home he was in the battle of Williamsport. In the fall of 1864 he was assigned to duty at the parole and exchange camp at Richmond, where he remained until the evacuation of the city, when he went to North Carolina and surrendered with Johnston's army. After the war he farmed several years in Halifax county, was in the commission business at Richmond twelve years, removed to West Virginia in 1882, and made his home at Huntington in 1889. He has served upon the city council in the latter city.
SAMUEL SWANN, surgeon of the Wise legion, was born in Powhatan county about the year 1835, and was educated at the university of Virginia. He entered the naval service of the United States as assistant surgeon, and spent three years off the coast of Africa, where his health became so seriously impaired that he was disabled for active duty. He subsequently resided with his brothers in the Kanawha valley while on sick leave. Meanwhile the crisis was rapidly approaching between the North and South, and he warmly urged the secession of Virginia, and was one of the first of the naval officers to tender his resignation to the Federal government. He was appointed surgeon to the Wise legion upon its organization, and notwithstanding his delicate health he was untiring in his devotion to duty, laboring night and day with the sick and wounded of his command. He was permitted to continue in this service but a few months, his death occurring suddenly at Norfolk, Va., in March, 1862.
COLONEL THOMAS BELT SWANN, a prominent attorney of Kanawha county, who was distinguished in the Confederate service, was born in Powhatan county, Va., September 12, 1825. The founder of his family in America was Thomas Swann, a colonel in the army of Charles I, of England, who fled to Virginia after the success of Cromwell, with two brothers, one of whom settled in Massachusetts. Col. Thomas B. Swann was licensed to practice law in Virginia, and embarked in the profession with his brother, John S. Swann, at Charleston, March 18, 1849. When the war came on he was a member of the State militia, and loyally devoted himself to the cause of the State. He was captain of one of the companies in the battle of Coal River, July 17, 1861, and was distinguished for gallantry. During the following year he rose to the rank of lieutenant-colonel and commanded a battalion of the "State Line" under Gen. John B. Floyd, and was in active service in southwestern and western Virginia throughout the war. After the close of hostilities he returned to Kanawha county and resumed the practice of law. Stephen T. Teays, now a merchant at St. Albans, Kanawha county, enlisted in the Kanawha Riflemen on May 8, 1861, and afterward was identified with the service of that command and of the Twenty-second regiment, to which it was assigned, until he was captured at the battle of Winchester. The list of battles in which he did faithful duty includes the West Virginia fights at Scary, Cross Lanes, Carnifex Ferry, Lewisburg, Pearisburg, Fayetteville and Charleston. In Virginia he was in battle at Droop mountain, Dry Creek, Hanover Junction, Second Cold Harbor, Fisher's Hill and the great battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864, when he fell into the hands of the enemy. He was subsequently confined at Point Lookout, Md., until March 25, 1865. Mr. Teays was born at St. Albans in 1839, the son of James S. Teays, a native of Campbell county, Va. Since the war, with the exception of a few years spent in Missouri, he has been engaged in business at his native town. In 1896 he was elected city treasurer.
CAPTAIN CAMERON LEWIS THOMPSON, of Huntington, W. Va., was born in Kanawha county, that State, in the year 1842, and was educated at the Lewisburg academy in Greenbrier county, which he attended during four years. Immediately upon the secession of Virginia he enlisted as a private in the Kanawha Riflemen, April 17, 1861. This company, which had been organized in Kanawha county in 1859, on account of the Harper's Ferry incident and in anticipation of further need of its services, was mustered into the Virginia service as Company H of the Twenty-second infantry, which was soon called into action with the forces under Wise and Floyd in combating the Federal invasion of western Virginia. He fought in the early battles of Scary, Cross Lanes and Carnifex Ferry, in West Virginia, and then went with Floyd into the campaigns in Kentucky and Tennessee, being transferred to the Thirty-sixth regiment, under Colonel McCausland, just before the battle of Fort Donelson, in February, 1862. He remained with this regiment, serving in the ranks, until February, 1863, when he received a furlough for six months on account of physical disability. At the expiration of this period he was still unfit for service in the field, but in recognition of his previous faithful service he was appointed quarter-master, with the rank of captain, and assigned to the Fifty-second Georgia regiment of infantry. After serving in this capacity until December, 1864, he was ordered to report to Brig.-Gen. William Terry on the line between Richmond and Petersburg, to whose staff he was assigned as captain and quartermaster. After the fighting at Fort Donelson, from which the Virginia troops were withdrawn before the surrender, Captain Thompson was next engaged with the enemy at Waldron's Ridge, near Cumberland Gap, where he received a wound in the leg. Then joining the forces of Pemberton early in 1863 in Mississippi he was in the battle at Baker's creek, and endured the perils and hardships of the protracted siege of Vicksburg, after which he was under parole until the succeeding fall. He was next under Bragg before Chattanooga, and took part in the battle of Missionary Ridge. In the spring of 1864, he fought in Johnston's army in defense of Georgia, participating in the famous battles of Reseca and the engagements about Atlanta. His military experiences, which had covered such a wide territory, were concluded in the Virginia campaign of 1865, in which he took part in the battles of Five Forks, Sailor's Creek, and surrendered at Appomattox. After the close of hostilities Captain Thompson was engaged in mercantile pursuits for several years Cincinnati, Clarksville, Tenn., and Mayfield, Ky., until December, 1873, when he embarked in journalism, a field in which for nearly twenty years he labored with much success and influence. Beginning as editor and proprietor of the Mountain Herald, at Hinton, W.Va., he disposed of that property in 1886 to take possession of the Advertiser of Huntington, then a weekly journal, to which he added a daily in September, 1889, and continued the publication until 1891, when poor health compelled him to dispose of the business. Meanwhile he had won a position of influence not only in his own city but throughout the State, and in 1888 was appointed by President Cleveland postmaster at Huntington, an office which a change of administration deprived him of in September, 1889. From 1881 to 1886 he served as regent of the West Virginia university, by appointment of Governor Jackson, and for six years after 1890 he was one of the board of directors of the State insane asylum at Weston. In 1893 he received the appointment of insurance commissioner of West Virginia, an office which he acceptably filled during a term of four years. Since the close of that service he has been engaged in insurance agency at Huntington. In June, 1869, Captain Thompson was married at Mayfield, Ky., to Elizabeth F., daughter of E. W. Weathers. Benjamin S. Thompson, father of Captain Thompson, also was devoted to the cause of the Confederate States. He was born in Kanawha county in 1818, and left his farm in September, 1861, to become quartermaster of the Thirty-sixth Virginia regiment. In 1862 he was promoted major quartermaster and assigned to the staff of Gen. Seth M. Barton, with whom he served until the close of the war. He then returned to his farm, whence, in 1874, he removed to Hinton, where he held the office of postmaster, by appointment of President Cleveland, for a term of four years.
CAPTAIN JOHN K. THOMPSON, of Raymond City, W. Va., now holding the position of United States marshal for the district of West Virginia, had a distinguished record in the Confederate army, principally in West Virginia and the Shenandoah valley, and suffered repeated and dangerous wounds in the course of his intrepid discharge of duty. He was born in Luray, Va., in December, 1842, but at the age of seven years was brought by his parents to Point Pleasant, and two years later to Raymond City, where he has since resided, thoroughly identified with the interests of the Kanawha valley. He entered the Virginia military institute in 1859, and in April, 1861, left that institution to go with his comrades to Richmond, where he served as a drill-master three months, afterward being transferred with the same duties to the department of Western Virginia. From August until October, 1861, he served as adjutant of the Twenty-second Virginia infantry regiment, resigning that position to become first lieutenant of Company A of the same regiment, of which he was promoted captain in May, 1862, the rank he held during the remainder of the war. His record is a thorough1y good one, embracing participation in the early West Virginia affrays at Scary Creek, Cross Lanes and Carnifex Ferry. In the latter engagement he received his first wound, in the face. He was in action again at Pearisburg, and at Lewisburg, in the Greenbrier region, a shot destroyed his right eye. Thus injured he fell into the hands of the enemy and was brought to Charleston, and held in the hospital until paroled, when he went home and awaited his exchange, which occurred in November, 1862. At once rejoining his company, and taking his command, he participated in skirmishes at Beverly, Dry Creek and Droop mountain, and continuing on duty, notwithstanding a wound in the neck received in the latter affair, fought at New Market in the Shenandoah valley. Subsequently joining Lee's army at Hanover Court House, he fought at Tocopotomy and Cold Harbor, in the last battle receiving a dangerous gunshot wound in the left lung. Though badly disabled he took command of the remnant of the Twenty-second regiment after the battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864, on the retreat, but was soon compelled to go to hospital, and was unable to rejoin his command until January, 1865, when he participated in several skirmishes about Wytheville, before the surrender. After his parole at Lewisburg, in April, 1865, he returned home and engaged in farming, which has been his constant occupation. In 1880 he was elected to the legislature of West Virginia, and in 1882 was elected commissioner of the county court of Putnam county, a position he held for twelve years. July 1, 1867, he entered by commission from the government upon the discharge of his present duties as marshal of the district of West Virginia.
COLONEL WILLIAM P. THOMPSON, Nineteenth Virginia cavalry, was born at Wheeling, January 7, 1837. His father, Judge George W. Thompson, was famous as a jurist, statesman, and philosophic author; his mother, Elizabeth, was the daughter of Daniel Steenrod, a man of large fortune. Colonel Thompson was educated at Jefferson college, Pa., until compelled by delicate health to forsake his studies. He was admitted to the bar in 1857, and then removed from his father's circuit to Fairmount, where he practiced four years as a partner of Alpheus F. Haymond. Early in 1861 he at first opposed secession, but soon afterward both father and son cast their fortunes unreservedly with their native State. He bore to the authorities at Richmond the suggestion, made by a private conference of leading citizens of western Virginia, that a demonstration should be made to save their part of the State, which was followed by the occupation of Harper's Ferry. Returning to the West he organized and became captain of the Marion Guards, which he commanded with energy and ability in the struggle of 1861 on West Virginia soil. He took possession of Fetterman with his own and other companies, and later commanded his company in the battles of Philippi, Laurel Hill, Cheat Mountain, Greenbrier River and Alleghany Mountain. In the last engagement his brother, Lewis S. Thompson, was killed while leading a gallant attack upon the enemy. He served under Stonewall Jackson in the valley in 1862, and upon the organization of the Nineteenth Virginia cavalry in 1863, he became its lieutenant-colonel, and was later promoted colonel. He served in the department of Western Virginia and East Tennessee, and with Gen. W. L. Jackson's brigade, participated in the Lynchburg campaign, the expedition through Maryland against Washington, and Early's contest with Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley. At the close he was in command of the remnant of Jackson's brigade. In 1866 he engaged in the oil business with his brother-in-law, Senator J. N. Camden, and the company became the owners of the lubricating oil lands near Parkersburg. He became associated with the Standard oil company in 1875, and in 1882 succeeded Oliver H. Payne as vice-president of that world-famous corporation, with general charge of the business west of Buffalo. In 1887, when the Standard oil trust was formed, he became chairman of the domestic committee, and in 1889 he organized the national lead trust.
MARTIN THORNTON, during the past quarter century a resident of Wheeling, W. Va., enlisted as a Confederate soldier at the age of fifteen years, and gave four years of his youth to the cause of Southern independence. He is a native of Ireland, born in 1845, the son of John and Mary (Needham) Thornton. The mother dying in her native land, the father brought his children to America in 1850, and settled first at Cynthiana, Ky., and later at Parkersburg, W. Va., where he was engaged as a railroad contractor until his death in 1856. Before the Confederate struggle began, Martin Thornton was learning in a humble station some of the lessons of hotel management which led to his success in later life, but in the spring of 1861 he went to Arkansas and enlisted as a Confederate soldier in General Hindman's legion. Later he became a member of the Third Confederate regiment, Cleburne's division, Hardee's corps, a gallant command which under its famous generals made itself felt in all the great battles of the West and central South. He served as a private during the four years of war, was in all the great battles of his commands, was wounded in the left arm at Perryville, Ky., and finally surrendered with Hardee and Johnston after the battle of Bentonville, N. C. After the close of hostilities he embarked in the grocery business at Atlanta, Ga., and three years later removed to Louisville, where he was engaged in the same line of trade until 1873. He then sold out his business at Louisville in order to make a venture in the restaurant business at Wheeling, W. Va. His fine business tact and skillful management gave him success from the start, and within fifteen years from the time he arrived at Wheeling with a capital of $600 he had purchased the Brunswick hotel for $16,000, and was the owner of other valuable property. He continued in restaurant and hotel management for twenty-one years, with constant success and popularity.
MATTHEW W. VENABLE, of Charleston, W. Va., a prominent civil engineer of that city, was born in Prince Edward county, Va., in 1847. He was reared and given his primary education in his native county, and in the fall of 1863 he entered Hampden-Sidney college. During the earlier years of the Confederate war, four of his brothers had gone into the army, and on March 11, 1864, being seventeen years of age, he followed their patriotic and heroic example. He volunteered as a private in Company H of the First regiment, Confederate engineers, a force armed as infantry and fighting in the same capacity. In this command he was regularly promoted to corporal, but during most of his service he was acting sergeant, and on many occasions he performed the duties of commissioned officers. The date of his enlistment brought him first face to face with the enemy in battle at Spottsylvania Court House, a sufficiently severe introduction for a youthful volunteer, but there and at the deadly field of Cold Harbor he did a soldier's duty. He fought in the trenches at Petersburg from the day after the explosion of the mine until January, 1865; spent the winter of 1865 countermining at Fort Harrison, and after the retreat was under way, was in the fights at Sailor's Creek and Appomattox Station. At the conclusion of hostilities he returned to Prince Edward county, and later entered the university of Virginia for the study of engineering, which he completed in 1867. Since then he has given his time entirely to this profession, serving twelve years in Kentucky, in railroad work, and since 1890 at Charleston. At this city he is an esteemed citizen, is a valued member of the Presbyterian church, and is a comrade of R. E. Lee camp, United Confederate Veterans. In 1870 Mr. Venable was married at Barboursville to Maria Dyer, who died in 1891, leaving five sons and three daughters. In 1893 he was married to Ann Byrne, and they have two sons. The four brothers of Mr. Venable who served in the Confederate army were William L., first lieutenant of the Sixth Texas regiment, who, being captured at Arkansns Post, died in Camp Butler, Ill., in 1863; Nathaniel E., first sergeant of Company I of the Twenty-third Virginia infantry, was captured at Kernstown, and when exchanged was promoted to first lieutenant, Confederate marines, and died in Florida in 1894; Abram B., first lieutenant of Company D, Eighteenth Virginia regiment, Hunton's brigade of Pickett's division, who died in 1883; and Clement R., who entered the service as private in Company I, Twenty-third Virginia regiment, was promoted second lieutenant of Company I, First regiment Confederate engineers, and died in 1887.
JAMES W. VICKERS, commander of Stonewall Jackson camp, Charleston, W. Va., was born in Pulaski county, Va., in 1844, the son of Harrison Vickers, a worthy citizen of that county, who was several times on active duty during the Confederate war as a member of the home guard. Commander Vickers entered the service of Virginia in April, 1861, as a private in Company C, Fourth Virginia infantry, and in the following July was in battle at Manassas under the brigade command of Gen. T. J. Jackson, doing his part as one of a brave and well-disciplined command in checking the Federal advance, winning a glorious victory for the South, and earning the immortal title of Stonewall for general and brigade. He also participated in the great Valley campaign under Jackson, fighting at Kernstown, McDowell, Cross Keys and Port Republic, and was yet with the great leader through the Seven Days' campaign and the battles of Cedar Mountain, Second Manassas, Chantilly, Harper's Ferry, Sharpsburg, Williamsport, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. Subsequently, under the division command of Gen. Edward Johnson, in the Second corps, he participated in the battles of Gettysburg, Mine Run, and the death grapple in the Wilderness and at Spottsylvania, until on that fateful May morning when Johnson's division was surprised and overwhelmed by Hancock's corps, he was among the prisoners of war. He was sent to Point Lookout, and three months later was started for the Elmira prison, N. Y. But preferring any risk to longer confinement, he made a daring escape when something over a hundred miles west of New York. jumping from a window of the railroad coach. He managed to avoid detection, returned to New York city, and found employment on a railroad in Pennsylvania. As soon as he had earned sufficient money he purchased two suits of clothes and a supply of tobacco for comrades whom he had left on his escape, and forwarded them to Elmira, and with the remainder of his earnings made his way to New York and Washington, and through the Federal lines to Manassas Junction. Then on foot he started out in search of his command, going to Charlottesville, thence to Lynchburg, and finally rejoining the remnant of his brigade on the lines before Petersburg early in the winter of 1864. He continued in active service throughout the remainder of the siege, fought at Sailor's Creek on the retreat, and was paroled at Appomattox. Since the war he has busied himself in his trade of carriage manufacturer, at Newbern, Va., until 1879, and since then at Charleston, where he is a respected and influential citizen. He has served with credit upon the city council. In 1867 he was married to Alice, daughter of Hiram Haney, who died, leaving one daughter, May, His second marriage occurred in 1881, to Victoria Grayum, and they have six children, Estelle, Grayum, John, Bertie, Virginia and Ruth.
LIEUTENANT SAMUEL SPERRY VINSON, a prosperous farmer of Cabell county, W. Va., who served with gallantry in the Confederate armies, was born in Lawrence county, Ky., in 1833, but was reared from infancy in West Virginia. His ancestors have long been residents of the Old Dominion, his maternal grandfather, Benjamin Sperry, a native of the State, having served as a soldier both in the war of the Revolution and the war of 1812. When eighteen years old, Mr. Sperry left the peaceful pursuits of farm life in answer to the call of his State and enlisted in June, 1861, at Wayne Court House, as a private in the Eighth Virginia cavalry regiment, The honorable career of this command he shared throughout the four years' war, ending his service in the cause of Southern independence by a brief experience as a prisoner of war amid the privations of a prison camp. At the reorganization of his regiment in 1862 he was elected lieutenant of his company, and he held this rank during the remainder of the war, declining promotion, even to the rank of major, the latter being tendered him by Gen. Bradley T. Johnson. His military record was marked by self-sacrificing devotion and brave conduct in battle, and he suffered wounds on two occasions, at Wayne Court House, W. Va., in September, 1861, and in a fight near Harrisonburg, Va., in December, 1864. He took part in the early West Virginia contests at Scary Creek, was afterward in the battles at Lewisburg and other West Virginia points, participated in the Knoxville campaign, fighting at various points in Tennessee, including Knoxville, Morristown, Rogersville, Wyerman's Mills, Jonesville and Bean's Station. In the Shenandoah valley he was in the battles at Kernstown and Fisher's Hill, and the famous combat at Winchester, September 19, 1864. Since the war he has been engaged in farming, and is widely known as a useful and successful citizen.
WILLIAM PARKERSON WALKER, D. D., now pastor of the Fifth Avenue Baptist church, at Huntington, W. Va., is one of the devoted ministers who shared the hardships of the Confederate soldier, and in full sympathy with their cause encouraged the men in the performance of duty as a part of noble life. He was born in Jackson county, W. Va., in 1834, and after receiving a country school education attended Allegheny college. While a student at this institution he was preparing for the ministry and preached at times, and in the fall of 1861 he accepted the appointment of chaplain of a regiment of West Virginia militia, commanded by Colonel Henry. After several months' service in this capacity he entered the ministry in the counties of Fayette and Nicholas, between the Federal and Confederate lines. Here he remained until 1866, when he was called to the Baptist church at Williamstown, and remained ten years uninterruptedly, until appointed in October, 1875, as financial agent of Shelton college. After a year's work in this capacity, and a return to his charge at Williamstown until April, 1877, he was called to the work at Huntington, in which he is still engaged. His service of twenty-one years at this city has been distinguished by faithful devotion and a broadly intelligent discharge of duty that have resulted in great good to his church and the entire community. Few pastors are held in more tender regard by their people. In 1888 his scholarly attainments and religious zeal were appropriately recognized by the bestowal of the degree of doctor of divinity by the university of Western Virginia. Dr. Walker is a son of McLin Walker, a farmer and cabinet-maker by occupation, born in Kanawha county in 1805, and the latter was a son of William Walker and grandson of John Walker, a native of England, who settled in Greenbrier county in 1781. About the same time there came to Greenbrier county another Englishman, John Alderson, who organize the first Baptist church in that part of Virginia. To the great-granddaughter of this Baptist pioneer, Mary Jane, daughter of Alexander McClung, of Nicholas county. Dr. Walker was married in 1855, forming a union which has endured through many years of happy wedded life and mutual usefulness.
LIEUTENANT ALBERT FREDERICK WALLEN, lieutenant of artillery in the Confederate service, now a business man at Charleston, W. Va., was born at Charleston, S. C., in 1846, the son of Albert F. Wallen. His father, who was born in Bohemia in 1789 and came to America in 1842, removed from Charleston to Savannah in 1848, and thence, five years later, to Augusta, Ga., where he enlisted in the spring of 1861 as a private in the Third Georgia regiment, and in spite of his advanced age served a year before he was honorably discharged, in that period participating in the engagement at Chicamicomico, N. C. He died in 1876 at Cleveland, Ohio. Albert Frederick Wallen entered the military service in June, 1861, at Savannah, Ga., as a private in the Twelfth Georgia battalion of artillery, Col. Henry D. Capers commanding. He was promoted third lieutenant from the ranks in November, 1864; second lieutenant in January, 1865, for conspicuous gallantry on the field of Cedar Creek, and first lieutenant in February, 1865, for gallantry at the battle of Hatcher's Run. The list of engagements in which he participated as an artilleryman includes Secessionville, S. C., Fort Wagner and Morris Island, the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, Second Cold Harbor, Lynchburg, Martinsburg, W. Va., Frederick City, Md., Winchester, September 19, 1864, Cedar Creek, Hatcher's Run, Fort Steadman, Five Forks, Sailor's Creek and Appomattox. In the fight at Frederick City, in July, 1864, he was shot in the breast and wounded, disabled in consequence until the following September. At the battle of Cedar Creek, October, 1864, he was slightly wounded, and performed a conspicuously gallant act which led to the following petition:
Headquarters Twelfth Georgia Battalion,
Major Moore, A. A. A.-G. October 30, 1864.
Major: We, the undersigned members of the Twelfth Georgia battalion, do hereby petition the lieutenant-general commanding to grant Private A. Wallen, Company D, Twelfth Georgia battalion, a thirty days' furlough for gallantry displayed in the battle of Cedar Creek. Private Wallen is only about fifteen years old. The color-bearer of the battalion was killed in trying to rally the men. Private Wallen ran back and got the colors under a heavy fire and brought them safely off. He has also displayed great bravery in every battle in which he has been engaged, and is a model soldier. We hope the lieutenant-general commanding will see fit to grant the request, thereby rewarding a good soldier.
This was signed by Adjt. E. F. Clayton and twelve other officers of the battalion, and received the following endorsements:
Approved and respectfully forwarded. GEORGE W. JOHNSON,
Captain Commanding Twelfth Georgia Battalion.
Respectfully forwarded approved for twenty-four days. Private Wallen has had no furlough during the last year.
C. A. Evans, Brigadier General Commanding.
Respectfully forwarded. Such distinguished conduct on the part of one so young should be encouraged.
Approved. J. B. GORDON, Major-General.
Respectfully returned approved for twenty-four days.
By order of Lieutenant-General Early.
S. J. C. MOORE, Acting Adjutant-General.
EDWARD D. WASHBURN, a native of Georgia, since the war a minister of the Presbyterian church in Virginia and West Virginia, was born at Savannah in the year 1848. He is the son of Joseph Washburn and grandson of Joseph Washburn, a native of Massachusetts, who served in the war of the Revolution for twenty-six months as ensign and thirteen months as lieutenant. His great-grandfather was Seth Washburn, captain of the "Minute Men," who with two sons, one of them Joseph, above named, marched to Cambridge from Leicester, April 19, 1775, and afterward took part in the battle of Bunker Hill. Mr. Washburn entered the school of Richard Malcolm Johnson, in Hancock county, Ga., when he had reached the age of fourteen years, and when he was sixteen years old he enlisted in the Confederate service as a private in the company of Capt. Jefferson Hunt, organized in Hancock county, which became Company E of the Third regiment, Georgia militia, Carswell's brigade, G. W. Smith's division. He remained in this command until the close of hostilities, winning promotion to corporal and color guard. During the course of his service he participated in the defense of Atlanta, where the Georgia home troops were distinguished, and the battle of Honey Hill, S. C., November 30, 1864, where the Confederate command, numbering only some 1,800 men, fought through five hours with between 5,000 and 7,000 Federals, and finally drove them back. At the restoration of peace this young veteran resumed his studies, and pursued them at Harvard college and the university of Virginia, and was graduated in 1875 at Union theological seminary, in Prince Edward county, Va. He was then called to the pastorate of the Presbyterian church at Buckingham Court House, Va., and remained there seven years, subsequently serving at Liberty, now Bedford City, Va., until May, 1893. At the latter date he accepted a call to the Presbyterian pastorate at Romney, W. Va., where he has since remained. In 1881 Mr. Washburn was married at Martinsburg, W. Va., to Jane Cary, daughter of Peyton Randolph Harrison, a lieutenant in the Confederate service who fell at First Manassas. They have three children: Edward D. Jr., Peyton Randolph Harrison and Edmund Emory.
CORNELIUS CLARKSON WATTS, of Charleston, W. Va., is one of six Virginia brothers who espoused the cause of the South when their mother State seceded, and whose courage and general devotion to duty in the war entitle the living to the esteem of their countrymen, and the names of the dead to be held in honorable and tender memory. He was born at Amherst, Va., April 23, 1848, and resided in his native place until 1861; subsequently at Albemarle, until at sixteen years of age, in the winter of 1864-65, he entered the Confederate service as a private in Company C of Mosby's cavalry. He served with all the gallantry of the "boy soldiers" until the force was disbanded, a week after the surrender of Lee's army. His elder brothers in the army of Northern Virginia were Thomas Brown Watts, a private in the Second Virginia cavalry, who lost his life in the battle of Dranesville. John W. Watts, first lieutenant of White's battalion of cavalry, who fell at Brandy Station, while in command of his battalion; Richard S. Watts, private in the Second Virginia cavalry, who died in 1861 of camp fever; Charles E. Watts, private in the Second Virginia cavalry, now a minister of the Gospel, residing at Bowling Green, Va.; and Morton S. Watts, a private in Nelson's battalion of artillery, Early's corps, now residing in Middlesex county, Va., and also in the ministry. At the close of hostilities the young soldier of cavalry returned to his home and resumed his studies, which he pursued at Baltimore and in the university of Virginia, where he was graduated in law in 1870. Choosing West Virginia as the field of his career, he made his home at Oceana, Wyoming county, and was there elected prosecuting attorney in 1872, an office he held until in 1875 when he removed to Charleston to become a law partner of the late Senator Kenna. Growing rapidly in professional reputation he was elected attorney-general of the State in 1880, by a majority of 17,000. After the expiration of his term of four years in this office, he was appointed by Governor Jackson as the legal representative of the State before the United States supreme court, in the celebrated tax case against the Chesapeake & Ohio railroad company. In the successful prosecution of this important litigation he displayed such ability as to win hearty tributes from distinguished members of the profession, including his opponent in this case, Senator Edmunds, of Vermont. In 1886 he was appointed United States attorney for the district of West Virginia, for the term of four years. During his service under this commission he prosecuted with vigor and impartiality the election fraud cases, which were then a topic of universal interest. Immediately after the inauguration of President Harrison his resignation was called for, which he declined to offer, whereupon he was removed. In the following year he was nominated for State senator on the Democratic ticket and wag elected by a majority of 2,200 in a district that in 1888 gave an opposite majority of 800. In this body he was distinguished in pressing to passage the screening bill introduced by Judge Ferguson, for which he and the latter were thanked by resolution at a mass meeting of miners held at Charleston. In 1892 General Watts was strenuously urged, and particularly by the wageworkers, to become a candidate for governor, but he declined the honor. On May 4, 1893, he resigned his seat in the State senate to accept again at the hands of President Cleveland the position of United States attorney, a commission which came to him as a personal and official vindication. He resigned this office in August, 1896, on account of his nomination for governor by the Democratic party. His defeat in this campaign can hardly be viewed as an evidence of lack of strength, but rather as the reverse, as he received 10,000 more votes than his party polled when it carried the State by 4,000 in 1892, and 5,000 more votes than the opposing party polled in 1894, when it carried the State by 13,000 votes. Occupying a commanding position in his profession, secure in the hearts of the people, and still in the prime of life, he will doubtless add other honors to the civil garlands which have been gathered by the Confederate soldiery.
CAPTAIN CHRISTIAN STREIT WHITE, conspicuous among the Romney, Hampshire county, March 10,1840, and was educated there at the Potomac seminary. He is the son of John Baker White, born at Winchester in 1798, who served as an ensign in the war of 1812; and the grandson of Judge Robert White, who served with the rank of major in the war of the Revolution. He entered the Confederate service April 19, 1861, as a private in the Thirteenth Virginia infantry, and served with this command, with promotion to sergeant-major and acting adjutant, until he was wounded in a skirmish on the Potomac in the winter of 1861-62, and disabled. While incapacitated for duty in the field he served as a clerk and later as head of a bureau in the Confederate treasury department. On his recovery he organized within the Federal lines a company of 200 mounted men, of which he was elected captain, which became Company C of the Twenty-third regiment, Virginia cavalry. Declining promotion, he remained with his men until the end of the struggle. His record of service embraces a long list of battles and cavalry actions, in many of which he was distinguished for bravery and skill as an officer. His early fights were at First Manasses, Dranesville, Camp Advance (Munson's Hill), and Romney, in 1861; and in 1862 he was in battle at Winchester and Kernstown in March; at Cedar mountain in August; Harper's Ferry, September 12th to 15th; and Charlestown, December 1st. During 1863 he participated in the engagements at Point Pleasant, March 30th; Fairmount, W. Va., April 29th: Martinsburg, June 14th; Gettysburg, July lst to 3d: Williamsport, July 6th: Falling Waters, July 14th; Halltown, July 15th; Charlestown, October 18th; Mount Jackson, November 17th; Mine Run, Raccoon ford, New Hope, Robertson's farm, Bartlett's mills and Locust Grove, November 26th to 28th; and in 1864 he took part in the actions at Jonesville, January 3d; the fighting against Kilpatrick, Stevensburg to Richmond, February 28th to March 4th; Grass Lick, April 23d; New Market, May 15th; Panther gap and Buffalo gap, June 3d to 6th; Point of Rocks, June 9th: Lynchburg, June 17th and 18th; Hammock's mills, July 3d; Hagerstown, July 5th; Monocacy, July 9th; Fort Stevens, before Washington, July 12th; Snicker's gap and Island ford, July 16th and 17th; Stevenson's depot, Darkville and Winchester, July 19th and 20th; Winchester and Kernstown, July 23d and 24th; Green Springs, August 2d; Fisher's Hill, August 15th; Shepherdstown, August 25th; Smithfield, August 29th; Winchester and Fisher's Hill, September 19th to 22d; New Market heights, September 28th to 30th; Waynesboro, October 2d; New Market, October 7th; Fisher's Hill, October 9th; Strasburg, October 13th; Cedar Creek, October 19th; Beverly,W.Va., October 29th; Cedar Springs, November 12th; Gordonsville, December 28th; also the fights at Berryville, Flowing Springs, White Post and Saltville. He was badly wounded in the fight with Hunter near Lynchburg, and was again wounded in the cavalry action at Gordonsville. After the war he engaged in farming for two years in Hampshire county, and then removed to Romney, where he has served, since 1872, as clerk of the county court. He was also for one term clerk of the circuit court, but declined re-election. He has taken an active and beneficial part in political affairs, serving as chairman of the county Democratic committee in 1876, and taking a prominent part in the councils of the party. Since 1777 he has served as fish commissioner for the State, and has held the presidency of the commission. He has been prominent in the organization of the Confederate veterans, organizing at Romney the first camp in West Virginia. He was appointed by General Gordon a member of the Rouss memorial association, and he served on this body until 1896, when he resigned on account of poor health, and his place was filled by the appointment of his brother, Col. Robert White, major-general commanding the department of West Virginia. Captain White was married, in 1866, to Bessie Schultze, who died in 1868, leaving one son, John Baker. By a subsequent marriage, in 1873, to Catherine A. Steele, he has four children: Louisa Anna, Robert, Christian S. Jr. and Bessie A.
COLONEL ROBERT WHITE, of Wheeling, W.Va., major-general commanding the West Virginia division, United Confederate
Veterans, is a native of Romney, Hampshire county, a region in which his family has been prominent for many generations.
His great-great-grandfather, Robert White, a surgeon in the British navy, made his home of the valley of the Shenandoah at an early period in the settlement of Virginia. His son, Alexander, was conspicuous as a patriot during the Revolutionary period, was a prominent member of the Virginia house of burgesses, was a member of the Virginia convention which adopted the Constitution of the United States, and sat in the First Congress. It was said of him that in whatever public body he participated "his ready information, eloquence and decision placed him in the front rank." Robert White, son of the latter, born near Winchester in 1759, in his seventeenth year went with Virginia troops as a private in the Revolutionary
army, fought as a lieutenant at Monmouth, was distinguished as a partisan officer in 1778 until severely wounded and captured in New Jersey. His health was wrecked for several years, but still as a captain of cavalry he organized and trained a troop at Philadelphia, in 1779. He was subsequently distinguished as an attorney, and served
as judge of the general court of Virginia from 1793 until stricken by the disease which caused his death, in 1831. John Baker White, son of judge White, born at Winchester in 1794, held the office of clerk of the circuit court of Hampshire county from his twenty-first year until he died, in 1862, in Richmond, Va., a refugee from his home.
This gentleman was the father of Col. Robert White, whose service in the Confederate cause, and prominence in civil life, honorably supplement the record of his father. He was born at Romney, February 7, 1833, and at the age of fourteen became an assistant in his father's office, where he saved the money necessary to prepare himself for the practice of law. After his graduation in 1854 at the school of Judge John W. Brockenbrough, in Lexington, he practiced law
at Romney until the secession of the State. Meanwhile, about 1857, he became the captain of the Frontier Rifles, a volunteer company in Hampshire county, with which he reported at Harper's Ferry in May, 1861, bringing ninety-six men to reinforce the command of Col. T. J. Jackson. His company was assigned as Company I to the Thirteenth
Virginia infantry, Col. A. P. Hill, brigade of Colonel Elzey, and was commanded by him in the Romney expedition and the first battle of Manassas. In the following winter he was assigned to duty, principally in the ordnance department, at Richmond and Greensboro, N. C., and soon after the reorganization in the spring of 1862, he, anxious to be in the field, was authorized to organize a battalion of cavalry in the Shenandoah and South Branch valleys, a duty he
successfully performed. He was commissioned major of this battalion. February 11, 1863, he was authorized to raise a battalion inside the enemy's lines, which he successfully accomplished. From this grew the Twenty-third Virginia cavalry regiment, of which he was promoted lieutenant-colonel, and on April 29, 1864, colonel. He was distinguished as a daring and active cavalry officer, particularly in the campaigns in the Shenandoah valley and western Virginia, where,
including the operations of Imboden's brigade, in 1864, he participated in fifty-six cavalry fights, including the battle of New Market, the Lynchburg campaign against Hunter, the expedition through Maryland against Washington, and the campaign against Sheridan. Among the engagements in which he took part, in addition to those already mentioned, were those at Leetown, Halltown, Martinsburg, Falling Waters, Piedmont, Dranesville, Lewinsville, Berryville, White Post,
Snicker's Gap, Winchester (August, 1864), Fisher's Hill, Winchester (September, 1864), Stevenson's depot, Gordonsville, Charlestown, Drakesville, Rude's Hill, Woodstock, the Luray valley fight in which General Milligan was killed, the fight near Stevenson's in which General Ramseur fell, Salem, Liberty and New Bedford. He was slightly wounded in the head at Gordonsville, 1864, again near New Market, and a third time at Lynchburg. In March, 1865, when his regiment was "out on horse furlough," Colonel White was ordered by General Early, who was at Staunton without an army, to gather as many
cavalrymen as possible and go out to hold back Sheridan, not ten miles away, while an attempt could be made to save the government stores. He gathered twenty-eight men, and joined by General Lilly, the little band of dauntless spirits formed in skirmish line on Harman's hill, four miles north. Soon Sheridan's army appeared in full view from the hill, a splendid and glittering array. Presently a squadron was detached to ascend the hill, where the twenty-eight men
stood erect outlined against the sky. At a prearranged signal from White the skirmishers gathered in the roadway and lay flat, giving the enemy as it reached them a sudden volley that staggered them and drove them back to the valley. At once the men resumed their positions as sentinels, giving the Federals the impression of a considerable force, and twice again they met in the road, with the same effect, the Federal reconnoissances. Thus they held the hill till night, and when they withdrew they found that Early had saved the stores. In May, 1865, he was paroled at Patterson's creek,
Hampshire county, and he returned to civil life and the support of the family of his father, who had died at Richmond in 1862. He was a law partner for six years of John J. Jacob, who at the end of that period was elected governor of West Virginia. Colonel White continued in the practice of law at Romney until 1877, becoming very prominent in this profession, and taking a leading part in public affairs, securing, with the assistance of other enterprising
citizens, the location of the institution for the deaf, dumb and blind at Romney, and organizing and acting as president of the South Branch railroad company. In 1877 he was elected attorney-general of the State, by the remarkable majority of 17,000 votes, and upon assuming the duties of that office he made his home at Wheeling, then the State capital, where he has since resided. In 1885 and 1891 he served in the West Virginia legislature, and held the chairmanship of
the finance committee at each session. At the close of the last session the following testimonial was presented him by his fellow members:
"Hon. Robert White, Sir: Among the members of the legislature of West Virginia there is a general desire to express to you in some formal way their appreciation of the great zeal, ability and untiring industry that have marked your course in the legislature at this session. As chairman of the finance committee and one of the judiciary committees of the house, the duties incumbent upon you have been exceedingly important and exacting, both in committee room and on the floor of the house. In the performance of these duties you have been so zealous, industrious, painstaking and conservative as to attract the attention and win the respect and confidence of the entire legislature and to deserve the thanks and gratitude not only of your fellow members but of the people of the State at large. Permit us, therefore, to tender to you some expression of our appreciation of the benefits to the State derived from your earnest labors, and to say that we all feel that you have fully deserved not only our commendation, but a right to the gratitude and respect of your fellow citizens throughout the State of West Virginia."
Colonel White has also served two terms as solicitor for the city of Wheeling, was for many years a director of the State institute for the deaf, dumb and blind, was twice president of the Wheeling bar association, represented his State at the dedication of the Washington monument, and was a delegate to the arbitration convention at Washington in 1896. He is past commander, Knight Templars, and past grand master of the grand lodge, F. & A. M., of the State. He represented his presbytery at the centennial assembly of the Presbyterian church at Philadelphia. In the organization of the United Confederate Veterans he has been conspicuous as one of the trustees and member of the executive committee of the Southern memorial association, and in May, 1897, he was elected to the chief office of the order in West Virginia. On May 26, 1859, Colonel White was married to Ellen E. Vass, and they have one surviving child, Kate, wife of Charles M. Ferrell, of Richmond.
WILLIAM L. WILSON, a distinguished son of Jefferson county who espoused the Confederate cause, was born May 3, 1843. He received a thorough education at the Charlestown academy, Columbian university, D. C., and the university of Virginia, and while yet a youth participated in the Confederate military service. As a member of the "Baylor Light Horse," Company B of the Twelfth Virginia cavalry, he shared the adventurous duties of his comrades under the leadership of the famous Turner Ashby and J. E. B. Stuart. After the close of hostilities he entered upon the study of law and was graduated at the Columbian university, and until the repeal of the test oath in West Virginia held the position of professor of Latin in that institution. He practiced law at Charlestown from 1871 to 1882, and in the meantime became prominent in politics. He was a delegate to the national Democratic convention of 1880, and in the same year elector for the State-at-large on the Hancock ticket. He became president of the West Virginia university in September, 1882, but resigned in June following to accept a seat in Congress as the representative of his district. He served with distinction in the Forty-eighth, Forty-ninth, Fiftieth, Fifty-first, Fifty-second and Fifty-third congresses, being particularly conspicuous as a leader in the movement for tariff reform. In 1892 he was permanent president of the national Democratic convention. In the Fifty-third Congress he was chairman of the committee of ways and means, and reported and had charge in the House of the tariff bill which distinguished the last administration of Cleveland. He also introduced and carried through the House a bill repealing the Sherman silver law. In the political reaction which followed he was defeated for re-election, and in the following April he became a member of President Cleveland's cabinet as postmaster-general of the United States. Since the close of that administration he has given his attention to those scholarly occupations in which he had long been distinguished. He was regent of the Smithsonian institute, 1884 to 1888; is a member of several historical and scientific associations, and has received the degree of doctor of laws from various educational institutions. In 1897 he became president of Washington-Lee university.
ISAAC H. WRIGHT, an influential citizen of Parkersburg, W. Va., made an honorable record as a boy, among the veteran soldiery of Virginia in the Valley campaigns and in the final defense of Richmond. He was born in Rockingham county, destined later to be the theater of war and havoc, in 1849, and there was reared and educated. He was too young to join the victorious Confederates, who, under Jackson, traversed his native county in the spring of 1862 and won renown at Harrisonburg, Cross Keys and Port Republic, within its limits, but he was an eager witness of their prowess, and longed to wear the gray. Finally in April, 1864, though but about fifteen years of age, the time had arrived in the valley when even the boys were welcomed in the ranks, and he entered the service as a private in White's battalion, under the command of Gen. John C. Breckinridge, who was collecting a force from all available sources to meet the invasion by Sigel. He fought at the important battle of New Market, where the Federals were defeated by the heroism of soldiers like himself; at Piedmont, where he was slightly wounded in the left wrist; participated in the repulse of Hunter from before Lynchburg, and the pursuit of the Federals, including the fight at Salem, and after this, in June, he received a furlough for a month. In September, 1864, he was transferred to the army of Northern Virginia, before Richmond, where he served in Colonel Chrisman's regiment until January, 1865, and after that until the close of hostilities in Company C of the Sixth Virginia cavalry. While with the army of Northern Virginia, he participated in the fighting at Chapin's farm and at Orange Court House. He was paroled at Harrisonburg, in May, 1865, and then returned to his home, where he was occupied in farming for one season. Ever since that time he has been engaged in the business of carriage manufacturing, in 1872 making his home at Parkersburg, where he speedily became an important factor of the industrial and social life of the city. For five years he has served in the Parkersburg city council, contributing faithfully by his efforts to the welfare of the community. In the Baptist church he is a valued and active member. Mr. Wright was married in 1873, to Sarah A., daughter of William G. Wright, of Parkersburg, and they have two children living: Stella V. and Mary E.
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